Section I young people grew up into senior general kiril afanasiyevych meletskov.
On June 7, 1897, they were born into a poor peasant family in nazaliyevo village, zalisk County, Ryazan Province, Russia.
At the age of 7, he helped his father plough and rake the fields.
At the age of 9, he did all the agricultural work in the fields like adults.
At the age of 15, he came to Moscow as a fitter and joined the Red Army in 1918.
In June 1918, the White army attacked the Soviet city of Murom in Vladimir province and occupied the city.
Meletskov led the red guards to take part in the battle to recover the city.
At the end of August, the red army launched the Kazan campaign to recapture Kazan occupied by the Czechoslovak army and the people’s army of the Constitutional Commission.
Meletskov was elected to the Vladimir detachment as political commissar and began his military career.
In September, the provincial authorities ordered him to study at the Military Academy of the general staff.
Meretzkov’s life experience prevented him from receiving a systematic secondary education.
However, for many years, he has been eager to have the opportunity to make up for this lesson.
Therefore, he cherishes this learning opportunity very much, studies eagerly in the college, and constantly enriches and improves himself.
In May 1919, meletskov was assigned to the 14th division of the ninth group army in the Don river area as assistant chief of staff.
The initial task was to collect intelligence in the headquarters and mark the battle map.
He believed that in the case of poor communication, this method was difficult to reflect the actual situation.
He asked himself to collect intelligence from various forces, which was approved and trusted by commander stepini.
In June, due to the withdrawal of friendly troops, the 14th division was forced to withdraw in order to avoid being surrounded by dunnikin’s army and Cossack cavalry.
After the retreat, meletskov and all the first-year students who survived the battle were transferred back to the military academy to study for the second year.
In the summer of 1920, meretzkov interrupted his study again and was sent to Kharkov, where the headquarters of the southwest front army was located.
He met commander yegorov and had a long conversation with Joseph, member of the Military Commission.
Then he was assigned to the fourth division of the cavalry group army under the command of shemiao bujoni as the reconnaissance assistant to the chief of staff.
Soon, he was sent to the sixth division led by Xie Miao konstantinovich timusingo as assistant chief of staff.
In addition to being responsible for reconnaissance, he also participated in combat work.
In August 1920, he participated in the Soviet Polish war.
Half a month later, because the combat task was transferred to the Western army, he returned to the military academy to study the third grade course.
In his memoir, meretzkov believed that this life in the cavalry group army had a great impact on him, “the summer of 1917 to the summer of 1920 can be the first stage for me to become a military commander”.
Meretzkov learned rich courses in the Military Academy of the General Staff Headquarters, including philosophy, political economics, history, military science and many other courses.
Military leaders often came to the academy to give lectures.
In October 1921, he passed the graduation examination of the college and was excellent in the topic of “the unity of thought and will in strategy and tactics”.
After graduation, meletskov was recommended to be the brigade commander of the independent training brigade in Petrograd, but Tukhachevsky, the commander of the western front, asked Sergei gaminev to transfer him, who was born as a cavalry, to the Western military region to form the headquarters of the Belarusian cavalry army.
Then he spent nine months rectifying the very bad Tomsk cavalry division.
At the end of 1923, meletskov was sent to the Caucasus military region as the chief of staff of the ninth division of the Don River infantry.
He actively complied with the requirements of the military reform aimed at regularization and institutionalization at that time, and did a lot of work in supplementing soldiers, training recruits and strengthening equipment.
In July 1924, he was appointed Minister of the mobilization Department of the Moscow military region.
After taking office, he and organization minister gorbatov put forward a plan to reduce staff and increase efficiency, which was supported by Mikhail vorongzhi, chairman of the Revolutionary Military Commission, and Voroshilov, commander of the military region.
In September, he also served as deputy chief of staff of the military region.
Under the leadership of vorongzhi and Voroshilov, he participated in the reform of the regularization of the local militia system and logistics system, and tested the effect of local mobilization.
During this period, he was often entrusted by the military academy to introduce the local work experience to the students, and discussed the cooperation between the regular army and local military forces with President Pavel Pavlovic Lebedev.
In the autumn of 1925, Voroshilov took over the dead vorongzhi as chairman of the Revolutionary Military Commission, and Bazilevic acted as commander of the Moscow military region.
In the following three years, meletskov cooperated with him and successfully completed the military reform of the military region.
Bazilevic’s words and deeds helped him a lot.
In November 1928, the new commander of the Moscow military region, iyeronim Petrovich ubolevich, took office.
He served as the commander of several military regions and studied at the higher military academy of the German general staff from 1927 to 1928.
Ubolevic stressed the importance of class education, training and new equipment and organized many military exercises.
Ubolevic’s comments on the exercise, the improvement of peacetime training and command level of tank soldiers, the establishment of tank training base and the need to strengthen air defense deeply affected meletskov.
Meletzkov believed that ubolevic had influenced his life.
He wrote in his memoir: “before that, no military leader could teach me so much as he did.
” In 1930, meretzkov was appointed division commander and political commissar of the 14th infantry division.
Soon, he was incorporated into the Red Army commander group and went to the German staff headquarters for investigation and exchange according to the Soviet German friendly neutrality treaty signed by the Soviet Union and the Weimar Republic.
He was impressed by the proficiency and good organization of the German staff, but he also believed that this was too rigid and would limit the initiative of the staff.
After returning home, meletskov was transferred to the Belarusian military region bordering Germany as chief of staff and worked again under the command of ubolevic.
In addition to emphasizing the intensity of training, meletskov also found that the traffic condition of the Belarus military region was poor.
In case of emergencies, troops in different regions would not be able to contact.
Therefore, he did a lot of work in building roads for military mobilization and improving the whole traffic line, but only part of it was completed due to insufficient financial allocation.
In 1934, meletskov organized a large-scale joint exercise in the Belarusian military region.
The following year, meletskov and the ministers of operations matvi zaharov and rodion yaThe detailed rules for in-depth combat prepared in cooperation with kovlevych Malinowski began to be used in the army.
In early October 1936, the Spanish Franco army began to besiege Madrid.
The Soviet Union sent a military advisory group headed by Berzin.
Meletskov and Malinowski, tank expert Dmitry Pavlov and artillery expert Nikolay Voronov were sent to Spain as military advisers.
After meretzkov came to Spain, he first surveyed the terrain of Madrid City, and then went to the infantry to encourage the soldiers who were depressed due to withdrawal and help step by step change the army of the Republic of Spain with weak organization and discipline into a regular army.
He also persuaded Spanish Prime Minister Francisco Caballero to leave Madrid and go to Valencia to organize resistance.
In November 1936, Franco’s army began to attack Madrid from the front.
On the one hand, meletskov assisted in organizing defense and on the other hand, he was responsible for establishing an international column in alvaset.
With the international column and the Soviet tank group into the battlefield, the attack of Franco’s army was repulsed.
In 1937, Franco decided to take the Italian expeditionary force as the main force and attack along the hamara River from the southeast of Madrid, hoping to cut off the connection between Madrid and the seaport city.
At this time, Grigori Ivanovic Kulik, the military adviser to the chairman of the Madrid Defense Commission, was transferred back to his country, and meletskov took over his post to specifically organize Madrid’s defense.
In February 1937, meretskov commanded the battle of the hamara river.
In this battle, meletskov consumed the rebel forces through effective defense, and then repulsed the rebel attack through counterattack.
In March, he commanded the battle of Guadalajara, annihilated more than 6000 rebels and won a decisive victory over the Italian expeditionary force.
After returning home, meletskov received a red flag medal and a medal.
In the summer of 1940, meletskov was appointed Deputy National Defense people’s Committee.
The national defense people’s Committee is the Soviet field marshal Timoshenko.
At that time, the international situation was deteriorating.
Fascist Germany expanded its aggression, Belgium and the Netherlands were trampled by the occupying forces, and northern France was also occupied by the German army.
In order to resist the possible attack from Germany, the people’s Defense Commission of the Soviet Union decided to hold military exercises in the Belarusian military region.
During the exercise, artillery and tanks carried out live fire, while infantry carried out offensive and defensive training.
The training of each infantry regiment is considered to be satisfactory, and the training level of artillery, the coordination ability of synchronous troops and the training level of air force have reached the standard.
In the spring of 1941, meretskov participated in several exercises of the Leningrad Military Region with general Popov as commander.
During the exercise, the commander could correctly complete the accepted tasks, and the troops were well-trained and orderly in attack and defense.
He felt very satisfied.
After that, meletskov went to Kiev special military region to check the training.
At the end of May, Colonel bagramijan, director of the operation Department of the military command, reported a disturbing situation to meretskov: countless German troops were concentrated near the Soviet border.
Bagramijan also reported specific figures on the increasing German build-up.
Before reporting to Moscow, meretzkov decided to check the whole situation again.
He went to Lvov and went to the group armies of the military region.
The commanders of the group armies mentioned the same situation.
Meretzkov also personally observed in the frontier post for a long time and witnessed the extraordinary activity of German officers.
Meletskov went to Kiev and Odessa again, where he met major general zaharov, chief of staff of the military region.
Meretzkov listened to his detailed report and learned that there was also a disturbing picture on the border here.
After that, meletskov went to the security line of Romania with him.
Meretzkov observed that the other side also had a group of soldiers observing them.
It was later learned that these soldiers were German officers.
Meretzkov felt at this time that war was imminent.
He hurried to Moscow and then came to Stalin with Timoshenko to tell him what he saw and his concerns.
Stalin and Timoshenko paid great attention to this report.
After hearing the report, he ordered meletskov to check the air force’s war preparations.
After accepting the mission, meletskov immediately flew to the western special military region.