made a specific supplement to the letter of December 24 on January 4, 1923, proposing to remove the post of general secretary. The letter said: Stalin was too rude. This shortcoming can be tolerated among us and in our Communist exchanges, but it has become intolerable in the post of general secretary. Therefore, I suggest that comrades carefully think of a way to raise Stalin from this position and appoint another person to this position…

from Stalin, Lenin and Trotsky (data picture)

this article is excerpted from the original as it is: an excerpt of the past edition of the southern weekend, edited by Liu Xiaolei, Nanfang Daily Press,

in February 2006. Lenin suffered another stroke in mid December 1922. The plenary session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Russia instructed Stalin to supervise the implementation of the system prescribed by doctors for Lenin. Late at night on the 22nd, Lenin’s health further deteriorated, paralyzed his right arm and leg, but he had a clear mind and thought, and dictated a batch of letters to the party’s current Congress. According to Stalin, these letters were sent to the 13th Party Congress. In fact, they were not. They were written to the 12th Party Congress. Later, they were usually called “Lenin’s will” or “Lenin’s political will”.

after careful thinking, Lenin made an important supplement to the letter written on December 24. The letter of 24 December was devoted to his comrades in arms or successors. It talked about three groups of people, namely Stalin and Trotsky, Zinoviev and gaminev, Bukharin and pidakov. They talked about their advantages and disadvantages, but they were not responsible for any one. On Stalin, the letter said: “Comrade Stalin has become general secretary and has unlimited power. I am not sure whether he can always use this power very carefully.” Lenin did not draw a direct conclusion from this. In the next few days, Lenin continued to dictate letters, discussing the reform of the Central Committee and the central supervisory committee, the industrial and agricultural inspection institute, giving legislative functions to the State Planning Commission, ethnic issues and so on. On January 4, 1923, Lenin made a specific supplement to the letter of December 24, proposing to remove Stalin from the post of general secretary. The letter reads:

Stalin is too rude. This shortcoming can be tolerated among us and in the interaction of our Communists, but it has become intolerable in the position of general secretary. Therefore, I suggest that comrades carefully think of a way to raise Stalin from this position and appoint another person to this position. This person is a little better than Comrade Stalin in all other aspects, that is, he is more patient, more modest, more polite, more concerned about comrades, less capricious, and so on.

Lenin was afraid that the recipient would take it lightly, so he continued to emphasize that

may seem a trivial matter. But I think from the perspective of preventing division and from the relationship between Stalin and Trotsky I mentioned earlier, this is not a small matter, or it is a small matter that may have decisive significance. (complete works of Lenin, 2nd Edition, Volume 43, page 340)

after explaining party affairs, Lenin began to dictate articles. Because the prescribed medical system prohibited Lenin from writing articles, Lenin called the dictation “diary” – because he was not prohibited from writing diaries. In this way, the first article we see at the beginning of this group of articles is called diary excerpts. Then he gave an oral lecture on cooperatives, commenting on “on China’s revolution”, “how we reorganize the industrial and agricultural inspection institute” and “I’d rather have fewer, but better” in suhanov’s revolutionary notes. Lenin demanded the publication of these articles, but there was heavy resistance. For example, the Politburo did not agree to publish the article “how can we reorganize the industrial and agricultural inspection institute”. Gubishev, then chairman of the central supervisory committee, even suggested printing a separate Pravda with Lenin’s article in it to perfunctory Lenin. Of course, this plan failed. However, the article was handled when it was published. The article said that the collective of the central supervisory committee should ignore human feelings and “pay attention not to let anyone’s prestige, whether the general secretary or some other central committee member, hinder them from raising questions and checking documents, so as to absolutely understand the situation and make all affairs act in strict accordance with the regulations”. The words concerning the general secretary were deleted from Pravda published at that time. Later, the first, second, third and fourth editions of Lenin’s complete works in Russian were processed according to the text of Pravda. It was not until Volume 45 of the fifth edition of Russian published in 1964 that it was restored to its original appearance! Prior to its publication, the Political Bureau and the organization bureau sent a secret letter to the provincial and State Party committees on January 27, 1923, denying the danger of inner-party division mentioned in the text, saying that “in order to avoid possible misunderstandings, we think it necessary to unanimously declare that there is no worrying ‘division’ in the internal work of the Central Committee”. (selected historical archives of the Soviet Union, Vol. 2, P. 237)

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” from Stalin, Lenin and Trotsky on the left (data picture)

this article is excerpted from the original like that: the past edition of the Southern Weekend, edited by Liu Xiaolei, Nanfang Daily Press, February 2006

“In the middle of December 1922, Lenin suffered another stroke, and the plenary session of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party instructed Stalin to supervise the implementation of the system prescribed by the doctor for Lenin. Late at night on the 22nd, Lenin’s health further deteriorated, paralyzed his right arm and leg, but he had a clear mind and clear thinking, and dictated a batch of letters to the party’s current Congress. According to Stalin, these letters were to the party’s 13th Congress In fact, it was written to the Twelfth Congress of the party. Later, it was usually called “Lenin’s will” or “Lenin’s political will”.

after careful thinking, Lenin made an important supplement to the letter written on December 24. The letter of 24 December was devoted to his comrades in arms or successors. It talked about three groups of people, namely Stalin and Trotsky, Zinoviev and gaminev, Bukharin and pidakov. They talked about their advantages and disadvantages, but they were not responsible for any one. On Stalin, the letter said: “Comrade Stalin has become general secretary and has unlimited power. I am not sure whether he can always use this power very carefully.” Lenin did not draw a direct conclusion from this. In the next few days, Lenin continued to dictate letters, discussing the reform of the Central Committee and the central supervisory committee, the industrial and agricultural inspection institute, giving legislative functions to the State Planning Commission, ethnic issues and so on. On January 4, 1923, Lenin made a specific supplement to the letter of December 24, proposing to remove Stalin from the post of general secretary. The letter reads:

Stalin is too rude. This shortcoming can be tolerated among us and in the interaction of our Communists, but it has become intolerable in the position of general secretary. Therefore, I suggest that comrades carefully think of a way to raise Stalin from this position and appoint another person to this position. This person is a little better than Comrade Stalin in all other aspects, that is, he is more patient, more modest, more polite, more concerned about comrades, less capricious, and so on.

Lenin was afraid that the recipient would take it lightly, so he continued to emphasize that

may seem a trivial matter. But I think from the perspective of preventing division and from the relationship between Stalin and Trotsky I mentioned earlier, this is not a small matter, or it is a small matter that may have decisive significance. (complete works of Lenin, 2nd Edition, Volume 43, page 340)

after explaining party affairs, Lenin began to dictate articles. Because the prescribed medical system prohibited Lenin from writing articles, Lenin called the dictation “diary” – because he was not prohibited from writing diaries. In this way, the first article we see at the beginning of this group of articles is called diary excerpts. Then he gave an oral lecture on cooperatives, commenting on “on China’s revolution”, “how we reorganize the industrial and agricultural inspection institute” and “I’d rather have fewer, but better” in suhanov’s revolutionary notes. Lenin demanded the publication of these articles, but there was heavy resistance. For example, the Politburo did not agree to publish the article “how can we reorganize the industrial and agricultural inspection institute”. Gubishev, then chairman of the central supervisory committee, even suggested printing a separate Pravda with Lenin’s article in it to perfunctory Lenin. Of course, this plan failed. However, the article was handled when it was published. The article said that the collective of the central supervisory committee should ignore human feelings and “pay attention not to let anyone’s prestige, whether the general secretary or some other central committee member, hinder them from raising questions and checking documents, so as to absolutely understand the situation and make all affairs act in strict accordance with the regulations”. The words concerning the general secretary were deleted from Pravda published at that time. Later, the first, second, third and fourth editions of Lenin’s complete works in Russian were processed according to the text of Pravda. It was not until Volume 45 of the fifth edition of Russian published in 1964 that it was restored to its original appearance! Prior to its publication, the Political Bureau and the organization bureau sent a secret letter to the provincial and State Party committees on January 27, 1923, denying the danger of inner-party division mentioned in the text, saying that “in order to avoid possible misunderstandings, we think it necessary to unanimously declare that there is no worrying ‘division’ in the internal work of the Central Committee”. (selected historical archives of the Soviet Union, Volume 2, page 237)

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Yu Guangyuan: Hua Guofeng was too timid.

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in addition to dictation articles, Lenin was most concerned about ethnic issues during this period, specifically, the issue of Georgia. Because of the opposition to the Stalin “autonomy” plan for Georgia to join the Russian Federation as an autonomous republic, the Communists of Georgia were persecuted, some were removed from office, some were transferred, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia was reorganized, and even developed to the point that ordzhoniqi, who presided over the work of the Transcaucasia Bureau of the Communist Party of Russia at that time, began to beat people. In a letter to the Twelfth Congress of the Communist Party of China, Lenin dictated “on the issue of nationality or” autonomy “at the end of 1922, he believed that Stalin and dzerzhinski, who went to Georgia to investigate the situation, should” bear political responsibility for this true great Russian nationalist movement “, and punished ordzhoniqi” as an example “. In January 1923, Lenin continued to pay attention to the matter. He asked the Politburo for materials about the Georgian incident. When it was rejected, Stalin claimed that it could not be given without the approval of the Politburo.

due to Lenin’s insistence, it had to be provided in the end. Lenin organized his own team of secretaries to investigate the incident in Georgia and asked them to write a report for him to use at the 12th National Congress. By early March, Lenin felt that his health did not allow him to participate in the 12th Party Congress, so he wrote to Trotsky to defend his position at the Congress. The letter asked him to defend the Georgian incident in the Party Central Committee, saying that “this matter is now being ‘investigated’ by Stalin and dzerzhinski, and I can’t expect them to be impartial. Even the opposite. If you agree to defend this matter, I can rest assured”. Lenin asked the Secretary to hand over all the relevant files to Trotsky. The next day, Lenin wrote another letter to the persecuted Georgian leaders mtivani and maharaze, saying, “I am very concerned about your affairs. I am indignant at the rudeness of Ordzhonikidze and the connivance of Stalin and dzerzhinski. I am preparing letters and speeches for you.”. (complete works of Lenin, 2nd Edition, Vol. 52, pp. 554 and 556)

during this period, Lenin learned another rude act of Stalin.

in October 1922, the plenary session of the Central Committee passed a resolution to weaken the foreign trade monopoly in the absence of Lenin. Lenin was very upset and asked to suspend the implementation of the decision until the next plenary session. Before that, on the one hand, Lenin did the work of the members of the Central Committee. On the other hand, he asked Trotsky, who had the same views, to defend the common position at the plenary session and wrote to Trotsky on December 13 and 15 to talk about the maintenance of foreign trade monopoly. By the time the plenary session of the Central Committee was held on December 18, Lenin’s proposition had been endorsed by the majority. To this end, Lenin, with the permission of the doctor, dictated a text message to Trotsky on December 21, 1922, saying, “it seems that he just mobilized his troops and took the position without firing a shot. I suggest not to stop, but to continue the attack…”. (complete works of Lenin, 2nd Edition, Vol. 52, P. 553) the letter was recorded by Krupskaya, who also wrote a postscript: “Lev Davidovich: Professor felst allowed Vladimir ilrich to dictate the letter today, so he dictated the following letter to you.” (complete works of Lenin, 2nd Edition, Vol. 52, P. 701)

,

,

,

the matter was known by Stalin who advocated relaxing the foreign trade monopoly at that time, so he called Krupskaya, scolded Krupskaya, and threatened her to submit her to the central Supervision Committee for handling on the charge of violating the central government’s medical system on Lenin. According to Lenin’s Sister Maria, Stalin’s language was so rough that Krupskaya fell to the ground and cried bitterly. Krupskaya did not dare to talk to Lenin at that time, so she had to turn to Lenin’s close comrades in arms, gaminev, who was then vice chairman of the people’s Committee and presided over the meeting of the Political Bureau, and Zinoviev, member of the Political Bureau and chairman of the Executive Committee of the Communist International. On December 23, she wrote a letter to gaminev:

Stalin was extremely rude to me yesterday because I recorded a text message dictated by Vladimir Ilyich [Lenin] with the permission of the doctor. It’s not a day since I joined the party. In the past 30 years, I have never heard any Comrade say a rude word to me. I cherish the interests of the party and ilrich as much as Stalin. Now I need to restrain myself as much as I can. I know better than any doctor what I can and can’t tell Illich, because I know what will upset him and what won’t, at least better than Stalin. Now I make a request to you and Grigory (Zinoviev – citation), because you are the closest friends of Fu Yi. Please protect me from rude interference, unwarranted abuse and threats in my private life. Stalin even threatened me with the supervisory committee. I do not doubt that the supervisory committee will make a unanimous decision, but I have neither the energy nor the time to make such a stupid dispute. I am also a living person. My nerves have been extremely nervous. (Volume 52, page 703, 2nd edition of complete works of Lenin)

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it is unknown when Lenin learned about this matter. It is likely that it was from February to March 1923, which led to the following” Dear John letter “. This is a top secret letter dictated to Stalin on March 5, with a copy to gaminev and dinoviev. The letter reads:

dear comrade Stalin:

“You rudely asked my wife to answer the phone and abused her. Although she agreed to forget what you said, Zinoviev and gaminev learned about it from her. I don’t want to forget my words and deeds so easily. It goes without saying that I think opposing my wife’s words and deeds is also opposing my words and deeds. Therefore, please consider whether you agree to withdraw it Your words and apology, or would you rather sever the relationship between us.

!

Lenin

on March 5, 1923

(complete works of Lenin, Vol. 52, page 555)

on March 5, Lenin wrote two letters, one asking Trotsky to defend the Georgian incident and the other to “break up diplomatic relations” with Stalin. Different attitudes!

due to the serious problem, the letter to Stalin was pressed by Krupskaya for a day and did not be sent immediately. It was not delivered to Stalin until March 7. Stalin immediately wrote a reply, which refuted Lenin’s accusation, He said that he once said to Krupskaya the following words: “the doctor forbids to tell Ilyich political news and believes that this system is an extremely important means to cure his disease. However, you, najesda konstantinovna, should destroy this system; you can’t joke about Ilyich’s life…” Stalin continued: “I don’t think there is anything rude and intolerable in these words and ‘against’ your meaning… I have exchanged views with Na Kang [Krupskaya], and it has been proved that there is no problem and impossible in this matter except some insignificant misunderstandings.” Stalin wrote at the end of the letter:

however, since you think I should “take back” the above words in order to maintain the “relationship”, I can take it back without thinking about what’s going on, where I’m “wrong” and what I want. (selected historical archives of the Soviet Union, Vol. 5, P. 493)

this is not like a sincere letter of apology. Maybe these are the basic contents Stalin said on the phone, but the same contents can be said in different tones and attitudes, and the listener’s feelings will be very different. Gaminev, one of the troikas in the core position at that time, wrote to Zinoviev on March 7, saying: “Stalin’s reply is very helpless and sour to apologize, and the old man may not be satisfied.” (Volume 5 of selected historical archives of the Soviet Union, page 494)

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on this matter, the Soviet writer Baker interviewed Lenin’s secretary Ma a volodyceva.

I went to Krupskaya and reminded her that Lenin was anxious waiting for Stalin’s reply. It seemed that the reason worked. She agreed to give Lenin’s letter to Stalin. I handed over the letter myself and asked Stalin to reply to Lenin because he was waiting for a reply and was anxious. Stalin stood in front of me and read the letter with a calm face. Pondering for a moment, he said slowly, clearly and word for word: “this is not what Lenin said, this is what his disease said.” He continued: “I’m not a doctor, I’m a politician. I’m Stalin. If my wife is a party member and is punished for doing wrong, I don’t think I have the right to intervene in this matter. And Krupskaya is a party member. But since Vladimir Ilyich insists, I’m ready to apologize to Krupskaya for my rude behavior.”

volodyceva left Stalin and went to gaminev’s house. She brought a text message dictated by Stalin at that time (this text message is not Stalin’s handwritten letter cited later). Gaminev read the letter and returned it to her, saying it could be forwarded. After her visit to gaminev, she returned to the Secretariat. But the letter was not forwarded because it was too late: Lenin was in bad condition. sheI don’t think it is accurate to say whether Lenin knew Stalin’s answer. (Moscow News, April 23, 1989)

the problems here are obviously not like neighborhood quarrels. You insulted my wife and I want to break up with you. In fact, this involves a serious political issue. Stalin demanded the relaxation of foreign trade monopoly, which Lenin firmly opposed. Finally, Lenin’s proposition won. To this end, Lenin sent a letter to Stalin’s opponent Trotsky, asking him not to stop and continue the attack. In this case, Stalin spilled all his anger on Krupskaya, obviously to vent his dissatisfaction. Lenin felt that his political behavior was interfered and he was blocked and isolated, because before that, Lenin had always kept in touch and exchanged views with the outside world by writing or dictating letters, and Krupskaya played an irreplaceable role.

in the later inner-Party struggle, Lenin’s “Dear John letter” was mentioned many times. For example, in 1926, at the joint plenary session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (Bolshevik), Zinoviev raised this question. In order to answer this question, he did not directly quote Stalin’s “letter of apology”, but quoted Lenin’s sister Ma Yi ulyanova’s letter to the presidium of the plenary session, saying that “Stalin apologized”. If the “letter of apology” was directly displayed, it would be difficult for Stalin to play the role of “Lenin’s loyal student”. The problems involved in the last three letters of

,

,

and

made Lenin uneasy and excited. In the early morning of the night of March 6 and 7, 1923, Lenin’s health deteriorated sharply. On March 10, Lenin suffered another stroke, which was the most serious one, resulting in aphasia, paralysis of the right body and inability to rotate his right foot. From then on, he was completely divorced from political life. The communique on Lenin’s illness was issued on March 14.

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