Margaret Thatcher, Prime Minister of Britain and leader of the conservative party.
Born in Grantham, England, on October 13, 1925, she was named Margaret Hill Da Roberts before marriage.
In 1943, he entered Somerville College of Oxford University to study chemistry.
At the beginning of his admission, he joined the conservative Association of Oxford University.
In 1946, he served as the chairman of the conservative Association of the University and attended the annual meeting of the conservative party that year.
He received a Bachelor of science and a master of Arts degree from Oxford University in 1947.
After graduation, he served as a researcher and lawyer for a chemical company.
Since 1949, he has failed twice as a conservative candidate in the parliamentary election campaign.
Married Dennis Thatcher in 1951.
In August 1953, he gave birth to twins, mark and Carol.
In the same year, he passed the lawyer’s exam and joined the Lincoln Bar Association.
Elected to the conservative House of Commons in 1959.
From 1961 to 1964, he served as the political undersecretary of the “Ministry of pensions and national insurance”.
From 1964 to 1970, he successively served as the spokesman for pension affairs, housing and land affairs, finance and economic affairs, power affairs and education affairs of the Conservative shadow cabinet.
From June 1970 to February 1974, he served as Minister of education and Science in the conservative heath cabinet.
In February 1975, he succeeded Heath as the leader of the conservative party.
In May 1979, the Conservative Party won the general election, and Margaret Thatcher became the first female prime minister in British history.
In the general elections held in 1983 and 1987, Margaret Thatcher was re elected and served as Prime Minister for 11 years, becoming the longest serving Prime Minister of Britain in the 20th century.
He resigned as prime minister in November 1990.
In 1992, he was made a lifelong aristocrat.
In May 1993, he became the 21st honorary Dean of William Mary College.
[Impact] after winning the 1979 general election, Margaret Thatcher launched a series of social and economic policies aimed at taking off the hat of “British disease” and making Britain a world power again.
In terms of economy, she opposed the Keynesian economic policy believed in by successive governments after the war, implemented the neoliberal economic policy dominated by monetarism, and internally took measures to tighten the money supply, reduce public expenditure and fiscal deficit, so as to control inflation.
Cut personal income tax.
Encourage enterprises to compete freely and accelerate the privatization of state-owned enterprises.
This series of measures aims to reduce state intervention in economic life and give full play to the role of the “invisible hand” of the “market”.
In terms of social policy, Thatcher opposed the “cradle to grave” welfare system and advocated reducing social welfare in order to improve the competitiveness of the British economy.
Replacing the goal of full employment with a training programme for the unemployed.
Reform trade unions, restrict and crack down on trade union power, and adopt a tough policy on workers’ strikes.
In terms of politics, contrary to economic liberalism, Thatcher abandoned the post-war “consensus politics”, vigorously strengthened the power of the central government, strengthened the legal system, and adopted a tough policy towards the mass movement, showing the political tendency of authoritarianism.
In terms of foreign policy, Mrs.
Thatcher aimed to restore the greatness of the British Empire, increase the military budget, strengthen defense, ensure an independent nuclear deterrent, and advocated strengthening cooperation with the countries of the European Economic Community.
Coordinate European and American relations and strengthen the Atlantic alliance.
Strengthening ties with Commonwealth countries.
Attach importance to developing economic cooperation with third world countries.
Carry out East West dialogue.
During his term of office, Britain fought the Falklands war with Argentina because of the ownership of the Malvinas Islands.
In 1982, when Mrs.
Thatcher announced the surrender of Argentina in the Malvinas Islands in the house of Commons, she said to the people in Downing Street, “Britain has restored her greatness today”.
It can be seen that becoming a world leader is Mrs.
Thatcher’s political ambition.
Margaret Thatcher advocated the development of economic cooperation and cultural and scientific exchanges with China.
She visited China for the first time in 1977 and again in September 1982 and agreed to hold negotiations with the Chinese government on the Hong Kong issue.
During his third visit to China in December 1984, he signed the Sino British Joint Declaration on the Hong Kong issue with the Chinese government, which brought the Hong Kong issue to a successful solution.
Throughout Margaret Thatcher’s 11 years in power, the most significant change in her economic reform is the privatization of state-owned enterprises.
Privatization is the most important economic strategy pursued by the Thatcher government.
In 1979, only the aviation and aerospace industry and shipbuilding industry made the guarantee of going abroad.
By the time of the 1983 general election, the number of enterprises ready for privatization was increasing, including BT, British Airways, some steel mills and public utilities such as coal, gas, water and electricity.
After large-scale privatization in the 1980s, by 1991, more than half of Britain’s public sector had been transformed into the private sector, the state-owned part of industry had been reduced by 60%, 650000 workers had been transferred from state-owned enterprises to private enterprises, and the output value of the state-owned economic sector had decreased from 9% to less than 5% of the country’s total output value.
With the more extensive equity reform carried out with privatization, about 14 people have shares.
Mrs Thatcher’s goal of trying to rebuild an economy dominated by free enterprise was partially achieved.
Another notable feature of Thatcher’s economic policy is the implementation of monetarist reform.
Instead of relying on increasing public expenditure to ensure full employment, successive governments after the war tried to establish a correct and sound monetary structure, implement low taxes and less regulation, and establish a flexible market to promote prosperity and increase employment.
The primary objective of Thatcher’s economic strategy during his term of office was to curb inflation.
During Margaret Thatcher’s tenure, inflation fell from 21.
9% in 1980 to 2.
4% in 1986 and rose to 10.
9% in October 1990.
The proportion of government public expenditure in GDP also showed a downward trend in the 1980s.
It can be said that Mrs Thatcher’s goal of curbing inflation and achieving a sound fiscal and low marginal tax rate has basically been achieved.
The goal of Thatcher’s political reform is to establish a small-scale, efficient and centralized central government.
During her term of office, Thatcher achieved the goal of reducing scale by reforming the executive branch and reducing the number of civil servants.
When Margaret Thatcher came to power in 1979, there were about 732000 civil servants in various departments of the British government.
By 1989, the number of British government officials was reduced to 587600.
Many government functions have been transferred to public institutions, the central functions have been reduced and the efficiency has been improved.
In terms of social welfare, Thatcher was extremely popular.