Nicolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) was born in Florence, a famous city in Italy.
However, in the era of his life, Italy as a national concept did not exist, and there were five large city states and many large and small feudal territories active on the Apennine peninsula.
Florence is one of the most powerful countries, with developed industry and Commerce and prosperous culture and art.
The Medici family established autocratic rule over the country.
In 1494, the Dominican monk Savonarola led the people’s uprising, overthrew the rule of the Medici family and established the Republic.
Machiavelli took part in the uprising and went to the political stage with his teacher, grammarian and the second Chief Justice of the Republic, adriani.
Machiavelli’s father Bernardo is a lawyer who is keen on the humanities, but his family is poor and has only a small piece of real estate.
He carefully educated his son, so that Machiavelli, who had not received much formal education, developed the ability to pay attention to reality and think independently, and was not contaminated with the prevailing study style of imitating classics and being broad but not refined at that time.
On June 19, 1498, Machiavelli was officially approved as the Second Secretary of state of the Republic of Florence by the “Committee of ten for freedom and security” in charge of military diplomacy.
Machiavelli soon gained trust for his quick thinking, clear narrative and insightful insight.
In July 1500, he was sent to France.
Florence was defeated in the war against the independence of Pisa, and an army sent by France was also defeated.
The commission entrusted Machiavelli with the task of explaining to the king of France that Florence was not the cause of the failure of the joint operation.
If possible, explain to the king that the “corruption and cowardice” of the French commander is the main reason.
During his six months in France, Machiavelli saw the strength of France and its contempt for Florence, and realized that Florence was in a precarious situation, and the key to getting out of the dilemma was its own strength.
He hurried back from France in December 1500.
On the eve of his mission, his father died, his sister died soon, family affairs “became chaotic”, and his position in the government was somewhat unstable.
He took care of his family and married Marit Corsini in the second half of 1501.
They live in harmony and have five children.
In 1501, Caesar bogia was made Duke of Rome by his father Pope VI.
Bogia launched a series of fierce military attacks on the surrounding areas and proposed an alliance with Florence after winning.
In October 1502, Machiavelli came to the court of bogia as a special envoy.
At this time, Machiavelli’s status improved.
Pietro sodrini, a famous politician in Florence, was elected as the lifelong flag bearer of justice, that is, the supreme head of the government.
Machiavelli was appreciated by him and became his right-hand man.
In the four months of his mission, he had a great interest in bogia and admired his superhuman courage and lofty ambition.
In his later book on monarchy, he systematically studied the experience and lessons of bogia’s success and failure, and believed that bogia was a typical example of an ideal monarch.
For example, the Duke once sent one of his generals to quell the rebellion in Rome.
The general did a good job, but his cruelty made it difficult to continue to govern Rome.
How did the Duke get out of trouble? He summoned the general.
Four days later, the general was mummified in the square.
The practice of “using every possible means and action” to achieve the goal has become the first proposition revealed by Machiavelli’s political science.
In October 1503, due to the succession of the Pope, Machiavelli sent to Rome to track and report the renewal of the Pope to the Florence government.
He saw that Pope Juli II allied with the Duke of bogia before being elected and was supported and nominated by the Duke.
After he was elected, he not only refused to fulfill his promise to give the Duke the title and army, but also arrested him and imprisoned him in the Holy See.
He couldn’t help admiring the Pope’s superb wrist.
In August and October 1506, he sent to the papal court twice to track the progress of Pope Juli II’s plan to recover the territory.
In addition to diplomatic activities, he also spent considerable energy on military issues.
The strength of feudal countries mainly depended on the army.
He summed up the experience of the prosperity of the ancient Roman Republic and believed that a national army should be established instead of relying on mercenaries, as was popular at that time.
He twice proposed to the government to establish an army, which was approved.
He compiled his ideas into a detailed plan and set up a special agency.
He served as secretary and was fully responsible for the formation of the new army.
In 1509, he personally led the new army to attack Pisa and won a complete victory.
In 1510, he was sent to France for the second time.
At this time, Juli II launched a military operation to expel French forces.
The next year, the Pope formed a sacred alliance with Spain and received Spanish military support.
The Spanish army entered Italy, drove away the French army and returned to Florence.
In August 1512, Florence surrendered, the Medici family was restored, and the Republic perished.
On November 7, Machiavelli’s position as secretary of state was dismissed.
Three days later, he was sentenced to a one-year ban on free activities in Florence and fined 1000 florins.
In February the following year, he was arrested and jailed for plotting a rebellion.
He was tortured.
When he was released from prison with a large fine, he had a lame leg.
In order to avoid persecution, his family moved back to the small manor in his hometown and lived on a meager land income.
Far from the hustle and bustle of politics, he calmed down, studied history and wrote books.
After I dress up neatly, I go into the ancient buildings of ancient characters, where my master welcomes me with all his love.
I eat delicious food there, which is my real nutrition, and I am born to enjoy this diet.
There, I ask them the motivation and reason for what they do, and they are kind and sincere Answer my question sincerely.
I forget all my worries, no longer feel worry, and I don’t feel fear even if I die.
I’m completely with the ancients.
” In 1513, he completed the most important work of his life, on the monarch.
In this book, he systematically analyzed the organizational form of the regime, the talent, means and morality of the monarch, as well as the nature and role of the army, and put forward the bourgeois state theory for the first time.
He argued that the monarch mustPut national interests first.
In order to achieve the political purpose, we should do whatever we can, that is, “the purpose always proves the correctness of the means”.
He dedicated the book to the Medici family in the hope of re exerting his political talents, but he was only disappointed.
He took part in the activities of a literati group called OTI, became an active member, and dedicated his historical work on the first ten books of Titus Levi to OTI’s sponsors.
OTI’s comments on political issues, Prompted him to write the art of war .
He studied the situation of the armies of Western European countries at that time.
Combined with his own military experience, he briefly expounded the advantages of the national army and the use of infantry.
He also wrote some plays, poems and biographies.
In 1520, Machiavelli repeatedly wrote to the Medici family and had some effect.
After being received by the Medici court, he was hired as a historian.
By 1525, he had completed eight volumes of the history of Florence.
He dedicated it to Pope Clement VII (Julio Medici).
From the collapse of the Western Roman Empire to the death of “luxury” Lorenzo Medici in 1492, this great work reviews and analyzes the process and causes of the rise and fall of the country.
He adhered to the basic tenet of humanists: writing history is not a pure compilation of historical events, but “study the time between heaven and man, through the changes of ancient and modern times” to serve the present world.
He still summarizes history with the political views expressed in the theory of monarchy, which is called “a masterpiece” by Marx’s classic writers.
In 1526, Pope Clement VII appointed him as the entourage of the Pope’s Military Secretary.
He accompanied the Military Secretary to climona, Bologna and other places.
In May 1527, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V led troops to loot Rome, and Clement VII was forced to flee.
The news came that there was another uprising in Florence, the Medici family went into exile and the Republic was re established.
Machiavelli returned in high spirits.
According to his political views, knowledge and talent should have been valued.
Unexpectedly, because of his relationship with the Medici family, people hated him and refused his request to enter politics.
The mockery of fate finally made him ill and died soon.
He can only hate it all his life.
His theory of monarchy for the rejuvenation and strength of the motherland has become the action guide of all monarchs.
In 1559, the Pope added it to the list of banned books.
Machiavelli became one of the most unfairly slandered figures in history, so that more than 460 years after his death, his name is still discussed as a symbol of cunning, duplicity and fraud in political affairs.
Machiavellism has become a commonly used political concept.
In fact, he just described the “norms people often follow in their behavior” plainly, and clarified and systematized the popular and unformed political philosophy of that era.
He completely got rid of the shackles of theology, had a great impact on the later development of history and military science, and laid the foundation for political science.
On his tombstone was simply written: “the name of this great man makes any other words superfluous.