Livonia “debt not paid” and

— in 1558, czar Russia invaded Livonia

. In 1547, Ivan IV (reigned from 1533 to 1584), the famous “Ivan Reid” in Russian history, was crowned the first generation czar of Russia. In order to strengthen the imperial power, Ivan IV began to carry out political, economic, judicial and military reforms since 1549. Ivan IV’s reform and rule mainly relied on the support of small and medium-sized nobles with military merit, which improved the status of military nobles in the army. He distributed the land of Moscow and nearby counties to more than 1000 military noble, limiting the tyranny of the great noble. In 1556, the military service law was promulgated, stipulating that for every 150 Russian acres of land owned by the great nobles or military nobles, a fully armed cavalry must be provided to serve the Czar, so as to turn the feudal family soldiers into the army serving for the czar. In order to guard the capital, Ivan IV also established a shooting army using firearms directly under the command of the czar. The reform of central organs is mainly the addition of Yamen in charge of the affairs of various departments, including military, territory, ordnance, police, diplomacy, finance and so on. These reforms not only strengthened the power of the Czar and the central government, but also greatly improved the country’s military strength, which laid a solid foundation for the later czar Russia’s road of external expansion.

Ivan IV

in the East, czar Russia continued to expand, and the direct goal was to seize the heritage of the golden tent Khanate and eliminate the divided Tatar Khanate. Kazan and Astrakhan, located in the middle and lower reaches of the Volga River, have fertile land, rich products and convenient transportation. They have long been coveted by Russian landlords and merchants. Since the mid-1940s, Ivan IV has attacked Kazan several times without success. In June 1552, Ivan personally led 150000 invading troops to attack on a large scale. There were less than 30000 garrisons in Kashan, and their weapons and equipment were poor, but they rose up to resist. On September 30, the Russian army blew up a section of the city wall and rushed into the city, killing almost all the men, and most of the defenders died heroically. Later, the Kazan people continued to launch an uprising, which was suppressed.

after the success of the eastern conquest, Ivan IV relieved the worries of expanding to the West. At that time, it was located on the North Bank of the Black Sea to the south of Czar Russia and was controlled by the Crimean Khanate subordinate to the Ottoman sultan, and the Ottoman Empire was in its heyday at that time. Therefore, Ivan IV did not dare to expand easily to the south, but adopted a defensive policy and focused on seizing the sea port of the Western Baltic Sea.

the Baltic Sea is the transportation hub of northern Europe and the shortest passage from tsarist Russia to the Atlantic Ocean. Ivan IV once said that the weight of the Baltic Sea is worth measuring with gold. Although tsarist Russia had a vast territory and a long coastline in the north, these sea areas were frozen for 34 times a year and could not be navigable, so Russia actually belonged to an inland country at that time. The rulers of all dynasties of Russia have tried to break this geographical restriction and look for the entrance to the sea, so as to directly communicate with other countries in the world, introduce advanced culture and technology, develop economy and dominate Europe, which shows the temptation of the Baltic Sea to Ivan IV.

czar Russia must occupy the coastal zone from Riga bay to the Gulf of Finland, especially Livonia, in order to enter and leave the Baltic Sea. Livonia has an important strategic position. Livonia is now the seat of Estonia and Latvia. It is close to the east coast of the Baltic Sea. Riga, leville (Tallinn) and other seaports were the hub of trade between East and West Europe at that time. Livonia naturally became the breakthrough selected by czar Russia. Czarist Russia stared at Livonia, trying to find an excuse for invading Livonia.

as early as 1480, Ivan III, the grandfather of Ivan IV, once fought with Livonia, but did not achieve the purpose of the war, and signed a 50-year armistice agreement with the cavalry group of Livonia in 1503. It was 1553 when the armistice agreement expired. At this time, Livonia was in a state of feudal separatism, with many internal contradictions and the country was divided. At this time, Czarist Russia thought that there was an opportunity to use the armistice agreement as an article and create an excuse for war, so it put forward the harsh conditions for extending the armistice agreement, including the war between Russia and Poland and Lithuania, Livonia should remain neutral and allow Russia to attack Poland and Lithuania; Pay off the compensation due to Russia in the past 50 years within three years (the 1503 armistice agreement stipulated that Livonia should pay a certain amount of compensation to Russia every year, but Livonia never implemented it). Henry von Glenn, the chief of the order of Livonia, agreed to repay the compensation, but refused other harsh conditions. In 1557, the new chief of Livonia knights, forstenberg, not only stopped paying compensation, but also formed a military alliance with Lithuania in order to strengthen the resistance against Russia.

Ivan IV was very angry and determined to invade Livonia. At this time, there was only a reasonable excuse. At this time, a prince of Czar Russia offered Ivan IV a clever plan: force Livonia to pay all the compensation immediately (40000 Thales). Livonia could not have collected so much money for a while, so Ivan IV took this as an excuse to march towards Livonia. The 25 year long Livonia War (1558-1583) began to break out.

however, Ivan IV’s expedition against Livonia was very difficult. In January 1558, Ivan IV sent 40000 troops to attack Livonia and occupied Narva and Eastern Estonia. The cavalry of Livonia was unable to resist the attack of Czar Russia, so it sought the protection of Poland and other countries. The continuous invasion of the Russian army caused unrest in Poland, Lithuania, Denmark and Sweden, and successively sent troops to protect Livonia.

in 1561, Sweden occupied leville and Northern Estonia. At the end of the same year, Poland and Lithuania occupied Southern Livonia. Ivan IV decided to make peace with Sweden and Denmark and concentrate on attacking Lithuania. In 1564, the Russian army was defeated miserably near bolo C í K, and the commander kurbusky defected to the enemy. The Russian army was forced to stop the attack. In 1569, Poland and Lithuania signed the Lublin peace treaty. The two countries merged and United Switzerland