I have several modern histories written by Koreans, which describe this history as a process of liberation. From the standpoint of modern people, North Korea experienced a process of national subjugation in this history, but after 1895, North Koreans did not think it was a process of national subjugation.

this article is a written record of Ma Yong, a researcher of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences at the history channel dialogue. Interview and arrangement: Tang Zhicheng’s

guest profile: Ma Yong, currently a researcher of the Institute of modern history of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, professor and doctoral supervisor of the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of social sciences, He is mainly engaged in the study of Chinese academic history and Confucian classics, modern Chinese culture, modern Chinese history, Chinese modernization history, Chinese civilization history, etc. He has published monographs such as research on spring and autumn studies of the Han Dynasty, problems of modern Chinese culture, 1894-1915: dreams and confusion, 1911: the Chinese revolution and so on.

before the Sino Japanese War of 1894-1895, China and Japan failed to maintain the intersection of interests on the Korean Peninsula.

Phoenix history: Hello, Mr. Ma, this year is the 120th anniversary of the outbreak of the Sino Japanese War of 1895-1895. China’s failure in the war of 1895-1895 made the Qing Dynasty completely abandon its suzerainty over Korea. Before and after the Sino Japanese War, what was the attitude of the Kaihua party and the Dongxue party towards China?

Ma Yong: in history, North Korea was a vassal state of China. The history of this vassal state began very early. North Korea sought China’s protection in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. After modern times, Western forces came to the East. After learning from the west, China first chose a more conservative attitude in diplomacy and patriarchal vassal system, regardless of others and vassal states. So the suzerain vassal system gradually disintegrated, and Ryukyu began to break away from China in the 1870s. The vassal states will also accept the principles of Western capitalist market economy and the investment of external capital. It has a problem of modernization. If China cannot transform with its vassal states, it can only accept the impact of western capital goods.

in 1884, Vietnam left China’s suzerain vassal system. At this time, it was only 10 years before the outbreak of the Sino Japanese war. At this time, China began to notice that the vassal states ran away, which is not a good thing for China. Because in history, China’s vassal states will experience the process of changing from raw vassal to familiar vassal and slowly joining the mainland. The expansion of the frontier of Chinese civilization depends on this way of “turning foreigners into foreigners in summer”. Therefore, after Vietnam seceded from China in 1884, the Qing government really wanted to make efforts to solve such problems by increasing investment in North Korea to strengthen relations with North Korea.

in the 1880s, China and Japan had a “tug of war” around the future of North Korea. China hopes to hold North Korea, because North Korea is not only a foreign country of China, but also holds the door of Beijing. Its geographical environment is very important. However, as an island country, if Japan wants to open to the outside world, it must go to the mainland to have the opportunity for development. If Japan wants to rush out of the mainland, it must go two ways. One is to step on South China and then South Asia through this pedal; The other is to enter Liaodong Peninsula from the Korean Peninsula and then Siberia. If Japan wants to fully integrate the interests of spekds and spkds, it will produce an economic conflict with the West. The intersection of interests means that if China and Japan can work together to make North Korea rich and peaceful, it will be good for China, Japan and the Asia Pacific. However, before the outbreak of the Sino Japanese War, China and Japan failed to achieve this goal.

the Sino Japanese War of 1894-1895 was a contest between great powers. North Korea was unable to influence its own destiny.

Ma Yong: in 1880, 10 years before the Sino Japanese War, China and Japan did a lot of work in North Korea, which led to division within North Korea. China has a historical tradition of suzerain vassal relationship in North Korea. At that time, the pro China forces in North Korea were still very strong. After the signing of the Jianghua treaty in 1876, Japan and North Korea established trade relations. Article 1 of the Jianghua treaty stipulates that Japan and the DPRK are equal countries, not suzerain vassal relations. Through this trade and economic connection, a group yearning for Western civilization, called Kaihua party, slowly emerged in North Korea. The Kaihua party is close to Japan. They yearn for Japan’s modern civilization.

the eastern learning party is not too close to Japan. The East learning party uprising is a bit like China’s Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. It is also an anti Japanese uprising, a resistance to industrialization and opening up. Because the development of industrial civilization damaged the lives of farmers and workers at the bottom, the eastern learning party uprising took place in the spring of 1894. By the end of May and June, the North Korean government had asked China to send troops to help suppress the Dongxue party. As soon as the Chinese army went, Japan immediately sent troops in, because in the past ten years, Japan had a lot of people investing and doing business in North Korea. The




Eastern learning party was soon suppressed, but the Chinese and Japanese troops came to North Korea, and the North Korean government was afraid and asked both China and Japan to withdraw. China also hopes that China and Japan will withdraw their troops together, but Japan does not accept it. The Japanese envoy took the army to the Imperial Palace and forced the North Korean government to announce that it asked the Japanese army to help North Korea and expel the Chinese army. Therefore, the suzerain vassal relationship between China and North Korea basically ended after the Japanese Minister entered the palace on July 20, 1894. China completely failed in the Sino Japanese War of 1895. In the first article of the Treaty of Shimonoseki signed in May 1895, the Chinese government recognized the complete independence of North Korea. After North Korea’s independence, Japanese forces entered, while Chinese forces completely separated from North Korea.

Phoenix history: what did the pro Japanese Kaihua party do in the process of the Sino Japanese war?

Ma Yong: before the Sino Japanese War, Jin Yujun, the leader of the Kaihua party, was assassinated and died in Shanghai. During the Sino Japanese War of 1894-1895, the activities of political parties in North Korea no longer existed. The Sino Japanese War of 1894-1895 was a contest between China and Japan and among major powers. There is no way for the future of North Korea within North Korea