Since the dawn of June 25, the war situation has changed rapidly.
Li CHENGWAN’s fierce army was not the opponent of the people’s army at all.
After only one round, he was killed and fled at the sight of the wind.
The people’s army became braver and braver.
All the way, it attacked southward along the west coast, liberated the ancient capital Kaicheng, broke through the defense line of Li CHENGWAN’s army near the Jinjiang River, and directly attacked the important town government.
On the morning of June 26, when the parliament government was conquered by the people’s army and the north gate of Seoul was opened, Li chengnight was out of his mind and terrified.
He saw the officers and soldiers fleeing South pouring into Seoul.
Thinking that it was only a matter of time before Seoul was lost, he decided to run away so as not to become prisoners of the people’s army.
But the puppet “President” wants to be a bitch and set up a chastity archway.
He repeatedly confessed to his colleagues: I decided to withdraw not because of personal safety, but because once I became a prisoner, our lifelong struggle for the “reunification” of North Korea would come to naught.
All the generals, including the US ambassador Joe mu, have repeatedly persuaded him to stay in Seoul and command the resistance, and warned that once the news of the “President”‘s escape came out, there would no longer be a resistance soldier, which would greatly shake the people’s hearts and morale.
Li CHENGWAN only cares about running for his life, but he doesn’t care about that.
When the people’s army planes strafed the area around his official residence Blue Palace again, the panicked old man could no longer hold his breath.
He urgently ordered the “Minister of transportation” to send two special trains and hurried to the field with several of his senior advisers and their family members in the early morning of June 27.
In order to avoid the entanglement of American ambassador Joe mu, he didn’t even say hello before fleeing.
The trees fall, the monkeys scatter, and the army is defeated like a mountain.
After Li CHENGWAN fled Seoul, the garrison troops were not interested in war.
From Shen Xing, the “director of the Ministry of defense” to CAI Bingde, the “chief of the general staff”, all moved to abandon the city and flee.
Colonel Wright of the American Advisory Group was angry and anxious.
These despairing guys are really “tofu falls into the coal ash, can’t be photographed or beaten”.
What should I do? Only to cheer them up.
He told Cai Bingde that a former enemy command post would be established in North Korea, and the US military would soon be put into battle.
This shot of cardiotonic really took effect.
Cai Bingde hurriedly moved the “headquarters of the army” that had moved south back to Seoul.
The “Political Training Bureau of the Ministry of national defense” also pulled a big flag as a tiger skin, launched a propaganda offensive, tied a loudspeaker to the car ready to escape, and shouted along the street that “American reinforcements are coming”.
The army arrived.
To their disappointment, it was not the American soldiers who looked forward to it, but the uninvited people’s army.
On June 28, the people’s army attacked and occupied Seoul.
Li CHENGWAN’s army swarmed into the Hanjiang River like locusts.
The people’s army pursued the victory and inflicted heavy losses on Li CHENGWAN’s army, resulting in the loss of 44000 troops and the loss of half of the total pre war troops.
Li CHENGWAN’s army collapsed and his spirit collapsed.
MacArthur couldn’t contain himself any more in the face of more and more frustrating news from South Korea.
He decided to fly there to inspect the battlefield in person, so as to master first-hand information and provide a reliable basis for expanding the war in the next step.
Second, build a strong momentum to support and cheer up Li CHENGWAN, who is about to collapse.
Perhaps to show his fearlessness in the face of danger, or for some other reason, before leaving, MacArthur alarmed the accompanying reporters: “this plane is not armed, there is no fighter escort, and you are not sure where it will land.
If you don’t have the courage to go with me, do as you please.
” In fact, it’s far from that.
His confidant, general Courtney Whitney, had already arranged four fighter planes for escort.
When MacArthur boarded the Badan, Haneda Airport in Tokyo was being washed by rain.
The sky was cloudy and the weather was very bad.
For safety reasons, the pilot, Lieutenant Colonel Anthony stoley, suggested delaying the departure until tomorrow.
But the stubborn MacArthur insisted, “no, we’ll start right away.
” The Badan took off as scheduled.
When the Badan was flying over North Korea through clouds and fog, the radio reported that Suwon airport, 20 kilometers south of Seoul, was heavily strafed by the North Korean Air Force.
MacArthur wanted to show the adventure game to his peers and resolutely ordered the plane to lower its altitude for landing.
Just as the plane was sliding, a propeller driven fighter jet of the people’s army dived down and directly inserted into the four escort fighters of the Badan.
Fortunately, the pilot Stoli made an unexpected evasion action with his skilled driving skills, so as to save the danger and land on the runway with many craters.
At this time, two American C-54 transport planes hit not far away were emitting thick smoke.
After meeting Li CHENGWAN and listening to the report of Brigadier General John church, a senior officer of the US military advisory group, MacArthur boarded a Dodge Car, walked through the torrent of the fleeing Li CHENGWAN army and began his battlefield inspection activities.
In the face of the noisy crowd, the driver honked desperately, and the guards of the four jeeps waved their guns to open the bolt and opened the way.
The panicked soldiers crowded to make way.
MacArthur climbed the mountain beside the Han River and looked up to the north.
There was a terrible scene in front of him: a sea of fire in Seoul, thick smoke billowing, and the burning smell rushed to his nostrils.
The capsized ships in the Han River are in disorder, and the drowning people are desperately crying for help, floating abandoned articles and dead bodies everywhere.
The troops crossing the river crowded around among the dusty refugees, threw away their armor and fled for their lives, while the dull explosion of the people’s army’s mortar shells kept ringing one after another.
In the face of this situation, MacArthur was convinced that the defense capability of Li CHENGWAN’s army had been lost, and it would be useless to continue to support the Navy and air force.
He began to think about the next step.
More than an hour later, he put down his telescope, quietly pointed to the residual railway bridge on the Han River, and spit out three words to Major General Edward almond, the accompanying chief of staff: “blow it up!” Then he got into the black dodge without looking back.
At midnight on June 30, Tokyo time and June 29, Eastern time, MacArthur sent a 2000 word telegram to the Pentagon.
In his cable, he described the collapse of the South Korean army and said it had “completely lost its ability to counterattack”.
At the end of the report, he suggested: “the only guarantee to hold the current front and regain the lost land in the future is to send us ground combat forces to the Korean theater to reinforce the above-mentioned key areas, and provide two divisions of troops from the troops stationed in Japan for early counter offensive”.
Pentagon dutyThe warden roused general Collins from his bed.
The chief of staff hurried to the office and read MacArthur’s telegram at one go.
He felt that the telegram was full of MacArthur’s usual tone of “do as I do or pull down”.
This proud old man always despises the generals with less seniority than himself, including five-star general and chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff Bradley.
He is always rebellious, gossiping about his boss’s orders, or playing a “marginal ball”, or even disobeying orders.
Far from it, on the issue of providing air support to Li CHENGWAN’s army, the instructions of the White House and the Pentagon are that the air attack is mainly to provide cover for Li CHENGWAN’s army.
The belligerent MacArthur played a “puzzle game” with him on this issue: Although the Joint Chiefs of staff did not authorize him to bomb the 38th parallel area, he was not prohibited from doing so.
As a field commander, he should have the right to make an immediate decision.
If he did not bomb the airport of North Korea, It will not be possible to complete the order issued by Washington to give “effective military support” to South Korean forces.
After talking so loudly, he was self-sufficient, and the Far East Command dictated an order: “destroy the North Korean airport immediately and keep quiet.
” At this time, the military and political dignitaries in Washington are still in the dark.
Washington has been unable to make up its mind to send ground troops to intervene in the Korean civil war.
It is not that they have moved the heart of the Bodhisattva, but that there are serious worries behind them.
The strategic interests of the United States are mainly in Europe, and the strategic focus of the United States cannot but focus on Europe.
Therefore, after the end of World War II, the United States formulated the strategic guiding ideology of “taking strategic defense in the Far East and strategic offensive in Western Europe” to dominate the world.
At present, in the face of the aggressive momentum of the Soviet Union in Western Europe, if the ground troops are transferred to North Korea, in the words of the Pentagon, “it will make the already tense military forces more tense, and once a war breaks out, it will be difficult to protect our European allies”.
Now, MacArthur has brought this headache to the Pentagon, and his tone is so tough.
How to deal with this thorny problem? Collins was extremely anxious.
Finally, he made up his mind to fight a “circuitous war” with the stubborn old man.
The teletype meeting was held late at night, and the bargaining between the two sides began: Collins told MacArthur that a regiment combat force could be mobilized to Busan to protect the port, and MacArthur quickly replied to the protest.
He called for the mobilization of ground troops into combat, rather than the timid defense in Busan.
He said in an indisputable tone: “time is pressing, and it is urgent to make a clear provision.
” Collins had no choice but to cable Secretary of the army pace.
Pace called the white house again and called President Truman out of bed.
Truman yawned after hearing MacArthur’s call, considered it again and again, and finally agreed to his request.
The belligerent MacArthur was satisfied.
The seasoned bureaucrat and politician always called the police at midnight.
He called the generals of the Pentagon and President Truman out of bed, made a sudden attack, and asked them face to face.
First, the interrogated did not have much ideological preparation, and second, in order to go to bed early, they often met their requirements.
In this way, MacArthur won again in another “intelligence game” with Washington.
The first ground force sent to North Korea is an advance detachment composed of an infantry battalion and an artillery battalion of the 24th US Infantry Division.
On June 30, 1950, Lieutenant Colonel Charles Bradford Smith, commander of the 1st Battalion of the 21st regiment of the 24th division of the United States in Japan, was awakened from his sleep by his wife.
Richard Stephens, the commander, gave him an order on the phone: “put on your clothes, go to the command post immediately and prepare for emergency combat missions.
” Smith, 34, is a graduate of the famous West Point Military Academy in the United States.
He was promoted to company commander within two years after graduation.
Since the Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor, he participated in the Pacific War as a member of general Lawton Collins.
Collins once praised him as “young, promising and promising”.
Smith’s mission was to lead the first ground force to the Korean battlefield as the commander of this advance detachment.
When the team started, it rained in torrential rain.
540 soldiers rushed to Banmen Air Force Base in the rain, took six transport planes to Busan, and then took a train to Datian, heading north as far as possible.
On the clattering train, Smith cheered up his tired subordinates and said, “as soon as we appear in front of the North Koreans, they will flee in a panic.
” However, the young and vigorous lieutenant colonel was too forgetful.
He didn’t know that the fate of destruction was hovering around him.
The people’s army launched the battle of Suwon on June 30.
Under the cover of dense artillery fire, it forcibly crossed the Han River from many roads south of Seoul at the same time.
Li CHENGWAN’s army fled south in a hurry, and Suwon was liberated.
On July 5, the people’s army encountered Smith’s advance detachment in Wushan, 50 kilometers south of Seoul, on its way south to pursue Li CHENGWAN’s army.
At this time, Smith had lost his imposing demeanor.
He ran for his life in a hurry and abandoned all the mechanized equipment configured.
He ordered the seriously wounded to be killed with grenades, and then blew up a road with explosives to break out.
He brought out only dozens of soldiers.
The American advance force that followed was the 24th division led by Major General William Dean.
The 31 year old general is a rising figure among the US army generals.
He was a tall horse with a weight of 200 pounds.
He commanded infantry in World War II and was famous for his strict discipline.
From 1947 to 1948, he was appointed by MacArthur to preside over the military government of South Korea, and then returned to Japan as the commander of the 24th division.
MacArthur appointed the commander of the U.S. Army in North Korea this time, and the remnant of Li CHENGWAN was also under his command.
This arrogant general tried to use the favorable terrain of Jinjiang River and Xiaobai mountains to the north of Datian to build a strong defensive position, so as to prevent the attack of the people’s army and buy time for the follow-up troops of the United States to launch and rectify Li CHENGWAN’s army.
The people’s army launched the Datian campaign at the right time.
Kim Il Sung personally visited the battlefield, commanded the battle, led the army to storm Li CHENGWAN’s “temporary capital” and tenaciously broke through Dean’s defensive positions.
The US 34th regiment, which was at the forefront of defense, was awed by the powerful power of the people’s army and gave up the frontOn the afternoon of July 19, the infantry tanks of the people’s army coordinated the attack and completed the siege of the field.
At this time, Dean had lost contact with his troops, so he had to organize scattered troops to flee south under the cover of light tanks, but soon fell into the siege of the people’s army.
Dean brandished a pistol, climbed into a jeep and ran for his life in a hail of bullets.
However, the unlucky general, just out of the siege, was ambushed again.
He jumped off the jeep and stumbled into the roadside ditch to avoid the search and arrest of the people’s army.
He escaped the gun of the people’s army, but he could not escape hunger and thirst.
When he was looking for water through mountains, he unfortunately fell under the cliff and was injured and unconscious.
When he woke up, he had become the “bare pole” commander.
He tore his clothes into pieces and wrapped up the wound, and then hid in a South Korean house.
The poor wretch can only speak a few simple Korean.
He took out a wad of money and asked the owner to lead the way to Daegu, but in the end, he attracted the patrol of the people’s army.
Dean snatched the door and fled and hid in the rice field.
Later, Dean became a savage, hiding like a lost beast, and finally failed to escape the palm of the people’s army.
He became the first captured general of the US Army.
MacArthur, who was in charge of the remote control command of “Building 1” in Tokyo, was shocked after receiving the report of the defeat of the 24th division.
Until then, he felt that he underestimated the combat capability of the young people’s army, and realized that his words of “give me two divisions and you can hold North Korea” were too much.
This moment, that moment.
During World War II, the U.S. military did fight many beautiful battles, especially the courage of senior U.S. generals to organize major battles and the viability and combat ability of American soldiers under difficult conditions.
However, after the war, the American soldiers, who regarded themselves as winners, lived an extravagant and licentious life and had long lost their former style.
Like the soldiers of the 24th division, they were domineering and pampered in Japan as an occupying force a month ago.
They were accompanied by Japanese girls, drinking champagne and beer, and were wild.
Even their leather shoes were polished by the waiter.
Now let them go to the battlefield, suffer, get shot and don’t lose the battle.
That’s a strange thing! The development of the situation is very grim.
With the sharp offensive of the people’s army, Li CHENGWAN’s army and the U.S. Army have retreated day by day.
It is not expected or impossible to drive Li CHENGWAN to the sea to feed fish.
MacArthur began to ask Washington for more troops in a pessimistic tone.
He said that North Korea’s army can be compared with “excellent troops at any time in the last World War”.
The situation in North Korea is grim, “it has developed into large-scale operations”.
To win the war completely, a large number of US troops must be sent.
To this end, he strongly called for the dispatch of more aircraft, warships and troops, and another group army and equipment with four full divisions.
For a moment, the telegram for help snowed to the Joint Chiefs of staff.
At this time, MacArthur was almost hysterical.
After repeated consideration, the White House and the Pentagon agreed to send the main force of the 8th group army to reinforce North Korea.
After the main force of the 8th group army arrived in North Korea, MacArthur appointed lieutenant general Walton walker, the commander of the group army, as the commander of the ground force stationed in North Korea.
The group army has always been the main force of the US Army stationed in Japan after the war.
It is good at amphibious warfare.
It once participated in the operation of attacking the Philippine Islands and won a complete victory, which frightened the Japanese army.
It is known as the “eighth group army of amphibious warfare”, which is famous.
During World War II, the group army continued to expand, with a maximum of 11 divisions and 3 independent regiments, with 250000 people.
It became a huge field corps undertaking combat tasks on an independent battlefield.
Lieutenant general Walton walker, commander of the group army, is known as one of the best generals in the U.S. Army. He has a strong body, a big belly, a clear face and a strong Texan accent in his conversation.
During World War II, he served as an officer of the tank force and was famous for his ferocity.
His boss, General George, valued him very much and often called him “my best bastard boy” in rude words.
After arriving in North Korea, Walker took advantage of the natural barrier of Luodong River to defend Busan.
In order to stop the attack of the people’s army, he ordered the soldiers to blow up all the bridges on the Luodong River and use the main stream of the Luodong River and the high mountains in the north to build a strong defensive position.
He personally supervised the battle on the battlefield in a jeep.
In addition to wearing a 0.
45cm automatic gun, he also carried a continuous pistol to “bring the law to the ground” against the soldiers who disobeyed the order at any time.
The fierce general obeyed MacArthur’s will and ordered to stick to the Luodong river.
When the defensive position of the 25th division was about to be broken through, he summoned the division commander and scolded him: “if the enemy breaks in, you will see me resist in the streets to the end.
You’d better do the same! Well, go back to your division and fight the enemy!” When he saw a sick general who was afraid to fight, he roared angrily, “I don’t want to see you back from the battlefield unless you are transported back in a coffin.
” However, all this failed to effectively stop the attack of the people’s army.
The people’s army forcibly crossed the Luodong River, severely damaged the 25th division and the 1st Cavalry Division of the United States, compressed the US Army and Li CHENGWAN army to a narrow area of 10000 square kilometers east of the Luodong River, and liberated more than 90% of the area and 92% of the population of South Korea.
The choice of the most effective attacking and losing points in a campaign is the choice of the most effective attacking and losing points of the enemy.
MacArthur, who has been on the battlefield for a long time, knows the mystery of using troops.
At this time, although the Korean people’s army occupied most of South Korea, the following problem was the long north-south front, which not only brought considerable difficulties to logistics supply, but also aggravated the defense task along the coastline.
The weak points on the flank were clearly exposed, which MacArthur knew very well.
In order to fundamentally reverse the war situation and save the dying Lee Seung Wan regime, MacArthur was determined to win by surprise and began to conceive a bold and risky idea: an amphibious airborne coordinated landing in the rear of the front.
This will cut off the supply line of North Korea and surround the people’s army between the landing force and Walker’s 8th group army for Pusan defense, resulting in a double attack between the north and the south, and then eliminate the people’s army.
So where to log in? MacArthur chose Incheon, which is only 30 kilometers away from Seoul.
Yes, MacArthurMost people disapprove of this idea.
As we all know, Incheon port has the most taboo adverse factors for landing.
In terms of navigation, sea port, landing coast and other conditions, Incheon is the worst harbor in North Korea.
The average water depth of the west coast where it is located is 39 meters, which is nearly 100 times higher than that of the east coast with a water depth of 3699 meters.
However, the tidal range of the tide is particularly large.
At high tide, the tide is as high as 11.
After the ebb tide, there is a mud beach up to 24 kilometers wide from the sea to the port, which can’t stand people walking on it.
However, all types of landing craft can only travel when the tide is at least 23 meters deep.
However, between the rising tide and the falling tide, there is only 3 hours to transport soldiers and Quartermaster.
Otherwise, the personnel on the shore will be trapped there and have to wait for the rising tide again 12 hours later.
The waterway passing through the port is narrow, and it is completely impossible to pass if mines are laid on the waterway.
In order to land, it is necessary to climb a breakwater 12 ~ 14 meters high.
There are many buildings near Incheon port, and the moon end island with strong fortifications built by the people’s army overlooks Incheon port, which is very conducive to defense and unfavorable to attack.
The stubborn old man was persuaded to give up the plan, but MacArthur had made up his mind and would not change.
The Incheon landing operation plan, codenamed “operation soldering iron”, has also caused great controversy in the US military community.
The controversy lasted from July to August, and many people doubted its feasibility.
Although the Joint Chiefs of staff got the general outline of the plan from MacArthur, it was not clear what medicine MacArthur was selling.
In order to find out what is going on in Tokyo, the Joint Chiefs of staff decided to send army chief of Staff Admiral Collins and Navy Secretary of operations admiral Sherman to Tokyo on August 19 to consult with MacArthur on the “operation soldering iron” plan.
On August 23, the heads of the US military held the most spectacular meeting of senior US officers since the outbreak of the Korean civil war in the conference room on the 6th floor of the first building in Tokyo.
On behalf of the Joint Chiefs of staff are admiral Collins, Admiral Sherman, and General Edwards, deputy chief of staff of the air force.
The navy is represented by admiral Arthur Redford, Admiral Turner joy and Admiral Doyle.
MacArthur’s side included general almond, general Doyle Hickey, general Clark loughner and General Edwin white.
At the meeting, all expressed their views.
The debate was very fierce and the differences were very obvious.
The Navy spent an hour and a half enumerating the difficulties and dangers it would encounter.
The conclusion is pessimistic: Incheon has all the taboos of amphibious warfare.
Collins did not agree with the idea of landing 100 miles south of Incheon.
MacArthur had expected this.
He smoked his corncob pipe carelessly, listened to all kinds of objections calmly, and then stood in front of a large military map for a whole hour to defend his plan.
He talked freely without speaking, calm and confident.
In order to pursue dramatic effects, he first spoke in a gentle tone for half an hour, and then highlighted the advantages of landing success with skilled speech skills.
In response to the suggestions of the two chiefs of staff, he pointed out that the occupation of Incheon and Seoul is decisive for victory.
The risk of landing in mountains is small, but its value is also small.
It can neither cut off the logistics supply line of the North Koreans nor achieve the purpose of Walker’s counterattack.
He said in an indisputable tone: “you have put forward various arguments that the landing will not work, but it is these arguments that help us to be unprepared, because the enemy commander will think that no one dares to make these attempts rashly.
” Finally, he vowed, “If my estimate is inaccurate, I encounter a defense I can’t deal with.
I will go there myself and withdraw our troops before they suffer a heavy defeat.
The only loss at that time is my reputation as a professional soldier.
But the Incheon war will not lose, the Incheon war will win, and it will save the lives of 100000 U.S. and Korean soldiers.
” His impassioned speech persuaded many generals present, even admiral Sherman, who was most worried, to change his attitude.
However, the Joint Chiefs of staff still have major reservations about operation soldering iron.
Unexpectedly, President Truman agreed to the battle plan and believed that this bold strategic vision would succeed.
MacArthur was afraid of long nights and dreams, so he acted quickly, issued the Incheon landing order on August 30, announced the combat objectives, and assigned clear tasks to his generals.
On September 13, he said proudly to his general: “if Incheon landing is a big bet, I think it is to put five dollars into the box and open it to get 50000 dollars.
Five dollars is Incheon landing.
This huge gamble is Washington’s decision to invest US troops in the Asian continent.
” Although MacArthur’s Incheon landing plan was very secretive and even concealed from the Joint Chiefs of staff, it was still expected by Chinese leaders such as and.
In 1994, part of the archives of the former Soviet Union on the Korean War presented by Russia to South Korea recorded the judgment of Chinese leaders such as Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai on the possibility of US military Incheon landing as early as a week after the outbreak of the Korean War.
On July 2, 1950, the Soviet ambassador to China Luo Shen was invited to visit Zhou Enlai.
Zhou Enlai demanded that the estimates of Mao Zedong and other Chinese leaders on the political and military situation on the Korean Peninsula be transmitted to the Soviet government.
China estimates that of the 120000 US troops stationed in Japan, about 60000 troops can be invested in North Korea.
These troops may land at ports such as Busan, mupu and Mashan, and then march northward along the railway line.
It is suggested that the Korean people’s army move rapidly southward and occupy these ports.
Mao Zedong believed that it is possible for the US military to land in Incheon.
In order to defend Seoul, the Korean people’s army should build a solid defensive position in Incheon.
Before the US military landed in Incheon from August to September, Chinese leaders such as Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai pointed out the possibility of US military landing in Incheon through the Soviet government and directly to North Korean comrades on many occasions.
During this period, Mao Zedong met with representatives of the Korean government twice to discuss the development of the Korean war situation with them.
Mao Zedong analyzed that there may be two basic situations in the situation of the Korean War: the first is that the Korean people’s army completely annihilated the US military and drove them into the sea.
The second is the persistence of war.
In the latter case, he estimated that the U.S. military would strengthen the defense in Daegu and Busan and bring the North Koreans.