Appendix

almost all disasters are accompanied by a large number of casualties, so mankind has never stopped studying disasters. We hope to draw lessons from these unforgettable experiences and avoid the same thing as much as possible. Although we often feel small and helpless in the face of the cruelty shown by nature, we can still reduce the loss through certain means; For diseases, with the continuous development of science and technology, we are also gradually overcoming difficult problems one by one, and gradually developing effective drugs; For all kinds of accidents, we constantly gain experience, improve and develop; For man-made disasters that occur from time to time, we are also constantly improving various systems, and there are peaceful people all over the world to unite and help each other. However, in the long history of mankind, there are always a few disastrous events beyond people’s imagination, or limited to the scientific level at that time, or the reason for too long, which have not been understood by mankind so far.

1. Loud noise throughout the sky – on the morning of June 30, 1908, there was a rare abnormal weather scene in some parts of Siberia in the Far East of Russia: a dry gale mixed with huge noise swept the earth, followed by earth shaking and mountain shaking, Many buildings shook, pedestrians and horses on the road were also knocked down, and the B of the house was damaged ō The glass was also shattered. Then, someone suddenly saw that a burning object fell from the sky, crossed the sky from south to north, and disappeared in the Northeast… The history of

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at 7:17 a.m. on June 30, 1908, a huge fireball fell from the sky over the Indian Ocean, With its long tail, it rushed to the far north of the earth with a lightning speed. Before long, a violent big explosion occurred in the taiga forest in the Tunguska region in the Far East Siberia of Russia, about 65 kilometers away from the city of vanavola.

semonov, who lives in a village only 65 kilometers away from the center of the explosion, witnessed many details of the explosion. At the moment when a strong and burning light suddenly appeared in the northwest, semonov saw a huge fireball that almost covered half of the sky. It gradually turned black and then disappeared into the sky. At the same time, he heard a loud explosion. Then, the oncoming wind rolled him into the air and threw him several meters away, making him unconscious. Bursts of loud noise revived semonov. The noise shook the whole house and almost caused it to collapse, B ō The glass was broken, the window frame was broken, and even the land near the house was cracked. The roaring hurricane caused by the explosion of

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uprooted the trees, lifted the roofs of many houses, and the herdsmen on horseback fell to the ground. Many people were dizzy and even fainted by the sound waves of the explosion. The raging forest fire continued to burn for many days, during which it rained heavily. The explosion also caused a flood of rivers in Siberia. After the

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big explosion, many phenomena surprised meteorologists. In the explosion area, there was no night for three days. There were many strange clouds with silver light in the sky. When the sunlight penetrated the clouds, it would turn into strange green light and rose light. In those days, when the sky is clear for thousands of miles, there will be “clouds” very similar to supernatural phenomena in an instant.

the explosion not only destroyed everything in Tunguska, but also affected Europe, America and other places. Some seismic stations in Europe, the United States and Australia have recorded seismic waves – the earth’s magnetic field has also been disturbed.

the mystery of the explosion

“the Tunguska explosion” was not visited by scientists until 1927, because it was too remote and coincided with the political turmoil in Russia at the time of the explosion. The strong explosion has affected many countries and regions in the world, so how did this incident happen?

after the big bang, people found through investigation that the place where the explosion occurred was full of charred trees, strong radioactive radiation was also generated around, and the radioactive anomaly of cesium 137 was measured. But it is strange that no debris of the falling object was found here. Only thousands of silicate and iron oxide spheres with a diameter of only a few millimeters were found in the soil.

after the Tunguska explosion

, it was estimated that the power of the explosion was equivalent to a nuclear explosion of ten million tons. But at that time, people on earth could not make atomic bombs and hydrogen bombs. What was the reason for this powerful big bang? For many years, it has been a problem that people are interested in and difficult to solve. For the unprecedented big bang, scientists have failed to get a clear conclusion through decades of research and investigation. They can only put forward assumptions through imagination. Among them, there are several famous ones:

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the theory of meteorite explosion put forward by mineralogist kolek. He believes that if objects weighing more than tens of thousands of tons did not fall into the earth’s atmosphere quickly, ordinary volcanic eruptions or storms alone could not have such great power. In order to obtain evidence, kolek led a team of scientists to enter the Tunguska area for scientific investigation four times in order to find the expected meteorites or craters. But in the end, they only found dozens of caves of different sizes. Kolek chose one of the largest caves and drilled the drill bit into a depth of about 23 meters for exploration. However, no fragments of meteorite were found. In this regard, kolek explained that these caves may be left by the rebound of meteorites, and meteorites are most likely to have been gasified or bounced back into space. Obviously, this argument is not well supported.

nuclear explosion theory. The scene of the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in 1945 inspired people. Scientists found that there are many similarities between the two. The destroyed trees fall radially along the center of the explosion. If they do not fall, the leaves fall and the trees are scorched. The flash in Tunguska sky is the flash of nuclear explosion, which can be felt by witnesses hundreds of kilometers away, similar to the result of nuclear radiation. The black cloud floating over Tunguska is the unique feature of nuclear explosion – mushroom cloud. To this end, the former Soviet scientist Plekhanov led an investigation team in 1959 and spent six weeks measuring the radioactivity of soil and plants around the explosion center in Tungus area. It was found that the dose at the explosion center was 1.5 ~ 2 times higher than that at a place thirty or forty kilometers away. In addition, in 1961, a scientist calculated that the energy of light radiation accounted for about 30% of the total energy by synthesizing the existing data. This ratio is also unique to nuclear explosions. Therefore, more and more scientists believe that what happened in Tungus is a nuclear explosion. But another problem lies before scientists – there was no atomic bomb on earth in 1908!

antimatter explosion theory. Since the nuclear explosion in 1908 was impossible, what would be the reason? Then, the winner of the prize, American scientist Li Bi and two other famous physicists put forward the theory of antimatter explosion. That is, the positive and negative electrons meet to generate an energy emitted to the earth. When the antimatter meteorite collides with the atmosphere, it will be like the atomic bomb explosion. All the materials on both sides will be converted into energy in an instant. There is no crater left, and the phenomenon is similar to that of nuclear explosion. Libby said that one of the results of the antimatter explosion is to increase the content of carbon 14 in the air. He studied tree rings in Arizona and Los Angeles and found that it was after the Tunguska explosion that the content of carbon 14 in trees was much higher. But Libby himself admits that there is no very clear evidence to prove the authenticity of this measurement and prediction.

comet said. Petrov, an academician of the former Soviet Academy of Sciences, put forward the theory of comet explosion on February 26, 1975. He believes that uninvited visitors from outside the sky are composed of loose snow and cosmic dust. It enters the atmosphere at the speed of tens of kilometers per second and explodes 10 ~ 15 kilometers above the earth’s surface. Its kinetic energy forms a huge shock wave with extremely high temperature, which not only destroys trees but also ignites forests. The snow itself evaporated and the cosmic dust remained underground.

extraterrestrial spaceship crash theory. Kazachev, a scientist from the former Soviet Union, put forward the following hypothesis: a nuclear powered spacecraft from a distant planet took Siberia as the landing site, but before landing, perhaps the parts were damaged, or for other reasons. The spacecraft failed to slow down when it broke into the atmosphere, so when it approached the earth, it burned like a meteorite due to the high heat generated by friction, The shell of the spacecraft was quickly melted down, and the nuclear materials stored and used in the spacecraft had a chain reaction, which triggered an atomic bomb type super explosion. The premise of this hypothesis has not obtained direct evidence, but today, when mankind has entered the aerospace era, some scientists still prefer it.

so far, many hypotheses have been put forward, such as natural gas field explosion theory, thermonuclear high-energy explosion theory in the earth’s interior, micro black hole theory and so on, but there is still no one that can be completely convincing.

the answer to the mystery

the thick ice layer in Antarctica records the history of the earth. At the same time, it also preserves the specimens of each period of the earth, such as volcanic eruptions, meteorological changes, meteorite falls and nuclear tests. Traces will be found in the ice layer in Antarctica.

in the 1990s, some scientists investigating in Antarctica provided some evidence to uncover the mystery of the gus big bang. They found some metal residues in the Antarctic ice. After measurement, these small particles with a diameter of only 1 mm may come from a small celestial body from the universe that exploded over Tungus. These scientists also measured that the small celestial body has a diameter of about 180 meters and a total mass of 7 million tons. The scientists also explained that these small metal particles floated over the south pole with the high air flow, fell and were buried in the ice. Although this statement seems very convincing, we can’t help thinking about why these small particles were not found at the site of the explosion?

Tunguska big bang site

at almost the same time, the scientific community of the former Soviet Union released a research report after six years of investigation by experts from the Kiev Institute of Geochemistry and exploration physics. They also believed that the explosion was caused by meteorites. These scientists put the peat collected from Tungus area into a special high-temperature furnace for heating. As a result, many strange irregular grains with very hard texture were found in the peat. After testing, it is proved that these black crystals are small diamond. They explained that these small diamonds can only be produced under extremely high pressure, and there is no sign of volcanic explosion in Tungus area. Therefore, these diamonds cannot come from underground, but only from outside. But since the meteorite fell, why can’t we find a crater in Tunguska? An American Geophysical chemist believes that the meteorite may be rocky, not iron. Rocky meteorites cannot withstand the high heat and impact generated when they rush into the atmosphere at high speed, so they explode into fireballs in mid air before reaching the ground. Although there is some evidence to support the statement of

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, it has not been recognized by the public. In 1998, American and Russian scientists organized a joint scientific investigation team to conduct in-depth investigation and Research on the Tunguska explosion again, but there is still no latest news. However, with the progress of human science and technology, I believe that one day people will uncover the mystery of this mystery.

Encyclopedia

After the Tunguska explosion, news of meteorite falling came from time to time all over the world:

at about 10 a.m. on February 12, 1947, in the sihote arlin mountain area north of Vladivostok, a fireball as large as a full moon burst in the sky, a huge plume of smoke rose from the ground, and a large meteorite fell into the mountain forest.

on the night of April 7, 1959, a meteorite fell from the sky and fell to the town of filibram in Czechoslovakia. The androfi Observatory, which was engaged in meteor observation at that time, photographed the falling route of the meteorite, calculated the falling speed and direction of the meteorite, and calculated that the orbit of the meteorite outside the earth’s atmosphere was the same as that of most asteroids, It is inferred that its parent is an asteroid.

on January 3, 1970, people saw a fireball brighter than the full moon in northern Oklahoma, central United States, falling towards the southeast. The four observation stations of the meteor monitoring network took pictures of the fireball and calculated the speed and falling location of the fireball into the earth’s atmosphere. On January 9, a meteorite was found in the east of Rost Siddy.