The pedigree of Japan’s right-wing is roughly divided into: before the war, xuanyang Society – Black Dragon Society – innovative right-wing Japan Society; After the war, the shield society, Yishui society and other “new right wingers”.

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began in the middle and late 1990s. With the collapse of Japan’s bubble economy, the economy continued to slump, and Japan’s weakening of its economic status in the international community prompted it to appear in a high-profile manner in other international affairs. As a result, Japan’s “rising nationalist sentiment”, “social rightism”, and even “vigilance against the revival of militarism” and other public opinion began to increase significantly. At the same time, the prolonged economic depression made the political and economic systems that had effectively supported Japanese society malfunction. With the deepening of institutional reform based on neoliberalism, social mobility is on the rise. Those who are caught in the unease brought about by excess liquidity, out of some instinctive mentality of self-protection, are politically in tune with Neoconservatism, which has exacerbated the right deviation of Japanese society.

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in this process, “right wing” has become a key word repeatedly mentioned by the media. As an “incremental” trend description, it is often used as an important indicator to judge the degree of right deviation and conservatism of Japanese society. Whether such a judgment is established in sociology and politics is another matter. In the end, what is the “right wing”, where it comes from, what kind of ecology it presents, what is the political appeal and what is the development trend, and so on. These issues have never been mentioned, and there are few rational and serious academic rational reviews. It is easy and empty moral criticism and value judgment that is full of “conservative”, “nationalism”, “Populism” and “right deviation”.

the origin of the right-wing thought

in the nearly 100 years from the end of the curtain to the end of the so-called “Great East Asian war”, the right-wing thought did have a decisive impact on Japan’s national road.

so what is “right wing”? The definition of the right wing in the authoritative dictionary of postwar history published by Japan’s three provinces is: “Generally refers to extreme nationalism, but it is difficult to define it clearly. It originates from the French Revolution. At that time, from the perspective of the speaker of the parliament, the conservative Gironde party was on the right side, so for the revolution, the right wing was regarded as counter revolution or reactionary. It can be called the counter proposition of modern revolution. Later, the left wing was regarded as representing the international communist movement, and the right wing was opposite to it Forces that appear to serve imperialist power, such as fascism, are regarded as the right wing in a broad sense. ” This is the definition of the right wing in the general sense. Here, the concept of the right wing is extended to the ideological trend or thought, namely “doctrine”.

as far as Japan is concerned, in most cases, the power of the state is controlled by some politicians and bureaucrats. They are neither the left nor the right, but a group of liberal politicians seeking balance between the left and right poles. Just as the ruler of Japan before the war was not the right wing, the ruler of Japan after the war was not the left wing. Although specific to a specific period, it may show a left or right tendency, on the whole, Japan’s left and right wings are different from the “left” and “right” in the European and American political spectrum. If we insist on an analogy, taking France as an example, Japan’s “right wing” is not a traditional right-wing party ruling in turn with the left, but roughly equivalent to the extreme right-wing National Front (represented by Le Pen).

then what is Japan’s “right wing”? The famous right-wing writer Yukio Mishima pointed out in Lin Fang Xiong Lun: “the so-called right-wing is not an ideological problem, it is purely an emotional problem.” Kenichi Matsumoto, a scholar of ideological history, said: “it is not easy to define the right wing, because it is related to the definition of the left wing to some extent, that is, they compete with each other and change with the development of the times.” For example, during the reform period at the end of the shogunate, the left wing was civilized and Europeanized; The right wing is characterized by hustle and bustle; In the mid Meiji period, the left side advocated civil rights and the right side advocated national rights… But after the war, the expression space of the right side became increasingly narrow and existed as “anti left” to a large extent.

the analysis of the principle and structure of nationalism in the work nationalism myth and logic by Wen San hashagawa, one of the most representative political scholars in Japan after the war, is very helpful for us to understand the source of right-wing thought. First of all, qiaochuan clearly defined the boundary between patriotism and Nationalism: compared with “a kind of non historical actual patriotism as human eternal emotion”, nationalism is “a certain political doctrine formed in a specific historical stage”. And what is “specific historical stage”?

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hashakawa turned his research vision to the middle period of Edo when “Sinology” began to form, and found that the extensive development of modern nationalism was in the late shogunate period. It is generally believed that the sense of crisis to the European and American powers aroused by the attack of the “black ship” fleet led by American Pelly has a decisive impact on the formation of Japanese nationalism. However, on this external cause, qiaochuan paid more attention to the thought of equality formed in the late shogunate period. It is believed that the latter is the main driving force leading to Japanese nationalism.

Why were the feudal rulers in the Edo era hostile and wary of nationalism? Because their lives are all supported by the land domination originated in the middle ages and the accompanying privileges, they not only resist nationalism with indifference and negativity to centralization, but also will not easily respond to the “equalization” requirements of nationalism aimed at denying birth discrimination in order to maintain the hierarchical identity system different from the general public. Qiao Chuan pointed out that for the system side, the vigilance against the “cunning barbarians” and the doubts about the bottom people are actually two sides of a copper coin. Based on the theory of Mito (the pursuit of Japan’s inherent traditional knowledge formed in Mito fan had a far-reaching impact on the movement of respecting the king and bustling with foreigners in the late shogunate period, and became one of the driving forces of the Meiji Restoration)In advocating the so-called “Shenzhou support” aimed at maintaining the established identity order and feudal system, the central thought of bustling foreigners gradually distanced itself from the nationalist proposition on the premise of “national equality”.

then, Yoshida Matsushita, a thinker, educator and pioneer of Meiji Restoration, advocated a “new outlook on the world” and “loyalty theory”, and advocated that while devouring the emperor, we should “have a warm sense of common humanity” for women and people at the bottom, as well as “tribal people”, with the so-called transcendental view of the emperor of “one king and ten thousand people”, Criticizing the feudal screen vassal system, its influence gradually spilled over the scope of water studies, creating a road for the formation of modern nationalism. Hashigawa believed that it was Matsuyama’s thought that led to the birth of a new nation in Japan, and also formed the basis and source of modern Japanese right-wing thought.

therefore, the original right-wing thought contains the critical elements of Meiji state, which is by no means a simple nationalist text. Because the “equal society” ruled by the emperor was found in ancient Japan, the political conception of designism was fundamentally abandoned, so that the beautiful Utopia of “one king and ten thousand people” could be presented in front of us. This is the “right wing”. It was precisely some of these unreasonable and non political gestures that constituted a radical criticism of the Meiji state and triggered a series of gentry rebellion and the liberal civil rights movement and the agrarian movement.

returns to the sanshengtang edition of the great chronicles of postwar history. On the basis of clarifying the concept of “right wing”, it defines “Japanese right wing” in this way: “Japan’s right wing and civil rights movement are twin brothers, which are produced as resisters to the rule of Meiji vassal government.” Usually, people pay more attention to the conservative and quintessence of the right wing, that is, its anti civil rights and national rights. In fact, the description of “twin brothers” shows that they have a symbiotic relationship of common ideological origin even if they are opposed.

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it should be emphasized that in Japan’s political spectrum, “right-wing” and “conservative” are two different concepts. As the expression of extreme nationalism and nationalism, “the ideal past” (especially the ancient society) has become the preset premise in the former’s political narrative. It believes that if we go back to the past, we can realize an ideal society, fundamentally deny the possibility of political design based on human rationality, and advocate that everything should be handed over to the transcendental power of metaphysics to realize the “ideal order”, It has a strong Utopian color; The latter regards the present as an eternal transition period and strives to seek order and stability through gradual reform. It is completely divorced from the realization of the so-called “ideal society”, but maintains a balance and promotes the formation of consensus among a number of intertwined values. Nationalism may not be regarded as the original eternal value by them, but as a member of a specific political community, they accept and pay attention to the expression of their will.

all kinds of right wing

Japanese right wing, different groups, different political demands, different formation periods, different organizational structures and behavior modes, is an extremely complex system, which is difficult to summarize in a “one spoon stew”. If we break the vertical time relationship and start from the organizational characteristics, it can be roughly divided into the conceptual right, the organizational right, the action right and the “new right”. The first three are the traditional right wing that existed before the war, and the “new right wing” is the new generation that appeared in the 1970s after the war. Among different right wingers, there is no lack of organizational inheritance and intersection, as well as internal strife and mutual criticism and criticism. However, as an extremely conservative force affecting Japanese politics, due to its paramilitary color of organization and mobilization and violent tendency of action, although it is vigilant by the mainstream society including the rulers, its influence always exists. This is inseparable from the fact that the ideological characteristics and some political demands of the “right wing”, as a non-governmental organization and social trend of thought, are quite consistent with the mental state of people at the bottom of society. Its influence on political and social policies is mainly reflected in two aspects: one is constitutional reform and the other is exclusion.

in a nutshell, the pedigree of Japan’s right wing can be roughly divided into: before the war, xuanyang Society – heilonghui – innovative right wing – principle Japan Society; After the war, the shield society, Yishui society and other “new right wingers”.

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as the ancestor of the Japanese right wing, “xuanyang society” was renamed and developed from the “Xiangyang society” established in 1878, and its soul figure was touyama, the right-wing guru (1855 ~ 1944). The statute of its establishment has three articles: supporting the royal family, loving Japan and resolutely safeguarding the rights of the people. The first article of

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is not only the most basic principle of xuanyang society, but also the most important principled position of all Japanese right wingers. “People’s rights” in Article 3 was originally “people’s sovereignty”. Later, the police pointed out that the wording was in conflict with “the power of the emperor”, so it was changed to “rights”. The “love Japan” in Article 2 has a clear political appeal: when xuanyang society was founded, Japan was struggling hard around the unequal treaties imposed by the great powers. The purpose of this article is to emphasize “national rights” under the slogan of “love Japan” and safeguard Japan’s international status. After the Meiji Restoration, due to the influence of Western ideas of freedom and equality, Japan took the lead in realizing this problem among Asian countries. Out of its need to safeguard its “national rights”, xuanyang society also appeared as a supporter of national liberation movements and national independence in Asian countries, which objectively played a positive role in the latter. This is also the main reason why, Huang Xing, Song Jiaoren and other Japanese right-wing activists such as toushanman have been close together and received political support from the latter.

however, the opposition of xuanyang society to the unequal treaties was first from the standpoint of “respecting the emperor”, behind which was the “God state” of Japanese doctrine. Therefore, in essence, its opposition to unequal treaties is nothing more than xenophobia under the framework of quintessence. Under such circumstances, the maintenance of “civil rights” in Article 2 is actually just decoration, because under the premise of paying equal attention to imperial power and national power, the so-called “civil rights” can only be empty words, let alone the civil rights of other Asian countries outside JapanRight.

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and “Black Dragon Society” are actually derivative organizations of xuanyang society. They were founded in 1901 by Liangping Uchida, a member of xuanyang Society (1874-1937). Touyama was the general consultant. Based on the naked nationalism as the theoretical basis, they issued the institutional journal “black dragon”. They were the initiator of “great Asia and fine Asia” before the war and the furthest person in practice. The strategic name of “Heilongjiang and Mongolia” refers to the “Russian ambition” to cross the border of China and Mongolia, that is, the “Manchurian ambition” of China.

in the 1920s, on the one hand, after “Taisho Democracy”, the speech space was relatively open. Japan was like an ideological laboratory, and various fashionable social thoughts appeared in turn, especially the “October Revolution” in Russia and the national liberation movement in China, which had a deep interaction with Japan’s domestic situation, These social unrest led to the change of right-wing thoughts and the differentiation and reorganization of right-wing organizations; On the other hand, the economic panic after the first World War and the Kanto earthquake further worsened Japan’s economic situation. The criticism of the left-wing public opinion on the government and its policies leading to poverty began to point at the privileged classes such as politicians and chaebols, and even terrorist attacks against these people. In this case, the political issues of the right wing have also changed, and began to transform from international issues to domestic issues, resulting in a new trend known as “Innovating the right wing”. Among them, the most representative are Asahi Pingwu’s personal terrorism and beiyihui’s state transformation.

the former attributed the cause of social poverty to the existence of a privileged class that deprived the public of the happiness they should enjoy equally, so they sought to restore equality and achieve social justice through the “anti rape” activities of terrorist assassination, He personally practiced the outline of principles for the reform of Doujia, the founder of the Yasuda chaebol, and systematically expressed his views on national socialism. He was worshipped by the right wingers at that time and became the leader of the action program guiding the right wing in the 1920s and 1930s, with no less influence than my struggle. In this process, Japan’s parliamentary politics has become increasingly stretched, the color of military dictatorship has become increasingly strong, and the whole country has rapidly slipped to militarism.

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just when the “reform of the right wing” was in full swing, in 1933, another right-wing thinker Suo Tian xiongxi systematically criticized beiyihui’s theory of “social transformation” in his book “principles of academic reform Japan”, believing that “social transformation” is sheer nonsense, because the elements of society are people and people’s hearts, which cannot be transformed, Thus, it puts forward the theory of “principle Japan” based on “Japanese national life”, and advocates the “return of Japanese will as the force of old wish”. The establishment of the “principle Japan Society” and the publication of the organ journal “principle Japan” were regarded as a reaction to the “innovation right wing”. With the failure of the “February 26” incident, beiyihui and other “innovative right wingers” were eliminated, and the principle Japan news agency was strengthened. In 1938, sadao Araki, a loyal reader of “principle Japan”, became the Minister of education and culture of the Jinwei cabinet, and the theory of “principle Japan” was institutionalized. Further, Imperial University professors who were considered “anti nationalists” were purged.

so far, the “right-wing logic” which has been acting as the vanguard of system criticism since the end of the shogunate has become “system logic”, completely losing the edge and opportunity of realistic political criticism. After the outbreak of the “Great East Asian war”, even the meaning of existence itself has been lost. After the

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, the right-wing forces revived rapidly in Japanese society due to the incomplete democratization transformation of Japan by the United States, especially the transformation of the two ends of the occupation policy based on the strategic needs of the “cold war”. An important political appeal of the right wing after the war is the “anti YP system” (i.e. Yalta and Potsdam system). It believes that the YP system has destroyed Japan’s historical tradition and plunged Japan into the abyss of “irreparable”, which must be completely smashed.

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in terms of relationship, the vast majority of the right wing after the war is the traditional attack of the right wing before the war. The most noteworthy phenomenon in the post-war right wing is the appearance of the “new right wing”. Among them, the most striking are the “shield meeting” and “one water meeting”.

the former is a cultural right-wing organization founded by the famous writer Yukio Mishima in 1969. Its members are mostly “fans” of young students of Mishima literature. The reason why it is called “shield meeting” means to become a shield to defend the emperor. This organization, known as the “world’s smallest army” (more than 40 at first, and later developed to more than 90), is actually a private armed force of the three islands, completely obeying the orders of the three islands. He made use of the social reputation of his famous writer to establish contact with the self defense force organization, let his private soldiers receive the formal military training of the self defense force, and to his members: cultivate the military spirit, hone military knowledge and understand military technology.

Mishima is a fanatical cultural royalist who has created a fantastic labyrinth of novel aesthetics with strong action. On November 25, 1970, Mishima led five shield members into the Tokyo self defense force camp, kidnapped the resident director and launched a small coup. Mishima delivered an 8-minute speech in front of more than a thousand officers and soldiers of the self defense force, and issued a call for correction of the Constitution and a “decisive rise” for officers and soldiers. The “audience” was indifferent and laughed and roared. Mishima was extremely disappointed and killed himself on the spot in the way of ancient warriors.

is a metaphor that strongly stimulates Japanese society, which is obsessed with the myth of high economic growth. The following day, Asahi Shimbun published an editorial pointing out: “… Yukio Mishima has created an illusory world with magician like language, which is not enough. He still needs to make his world come true today. Its core is still the illusory fiction of the” Japanese nation with the unification of the emperor “before the war… In his political philosophy, there are only the emperor and the nobility, and there are absolutely no people. His recognition of violence shows that he does not accept the theory of democracy The arrogance of reading, and the people are just a small prop in his desire for self-expression. ” It can be said that this voice represents the critical attitude of the mainstream society of post-war democratic countries.

“kd