Malthus (1766 ~ 1834) [biography] Malthus, British economist, priest and professor.
He was born in 1766 in a land aristocratic family in nockley hills, Salisbury, England.
His father Danielle Malthus was a learned upper class man with bourgeois radical thought.
Old Malthus, from an early age, specially hired tutors to educate Malthus in all aspects according to the habits of the British upper class.
In 1784, Malthus entered Cambridge University to study philosophy and theology.
After graduating from university in 1788, he continued his research work and received a doctorate from Cambridge University in 1791.
At that time, Britain was at the climax of the industrial revolution, and social life was undergoing great changes.
The industrial revolution brought about the explosive growth of the population, and the unfair distribution led to the increasing number of poor people.
Therefore, the population problem became a very important problem in British society at that time.
Malthus was acutely aware of this.
In 1798, he published his masterpiece the principle of population anonymously, and first put forward the view of controlling population, which caused a great sensation at that time.
In 1800, Malthus published the article “Research on the causes of current grain price rise”, which once again attracted the attention of the academic community.
British Prime Minister William Pitt Jr.
In 1804, Malthus accepted an offer of employment from the East India Institute in Heidelberg, England, specializing in history and political economics until his death.
His other representative work is the principles of political economy.
[influence] Malthus is not the eldest son, so according to British inheritance law, he cannot inherit and enjoy the inheritance of his noble family.
Old Malthus made another life route for him.
He wanted him to engage in education when he grew up, and at least ensure a stable and free job.
So when Malthus just turned two, he began to receive a comprehensive education under the guidance of a tutor.
In 1791, Malthus received a doctorate from Cambridge University, completed his studies and began his research work.
The era of Malthus is the era of British Industrial Revolution and the period of violent political and economic turmoil in British society.
The industrial revolution not only promoted the rapid growth of British social productivity, but also led to an explosive growth of population with the progress of science.
This rapidly changed the social class relations in Britain.
This change is prominently reflected in the changes of the proletariat and the bourgeoisie themselves.
The first is the complete deprivation of the majority of farmers by the agricultural revolution.
With the deepening of the enclosure movement, the majority of farmers have been driven out of their homes, either proletarians or tramps.
On the one hand, this has greatly increased the number of the proletariat, and at the same time, it has also led to the emergence of the so-called “surplus population” in society.
Secondly, with the popularization of machines, a large number of workers have lost their jobs, which also leads to “overpopulation”.
For the industrial bourgeoisie, they gradually replaced the commercial bourgeoisie and usury bourgeoisie and played a leading role in social and economic life.
At that time, because the proletariat was not yet very mature, it had not consciously launched a struggle against the bourgeoisie.
Therefore, the main social contradictions are concentrated on the industrial bourgeoisie and the old land aristocracy, such as the reform of Parliament, the preservation and abolition of the grain law and so on.
However, the population problem is one of their common concerns, because these “surplus population” seriously threatens the rule of the bourgeoisie.
While the British Industrial Revolution was advancing rapidly, the French Revolution broke out.
Under the influence of the French Revolution, a group of radical intellectuals also appeared in the British society.
They believe that unemployment and poverty are entirely caused by the social system.
They advocate the elimination of private property and openly launch an impact on the ruling class and the old production relations.
Their representatives include gerdevon and Condorcet.
The British ruling class was uneasy about this and tried every means to create the opposite theory to defend the capitalist system.
Malthus stood up at this time.
In 1798, Malthus anonymously published the pamphlet “on the population principle of influence for progress and comments on the theories of Godwin, Condorcet and other authors”, which is also the predecessor of the later book “population principle”.
In this book, Malthus starts from two abstract premises: “first, food is necessary for human survival.
Second, sexual desire between men and women is the law of necessity and almost maintains the status quo.
” He believes that there is a constant sexual desire between men and women, and the population is bound to increase, and the means of living necessary to maintain this growing population must also increase.
However, Malthus believes that if the current population is 1 billion, mankind will increase in the following proportions: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64128256.
The means of living increased by the ratio of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9.
Therefore, Malthus proposed that unemployment, poverty and crime are not rooted in the social system, but in human nature and the tendency of human infinite proliferation.
It is the infinite fertility of mankind that has caused a large number of overpopulation.
Therefore, the fundamental way to solve the problem is not to eliminate the capitalist system, but to control the population in a planned way.
Malthus also believes that when the population growth and the growth of means of living are unbalanced, the natural law of population must require the two to maintain a balance, which will inevitably produce a strong obstacle to prevent population growth.
This hindrance is poverty and crime, which is manifested in unemployment, disease, famine, plague, atrocities, war and so on.
Rely on these to increase mortality and maintain the balance of the whole society.
In the second edition of this book, Malthus put forward moral restraint and advocated that people should reduce the birth rate by means of late marriage, non marriage, celibacy or infertility, so as to maintain the balance between population growth and the growth of means of living.
The publication of the principle of population provided the bourgeoisie with a theoretical basis to refute the radicals, so it was appreciated by the British ruling class.
In 1800, Malthus published the article “Research on the causes of current grain price rise”, which was received by British Prime Minister William Pitt Jr.
This made Malthus famous.
In 1803, Malthus published the second edition of the supplemented and revised principle of population under his real name.
The next year, he was appointed by the British Haibao East India.