“Kill Chao Cuo, the emperor’s side of the Qing Dynasty” and

— the rebellion of the seven kingdoms of Wu and Chu in 154 BC

the rebellion of the seven kingdoms of Wu and Chu occurred in three years, that is, in January 154 BC. The so-called “seven states” refer to the states of Wu, Chu, Zhao, Jiaodong, Jiaoxi, Zichuan and Jinan. The leaders are Liu Zhen, king of Wu and Liu Wu, king of Chu. Guangling, the capital of the state of Wu, is now Yangzhou in Jiangsu; Pengcheng, the capital of the state of Chu, is now Xuzhou in Jiangsu; The capital of Zhao is Handan in Hebei Province; Jimo, the capital of Jiaodong, is located in Pingdu County, Shandong Province; The capital of Jiaoxi is now Gaomi County in Shandong Province; The capital of Zichuan state is now Shandong Changle, which was called drama county at that time; The capital of Jinan is now Zhangqiu in Shandong, which was called Dongping mausoleum at that time.

emperor Jing of the Han Dynasty

after emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty became emperor, he summarized the experience and lessons of the previous dynasty and believed that the rapid demise of the Qin Dynasty was the reason for the weakness of the royal power. As a matter of fact, he made Liu’s children princes and wanted to rely on the strength of Liu’s uncles and brothers as strong backing for the stability of the Western Han regime.

in 179 B.C., he took power soon after he ascended the throne. At this time, the power of the vassal state has become strong. It has occupied the vast territory of “crossing States and counties, connecting dozens of cities” (preface to the vassal kings in the Han Dynasty). Each kingdom has great power. It can appoint and remove officials at all levels below the prime minister, collect taxes, forge coins, and master the power of local finance and military. Liu Zhen, the king of Wu, even exempted domestic taxes and devoted himself to collecting copper, casting money and making sea salt as financial revenue. Therefore, during the period of Emperor Wen, the economy of the vassal kingdoms had developed greatly and the population had increased greatly. The coins forged by the state of Wu with the strongest economic power circulated all over the country. The power of the king was growing, which seriously affected the consolidation of the central government. Jia Yi, a politician in the imperial court who advocated strengthening imperial power and weakening the vassal states, once put forward the suggestion that “if you want public security in the world, it is better to build princes without their strength”, but it was not implemented at that time.

after the king ascended the throne, Chao cuosheng became an internal historian and soon became a doctor of imperial history. He became an important Minister of the country and was highly valued by the king. He still advocated to seize the fiefs of princes and kings with the same surname, so as to consolidate the centralization of power. In the article “fan cutting strategy”, he put forward: “if you cut it now, it is also the opposite, if you don’t cut it, it will be the most urgent, and the disaster will be small; if you don’t cut it, it will be the most late, and the disaster will be great.” Emperor Jing finally adopted his suggestion and began to cut down some of the feudal territories, and successively seized Changshan County of Zhao, Donghai County of Chu and six counties of Jiaoxi.

in 154 BC, the king of Wu was worried that his fief would continue to be expropriated, so he began to plan a rebellion against the imperial court and actively sought a reasonable excuse for the rebellion. Liu Zhen, king of Wu, knew that confrontation with the imperial court was difficult to convince people, so he put forward the banner of “killing Chao Cuo, the side of the Qing emperor”, focused the attack on Chao Cuo, saying that he alienated Liu’s flesh and blood, and set up his own army to eliminate the bad guys around the emperor, not against the emperor, so as to cover up his real purpose of plotting to overthrow the imperial court and seize political power.

at that time, considering that no one among the princes could discuss the matter together, King Wu heard that king Jiaoxi was brave and liked the art of war, and the princes were afraid of him, So the Chinese doctor should persuade King Jiaoxi to say: “Now the emperor appoints treacherous officials, listens to slander and seizes the land of the princes. The punishment for the princes is very heavy, and day by day. The state of Wu and Jiaoxi are famous princes. Once they are suspected, there will be no peace in the future. It is said that the king has been condemned for selling the baron. As far as I know, the princes are guilty, but they do not want to seize the land. I’m afraid the purpose of the court is not just to seize the land!”

King Jiaoxi said, “what do you think should be done?”

Ying Gao said: “King Wu thinks he has the same trouble as the king. He is willing to adapt to the current situation and sacrifice himself to eradicate the scourge for the world. What does the king think?”

King Jiaoxi was shocked and said, “how dare I do this! Although the emperor is in a hurry, there is only a dead end. How dare you rebel against the imperial court!”

should say: “Chao Cuo, the censor doctor, deceived the emperor and invaded the princes. All the princes were rebellious and were extremely angry. In the name of killing Chao Cuo, the king of Wu sent troops to follow the king’s chariot. After riding in the chariot, the king of Wu swept the world, and the army obeyed everywhere. No one dared to refuse. With one word from the king, the king of Wu led the king of Chu to capture Hangu pass and guard the grain of Mengyang and aocang to resist Han soldiers, repair the barracks to wait for the arrival of the king. If the king can really come, the world can be unified. Isn’t it also possible for two monarchs to govern the world separately? ”

King Jiaoxi was finally persuaded by Ying Gao. Then King Wu joined forces with King Wu of Chu, Wang xiongqu of Jiaodong, Wang Xian of Sichuan, Wang Biguang of Jinan and Zhao wangsui to launch a rebellion, and Emperor Jing of Han Dynasty was in a mess. Some ministers suggested to Emperor Jing of the Han Dynasty that “the rebellion of the princes was caused by Chao Cuo. At present, only by beheading Chao CuO to thank the world, forgiving the sins of the seven countries and restoring the original back cover of the princes can we retreat from the seven countries without blood”. Sure enough, Emperor Jing of the Han Dynasty listened to these words and said, “if they can really withdraw their troops, why should I be reluctant to leave Chao wrong alone.” So he ordered Chao CuO to be executed.

after emperor Jing of the Han Dynasty killed Chao Cuo, he sent yuan ang an imperial edict to tell Wu and Chu that Chao CuO had been killed and hoped that the seven countries would withdraw their troops. At this time, the king of Wu had won several battles and won a lot of territory. When he heard that he wanted him to worship the imperial edict of emperor Jing of the Han Dynasty, he sneered: “now I’m also an emperor. Why do I worship?” Its rebellion is obvious. Later, the king of Wu sent someone to detain yuan ang. Yuan ang escaped at night and returned to the capital to report the situation to the court. Until then, Emperor Jing of the Han Dynasty was fully aware and decided to put down the rebellion by force.

emperor Jing of the Han Dynasty sent Taiwei and other leaders to fight the rebellion in the East. When Zhou Yafu was ordered to lead the army to the East, he met the Wu Chu allied army in Xiayi (now Dangshan County, Anhui Province). The soldiers of the Wu Chu alliance were powerful and vigorous, and launched attacks frequently; Zhou Yafu stood in front of the enemy, commanded the army and couldn’t hold out.