invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. The Polish government and people carried out resistance with great power disparity. Germany has repeatedly hinted that the Soviet Union should also send troops to Poland. The Soviet government did not make a statement, but immediately assembled troops on the two fronts of Belarus and Ukraine and prepared to send troops to Poland: there are more than four troops on the Belarus front, with kovalev as the commander, and three troops on the Ukrainian front, with timusingo as the commander. On September 10, Molotov told Schulenburg that western Ukraine and Western Belarus in eastern Poland were forcibly taken away in 1920, and the Soviet government had the responsibility to protect the safety of residents there from threats. At the same time, the press has also vigorously carried out public opinion publicity in this regard. On September 16, the battle between the Soviet army and the Japanese army on the halxin River in Mongolia ended with the victory of the Soviet army under its command.
at midnight on September 17, shulenburg was informed that the Soviet army would enter Poland at 6 a.m. The Soviet government also sent a note to the Polish ambassador to Moscow, grepovsky, saying that since the Polish government no longer exists, the Soviet army will enter Poland to protect the residents of western Ukraine and Western Belarus. There are 190000 square kilometers of western Ukraine and Western Belarus, more than 600000 Ukrainians and more than 300000 Belarusians. Due to the entry of the Soviet army, the Soviet border has advanced 250-350 kilometers westward in this direction. The Polish government is in exile. After the Soviet Union and Germany jointly occupied Poland, the armies of the two sides held a joint victory parade in the border cities of Brest, Grodno and Pinsk. On October 1, the CPC Central Committee established a special committee headed by Zhdanov to deal with the integration of western Ukraine and Western Belarus into the Soviet Union.
on October 26 and 28, the people’s parliaments of western Ukraine and Western Belarus announced the establishment of Soviet power and asked to join the Soviet Union. On January 1 and 2, the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union decided to merge the two regions into the Soviet Union. At the same time, the dispute between the Soviet Union and Germany over the ownership of Lithuania reached the point of knife and gun. On September 25, Stalin summoned Schulenburg and proposed that part of the Lublin region and the Polish Province, that is, the area from the visva River to the Bouguer River, should belong to Germany, but Lithuania should give it to the Soviet Union. On the 27th, Ribbentrop came to Moscow again. On the 28th, the Soviet Union and Germany signed a treaty of friendship and border and three secret agreements. The treaty confirmed that the Polish government no longer exists, moved the boundary between the two countries from the visva River to the line of the Bouguer River, and transferred part of Lublin and Warsaw provinces to Germany. In the secret agreement, it is stipulated that Lithuania will be returned to the Soviet Union. The two sides will provide assistance in the migration of German residents to Germany, residents of western Ukraine and residents of Western Belarus to western Ukraine and Western Belarus. The two sides also promise not to carry out propaganda against each other on their own territory.
from September to October 1939, the Soviet Union exerted pressure on the Baltic Sea – Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, and successively signed aid treaties. The treaty gave the Soviet Union the right to establish military bases on the land of the three countries. In March 1940, the Soviet Union accused the three countries of establishing a “military alliance against the Soviet Union”. Soon, the troops entered the three countries, and the three governments collapsed. Parliamentary elections were held in Lithuania and Latvia from June 17 to 21, and State Duma elections were held in Estonia from July 14 to 15. On the 21st, the three countries announced the establishment of the Soviet regime at the same time. Soon, the three Baltic countries were incorporated into the Soviet Union. According to the Soviet Union, the supreme authorities of the three countries applied to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union to join the Soviet Union in mid July. At the beginning of August, the Supreme Soviet accepted their application, and the three countries became union Republics with equal rights.
the Soviet Union has another worry, which is Finland. Grad is only 32 kilometers from the Karelia isthmus in Finland, within the range of the cannon. Therefore, the Soviet Union needed this isthmus in order to ensure that Leningrad would not be attacked by the sea and the transportation safety of the Murmansk railway connecting with the mainland of the Soviet Union. However, unlike the Baltic countries, Finland has a tough attitude towards the Soviet Union. At the end of September, Stalin asked Leningrad Military Region commander meletskov and chief of staff Sha boshnikov to formulate a plan to send troops to Finland at the same time. On October 14, 1939, the Soviet Union proposed to the Finnish government to exchange a piece of land of the Karelia autonomous republic for the important land of the Karelia isthmus (2761 square kilometers), and asked to lease the Hangu Peninsula and the ice free port petersamo at the entrance of the Gulf of Finland, where a naval and air force base would be built. The two sides held talks on this, and Finland insisted that the Hangu peninsula could not be leased. On January 13, the negotiations broke down.
on January 16, the national defense people’s Committee Voroshilov issued a battle order to the Leningrad Military Region to prepare it for a devastating blow to the Finnish army within 15 days. Deputy national defense people’s commissar Kulik visited Leningrad in person and let the Soviet artillery fire at the Soviet border village of menela, and then claimed that it was the provocation of the Finnish army. At 8 a.m. on January 30, the Soviet Union attacked Finland with 20 divisions. On December 1, the Finnish “people’s government” headed by kuxinin was organized. However, it was the severe winter that the Soviet troops suffered losses one after another and suffered heavy casualties. Stalin thought it would be easy for the Soviet army to defeat Finland, but the end was tragic. The Soviet Union was condemned internationally for its war against Finland. On December 14, it was expelled from the Federation of foreign countries. December 21 was Stalin’s 60th birthday, and a grand celebration was held in Moscow. On this day, he was awarded the title of socialist labor hero of the Soviet Union.
Hitler and Ribbentrop sent congratulatory messages to him. On December 25, the news published Stalin’s reply to Ribbentrop, which said: “Mr. Minister, thank you for your congratulations. The Soviet German friendship formed by blood has all reasons to be lasting and firm.” On January 7, 1940, he immediately ordered Timoshenko to be the commander of the newly established northwest front and zhidanov to be the political commissar. Mehlis, director of the General Political Department, also came to the front line, organized a field trial of the “defeated generals” – the commander of the 9th army and others, and shot them in front of the whole army. The people’s Committee for internal affairs also organized 27 supervision teams to supervise the war. noGu yanku’s climate, on February 1, 1940, the Soviet army attacked Finland again with absolute superiority and stormed Finnish cities. Under the personal command of Marshal Timoshenko, he opened the way with a large number of tanks and finally broke through the Finnish defense line.
on March 8, the Finnish government sought peace. Four days later, Finnish representatives signed a peace truce in Moscow. The Soviet Union got everything it wanted: the Karelia isthmus, the West and North banks of Lake Ladoga and some islands in the Gulf of Finland belonged to the Soviet Union, rented the Hangu peninsula for 30 years and obtained the base of the Northern Fleet. The Karelia autonomous republic originally belonging to the Russian Federation was transformed into Karelia Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic. The Soviet Finnish war was an extremely disgraceful war for the Soviet Union. Although the war was won, it exposed the heavy impact of the “Great Purge” on the Soviet army and the existing serious problems of the Soviet army. On April 17, 1940, Stalin had to tell senior military leaders to study modern war. In order to investigate the responsibility for the heavy losses suffered in the Finnish war, Voroshilov was dismissed from the national defense people’s Committee and succeeded by timoshingo. Timoshenko was also awarded the title of Marshal of the Soviet Union for his contribution in the Soviet Finnish war.