After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, some people in Russia have been trying to overturn the case. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev was very indignant about this. He said that during Stalin’s tenure as the leader of the Soviet Union, millions of Soviet citizens were persecuted to death and must not defend a man who slaughtered his own people.

this article was originally published in the 5th issue of “together in the same boat” in 2011. The original title was “Khrushchev’s’ uncovering ‘and’ thawing ‘,

and” uncovering “are Maoist words. On March 17, 1956, he said at the meeting of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee that it was good that Khrushchev’s secret report was uncovered, which showed that Stalin and the Soviet Union were not without mistakes. (Wu Lengxi’s ten years of debate – memoirs on Sino Soviet relations from 1956 to 1966, Central Literature Publishing House, 1999 edition) explore its origin. The word “thaw” comes from the novella “thaw” published by the Soviet writer ellenburger in 1954. The title of the book implies that the ice dissolves and spring comes to the world. The book triggered a “thawing literature” with the theme of exposing social darkness and emancipating social thought. “KDS” and “KDS” can be used as the metaphor of “KDS” and “KDS”.

“uncover”: criticizing Stalin’s

after Stalin’s death, Khrushchev, the first Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, took control of the Soviet regime after a fierce power competition. Although he still suffered internal strife and exclusion in the future, Khrushchev retained his power until he was forced to resign in October 1964.

the Soviet Union that Khrushchev took over is in a state of crisis. The Stalin Model (also known as the Soviet model), which is characterized by centralization and autocracy, seriously restricts the progress of Soviet society.

politically, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union advertised collective leadership and democratic centralism. However, due to the absence of substantive supervision and restriction, it led to individual dictatorship, cadre tenure and cadre appointment system, forming a huge bureaucratic privileged class. The so-called proletarian dictatorship of the Soviet Union far deviated from the world trend of constitutional democracy, but it was only the continuation of the imperial dictatorship. When Stalin died, millions of people were still locked up in the “Gulag islands” all over the country. Economically, single public ownership and planned economy have been legalized and solidified. In terms of ideology and culture, it implements monopoly and restraint, makes a big talk, and calls the words and deeds of pursuing democracy “groveling and flattering to the west”. In international relations, bound by the concept of the proletarian world revolution, the Soviet Union had tense relations with the developed countries known as capitalism. In December 2009, Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin said that the progress made by the Soviet Union during Stalin’s reign was bought at an unacceptable price of oppressing millions of people.

this is Stalin’s legacy, and this is the Soviet Union that Khrushchev faced with corruption, rigidity, external strength and internal weakness.

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removing obstacles, changing the current situation, saving the crisis and avoiding collapse have become the inevitable requirement of the social progress of the Soviet Union and Khrushchev’s historical mission.

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uncovering Stalin’s “cover” is not only the starting point of Khrushchev’s reform, but also the central content of his reform.

on the morning of February 25, 1956, Khrushchev made a report on personal superstition and its consequences at the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Since the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union did not invite foreign delegations to attend the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union at that time, the meeting was called a secret meeting, and Khrushchev’s report was called a secret report. The core content of the secret report

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is to expose Stalin’s rule. The report states that: “Stalin did not allow collective leadership and collective work at all. He not only imposed violence on those who opposed him, but also on those who were regarded by him as contrary to his ideas because of his willfulness and tyranny. Stalin did not cooperate with others through persuasion, explanation and patience, but imposed his ideas on others and asked others to accept his opinions unconditionally 。 Anyone who opposes his practice, or tries to express his views and prove his correctness, will inevitably be expelled from the leading organ, and then will be mentally tortured and physically destroyed. ”

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after decades of propaganda, the Soviet Communist Party made Stalin a “savior”. Khrushchev’s report caused an idol to collapse in an instant.

after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, some people in Russia have been trying to overturn Stalin’s case, including during Putin’s term of office, Stalin is usually portrayed by these people as an effective manager and leader, saying that he turned the Soviet Union into a superpower. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev was very indignant about this. According to the BBC report on November 2, 2009, Medvedev strongly condemned those who tried to tamper with history and rehabilitate Stalin in a rare high-profile video blog on the Kremlin website. He said that during Stalin’s leadership of the Soviet Union, millions of Soviet citizens were persecuted to death and must not defend a man who slaughtered his own people.

Khrushchev’s “Unveiling” of Stalin changed the political behavior of successive Soviet communist governments. From Khrushchev to Gorbachev, although the Soviet Union went through a long period of Brezhnev’s political retrogression, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union never committed the evil act of mass slaughter of different belief groups and opposition.

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and “uncover” also broke Stalin’s myth and objectively liberated people’s minds. It has not only become the starting point for people to re understand Stalin, but also triggered people’s thinking on many substantive issues such as social system and ideology, as well as the re evaluation of various values. All these promoted the process of social democratization in the Soviet Union and laid the first cornerstone for the future democratic reform and the end of autocracy.

Khrushchev also brought a strong shock to the “socialist family”. Previously, the Communist movement with the Soviet Union as the leading core “churned all over the world” and “five continent earthquake”。 The proposal of these new ideas marked a major change in the Soviet Union’s foreign policy. The “three peace line” has played a certain role in easing East West relations and promoting the end of the “cold war”.

although Khrushchev’s reform did not fundamentally break through the Stalin system on many issues, it liberated people’s minds and began to “thaw” the Stalin system that once “frozen earth”.

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also hesitated. The reform of

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is a major event without precedent, and Khrushchev also hesitated and hesitated. In his memoirs, he said: “ellenburger used the word ‘thaw’. He thought that there was a thaw in people’s lives after Stalin’s death. I don’t fully agree with that at that time.” He also said that at that time, while the Soviet leaders and himself were moving towards the “thaw”, they were worried that the “thaw” would cause flooding and the situation would be difficult to control. “Therefore, it seems that we have prevented the thaw”.

Khrushchev’s hesitation is manifested in many aspects. He carried out the model of “nation for all” to realize socialist democracy, and this practice under the condition of autocracy must strengthen the ideological control in various fields. He opposed Stalin’s personal centralization of power. For this reason, he strongly advocated the implementation of the tenure system and rotation system for the cadres of the Soviet Communist Party’s leading institutions, state power and social organizations; He opposed Stalin’s personal worship and took many preventive measures, but he did not see that the root of Stalin’s problem lay in the autocratic system, not in his personal quality and personality psychology. It is precisely because this root still exists that Khrushchev has served as chairman of the Council of Ministers since 1958, and arbitrary things have occurred from time to time; After the 21st CPC National Congress, especially at the 22nd CPC National Congress, personal worship revived.

although Khrushchev made many attempts to reform the economy, he did not pay attention to the value and role of the market economy and basically revolved within the original system. After the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, ideology, culture, art and science and technology recovered rapidly, but Khrushchev emphasized the “party spirit” of literature and art in his later period of power, severely criticized the works that “discredit the reality”, and strengthened the inspection system of books and newspapers. He advocated peaceful coexistence with countries with different systems and eased international tensions, but he still insisted on an arms race with the United States.

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hesitation and hesitation are inevitable and even inevitable phenomena in the process of exploration and creation. In his memoirs, Khrushchev also regretted his hesitation in those years, but the reform he led after all impacted the Stalin model, promoted the changes of the Soviet social system, and made the “socialist camp” take a big step towards the goals of science, democracy, rule of law and human rights.

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Hester’s hesitation reflects the ultimate problem: without fundamentally breaking the Stalin model, the so-called reform can only linger within the old system without a way out.