On June 25, 1900, Louis Mont was born into a royal family in Windsor, England.
He was the son of Prince Louis of badenburg and Princess Victoria.
In September 1913, Mountbatten studied at the Royal Naval School in Osborne.
At the end of 1914, the senior students of the Royal Naval Academy at Dartmouth graduated early to participate in the war, and montbarton and his sea school classmates transferred to the Academy.
In July 1916, marine officer alternate monbarton was ordered to report to Admiral Betty’s flagship, the lion.
The lion was the first-class warship in the Royal Navy at that time.
Perhaps because of its royal background or the Navy’s respect for Prince Louis, it contributed to this very favorable distribution to montbarton.
In 1918, Mountbatten was transferred to K-6 submarine.
Soon after, Mountbatten was promoted to lieutenant and ordered to command the Royal Navy ship P-31.
In 1919, Mountbatten left his beloved ship and was ordered to attend university courses at Chester college, Cambridge University.
In March 1920, Mountbatten was promoted to captain of the Navy.
In 1925, he entered the Royal Naval Academy in Greenwich for further study.
After graduation, he served as a communication officer of the Mediterranean fleet.
In 1931, Mountbatten was appointed radio liaison officer of the Mediterranean fleet.
He was promoted to lieutenant colonel of the navy in 1932.
In 1934, Mountbatten became the captain of the newly built destroyer brave.
Bravery was designed to run at 36 knots, but he managed to get it to 38.
Soon, the brave sailed to Singapore with the whole expulsion fleet, and montbarton was transferred to captain of the westhart.
In the meantime, Mountbatten completed an invention – an instrument that could keep the fleet in formation.
In 1936, Mountbatten left the westhart and went to the Admiralty.
In 1937, Mountbatten was promoted to captain of the Navy.
In early 1939, he was appointed captain of the destroyer Kelly.
On August 23, 1939, Mountbatten officially received the Kelly as captain and personally raised the Royal Navy flag.
Montbarton had long determined that the European war would break out again. 9. In October, the Kelly had a brutal battle with German submarines.
It hit nine German submarines, one of which was determined to sink, and the damage of several others was unknown.
In late November, the Kelly was ordered to go to sea to search for a German U-shaped submarine.
Montbarton suggested that the port might have been mined by the Germans, but his opinion was ignored.
When the Kelly was sailing at full speed towards a burning oil tanker, a mine hit the propeller and exploded.
During the maintenance of the Kelly, monbarton took his staff to the Calvin of the fifth expulsion fleet to continue fighting until the Kelly was repaired in February 1940.
In May 1940, the “Kelly” was ordered to set sail with the “Birmingham” cruiser to search for German minelaying boats and some e-boats (torpedo speedboats) in the North Sea waters near the coast.
On the way, new destroyers such as the “kendahua” joined the search formation.
On the night of May 14, the “Kelly” was torpedoed by Germany.
After the start of the British war, although the Kelly was under repair and did not experience this dark moment in Britain, montbarton fought the most criticized sea battle in his life shortly thereafter.
In September, Mountbatten was temporarily ordered to command three destroyers such as the Javelin of the fifth destroyer fleet.
At this time, the fifth destroyer fleet was stationed in Portsmouth, at the forefront of the British defense line.
At 5:40 on November 29, five German warships appeared on the radar screen of the “javelin” destroyer.
Montbarton immediately led three warships such as the “javelin” to sea to meet the enemy.
At a distance of about 900 meters from the German warship, the “javelin” fired side-by-side gunfire and missed.
Immediately after that, Mountbatten corrected the position himself and organized another salvo of artillery fire to hit the German flagship.
But just before montbarton ordered the torpedo to be launched, two German torpedoes hit the “javelin” one after another, making it lose its combat effectiveness.
Then the German ship released smoke and withdrew from the battle.
After the battle, Mountbatten received various accusations, but this setback did not affect his achievements.
On New Year’s day in 1941, Mountbatten was awarded the medal of excellent service.
In addition to the Victoria Cross, this is the highest reward for the bravery of soldiers.
On December 15, 1940, the Kelly returned to the fifth expulsion fleet.
In April 1941, the fifth expulsion fleet of the Kelly left Portsmouth for the Mediterranean.
The port where “Kelly” is stationed is only more than 150 kilometers away from the German Air Force airport on the Sicily peninsula.
In early May, the “Kelly” was ordered to attack German ships stationed in benwaz port.
Under the cover of darkness, the “Kelly” quietly sailed to the exit of the breakwater in the port.
Because the position of the naval gun had been set in advance, several sudden volleys sank most of the German ships in the port, and then withdrew quickly before the German Coast Guard responded.
On May 20, 1941, the German army launched a coordinated sea and air attack on Crete.
On the evening of the 21st, Mountbatten led the “Kelly” to sail with the fifth expulsion fleet.
On the morning of the 23rd, “Kelly” was bombed by a large number of German planes and hit and sank.
In October, Mountbatten was promoted to brigadier general and was responsible for commanding the British amphibious joint force.
At this time, montbarton was just in his early 40s and his military rank was not high.
He was suddenly promoted to Whitehall, which was unacceptable to the authorities in Whitehall.
This also made Mountbatten suffer a lot.
In March 1942, Mountbatten was awarded the ranks of lieutenant general of the Navy, Lieutenant General of the army and lieutenant general of the air force, becoming the first general in the history of the British army to obtain three service ranks at the same time.
In August, Mountbatten commanded the joint combat forces to launch an attack on Dieppe at the northern end of France, which is close to the lamanche Strait.
From the result, there is no doubt that this is a failed military operation.
Among the more than 6000 people who participated in the DIEP operation, more than 3600 people were killed, injured and missing, accounting for about 60%, while the pre operation estimate was 10% ~ 20%.
To make matters worse, nearly 5000 Canadian officers and soldiers participated in the war, while more than 3300 casualties and missing persons.
For this failure, Mountbatten did not publicly accuse anyone at that time and later, nor did he evade his responsibility.
In the second section, the promoted general launched the battle of inpar.
On November 8, 1942, more than two months after the battle of DIEP, the “Torch”The action began.
Operation torch requires British and American troops to land in Algiers and Morocco at the same time.
Mountbatten was a key person in developing the operation plan because he was considered to be the chief expert on landing operations.
Operation torch was a great success.
A few days later, British and American troops took control of some strategic areas in Algeria and Morocco.
The battle of Sicily began on July 9, 1943.
The Allied forces assembled on the East and west sides of Malta island.
The beach line was soon broken and destroyed, and the Italian forces defending the coast disintegrated almost without firing a shot.
On the 11th, Mountbatten set foot on Sicily with the follow-up troops.
From August 14, 1943, British and American leaders held talks in Quebec, Canada.
After a heated debate, the talks adopted a strategic plan codenamed “overlord”, which stipulated that the allies would land in Normandy on May 1 the following year.
In addition, an auxiliary battle, code named “anvil”, was planned to land near Toulon and Marseille in southern France.
On August 31, Mountbatten became the supreme commander of the Allied Southeast Asian theater and was promoted to wartime admiral.
As the commander-in-chief of the Southeast Asian theater, Mountbatten naturally wanted to make contributions here, but he bound his hands and feet from the perspective of “Europe first”.
He felt alienated from the prime minister and gradually lost Churchill’s wholehearted support.
At the end of 1943, Whitehall telegraphed montbarton that three of the five large tank landing ships moored in India were not allowed to be used by him.
On January 7, 1944, the Committee of Chiefs of staff called and ordered him to cancel all amphibious attacks in the Southeast Asian theater and transfer all landing equipment to Europe.
Later, Mountbatten even received instructions to transport most of the shells above 25 pounds to the European theater.
In order to carry out offensive operations in the southwest coastal areas of Myanmar, the Japanese army stationed in Myanmar specially established the 28th army in January 1944.
The commander of the army is the third Sakurai Province, which governs the second, 54th and 55th divisions.
Of the three divisions, the second division was heavily damaged by the U.S. military in Guadao and later rebuilt in the Philippines.
The 54th division was the so-called “Ad Hoc Division” newly established in Japan last year.
Only the 55th division is an old army.
The 15th British Army on the Rakhine front in Myanmar consists of three divisions: the 5th British division, the 7th British Indian division and the 81st West Asian Division.
The commander is lieutenant general Christensen.
In order to strengthen the command of the army, Mountbatten transferred several division commanders, including major general Frank mesevi, the hero of the battle between British and Italian troops in dologoro fortress, Ethiopia, with the consent of London, to be the division commander of the seventh British Indian division.
On March 8, nearly 100000 fascist officers and soldiers from the three divisions and auxiliary forces of the 15th army of the Japanese army began to cross the qindun River into India, opening the curtain of the battle of inpar.
In the battle serial number of the Japanese base camp, the battle of inpar was named “Ukrainian” battle.
When the vanguard troops of moutiankou crossed the qindun River to call impal on March 8, Mountbatten was hospitalized in the hospital due to serious internal bleeding in his left eye due to an accident.
But the news from enpal made him anxious.
Despite the doctor’s dissuasion, he resolutely left the hospital and flew to slim headquarters in Camilla.
After listening to the report from the commander of the group army slim, Mountbatten withdrew the troops defending along the border west of the qindun River to the highland near inpar to organize defense.
According to the war history expert of Japan’s defense agency after the war, “this policy is right at the heart of the Japanese army, and lieutenant general Mou Tiankou just doesn’t see this.
” In addition to a series of battles around inpar, the battle of inpar usually includes fierce battles between Britain and Japan in kosima and ukolur areas north of inpar.
On March 8, Yoshida Sato led the 31st division to cross the qindun river one after another by raft and boat.
After the rest of Tangdu and Homalin, they divided into three columns to advance towards kosima, attack ukorur and seize the main traffic road to kosima.
Slim reported the critical situation to montbarton, who immediately dispatched troops from the fifth and seventh British Indian divisions to reinforce them and ordered the third special assault brigade directly under the central government to prepare for battle.
In addition, the “chindi” 23rd long-range breakthrough brigade stationed in India was ordered to cover Lido, and the British Second Division rushed from the mainland of India.
After fierce fighting, on May 13, the remaining Japanese positions on jair mountain were also occupied by British and Indian soldiers.
Japanese Yukio Sato led his troops to retreat to the supply area.
After receiving the report that the Japanese army on the kosima front showed signs of retreat, montbarton ordered the second British division and the seventh British Indian division to concentrate on Mayo one after another, and then captured ukorur.
On June 22, the two teams, like the two teeth of steel tongs, clamped the Japanese army at the 109 milestone of kosima highway.
After the interception of ukorur, the commander of the front army stationed in Myanmar, Masako riverside, submitted a report requesting to stop the operation of ukoru to the general headquarters of the Japanese southern army and the Tokyo base camp, which had been moved to Manila at this time.
Shouyi Terauchi, the General Commander of the southern army, received the report from Masako riverside and immediately contacted Tokyo.
After several consultations, the base camp agreed to their request.
At midnight on July 2, Shouyi Temple issued an order to stop the “Ukrainian” operation, which was conveyed by the front army stationed in Myanmar to the 15th army.
Allied intelligence personnel immediately reported to the theater headquarters after learning of the full line withdrawal order issued by the Japanese southern army headquarters, and monbarton immediately instructed seven divisions of the 14th group army in slim to start a full-scale pursuit operation.
Although the 15th army crossed the qindun River, it suffered heavy losses.
After the disastrous defeat of the Japanese army in the battle of Imphal, the head of the Japanese army in Myanmar was very clear that with Japan’s defeat in the battles of Saipan, Guam and Tinian in the Pacific battlefield, “The strategic position of Burma has lost the positive significance of the political strategic guidance to the base camp.
It is only a barrier against the west of Thailand, Malay and Indochina peninsula.
However, the value of defending Burma has not been lost, because it occupies the position of the British India army that can resist the allied forces’ attempt to attack the head of the Malay Peninsula and Singapore in the bay of Bengal.
”Thus, the newly appointed commander of the Japanese front army in Myanmar, taketaro Kimura, according to the southAccording to the instructions of the general command of the PLA, the operational concept of guarding Myanmar was drawn up at the end of September 1944: to carry out “plate operation” and “end operation” against the British and Indian forces in monbaton.
The battle against the British and Indian troops attacking the lower front of the Irrawaddy River near Mandalay and south of Mandalay is called “plate battle”.
The battle against the British and Indian forces attacking the coast of the Indian Ocean is called “end battle”.
In late October, Japanese intelligence agencies had detected that the Allied forces had established a strategy of attacking Myanmar by land.
Therefore, Kimura immediately summoned the chiefs of staff and operation directors of the 15th army, the 28th army and the 33rd army to Yangon to study the future operation concept of the front army, especially the guiding essentials of “plate operation”.
At the same time, Mountbatten decided that the British and Indian forces would first forcibly cross the qindun River and build a bridgehead there, and then attack Yangon southward.
On November 10, the 33rd army under the command of general Stopford completed the attack deployment on the West Bank of qindun.
An assault battalion of the Assam regiment launched an assault on the other side of the river and successfully boarded the east bank.
Then, the main force of the 20th division of the army also crossed the qindun river one after another and occupied Moray.
At the same time, the 11th East African division, supported by the accurate air raid of the Royal Air Force, fought towards gariva along the dark Jiabao Valley on the West Bank of qindun.
On December 10, Indian engineers quickly built a bridge on the qindun River, enabling the main divisions of the 14th group army to cross the other bank.
The Fourth Army of mesavi, including the seventh, nineteenth and seventeenth British Indian divisions.
Later, the fifth British Indian division directly under the central government of the group army was also under the command of mesevi.
Montbarton’s order to mesawi was to cross the qindun River and enter the ripo plain, fight a decisive battle with the division of the 15th army stationed there, and seize the important airports of the Japanese in the yeu ripo area.
This war should be fought fast and hard.
After crossing the qindun River, the mesavi troops were ordered to attack eastward.
Four days later, they occupied Banmao in the northwest of yingduo and joined the 36th British division from the north to the south to approach the ripo plain.
But taketaro Kimura did not want to fight a decisive battle on this wide plain.
Montbarton and slim worked out a new plan: the 33rd army in Stopford exerted pressure on Mandalay from the north to occupy the ferry on the Irrawaddy River.
The three divisions of mesavi should advance due south from Jiling temple, insert the Misha River Basin as quietly as possible, and then advance southeast from Gangao to occupy a ferry in the lower reaches of the Irrawaddy River near Bengue.
The purpose is to cross the rear of the Japanese guard Mandalay forces and establish a strategic barrier near mintiera, so as to block their retreat to Yangon in the South and cut off supplies from Yangon.
Finally, the 15th Japanese army was annihilated in Mandalay taze shaobu Minjian area.
The new plan began to be implemented.
During the deep flank encirclement operation, mesevi’s forces secretly crossed the jungle covered Gangao Valley and unexpectedly forced the Irrawaddy River in pakoku.
Then, using armored forces and airborne forces to advance like lightning, they approached the important Japanese base of mintiela in the southeast.
The command vehicles of many senior allied officers are still going in and out of the fake military headquarters, and the Japanese spies still think mesevi and his military headquarters are staying in Damu.
Ready, ready for action.
But just then, 75 American transport planes were suddenly transferred to Yunnan because the Chinese army was facing a rampant Japanese attack in Guangxi.
Mountbatten protested to the United States, saying that these planes were full of supplies for the advance forces, and the long-distance interpenetration of mesawi to mintiera was based on air supply.
But the protest didn’t work, and most of the planes were transferred.
As a result, mesevi had to venture 700 kilometers from Damu to pakoku along a bumpy dirt road that was impassable in the rainy season.
This dirt road was originally used by ordinary people’s cattle carts, but now there are as many as three divisions to pass through, as well as heavy tanks, artillery and other vehicles.
Fortunately, within 15 days, the engineering force urgently widened and reinforced two-thirds of the dirt road, allowing heavy equipment to pass reluctantly.
However, due to the sudden transfer of American transport aircraft, it was not until around the end of January 1945 that mesevi’s troops successively arrived at the Bank of the Irrawaddy River.
This river is the main river in Myanmar.
Although the river was at the lowest water level at that time, the open and soft sandbars formed another danger barrier.
Although the terrain was very unfavorable, mesevi still pretended to cross the river in seppiao and succeeded in sneaking across the river.
On March 1, 1945, montbarton was very angry when he learned that mintiera had not been won, so he asked slim to fly to the front line in person.
After slim arrived at the scene, he concentrated his forces on the north of the city to launch an offensive and finally occupied mintiera.
The next step is to capture Mandalay.
In fact, just when Kimura’s tairo transferred troops to fight against mintiera, Mountbatten has put all the forces that can be called into the periphery of Mandalay, waiting for the opportunity to take Mandalay.
On March 20, the British army completely occupied Mandalay.
The next goal is to capture Yangon city.
Although montbaton has opened the door of Yangon, the rainy season is coming, and Yangon must be conquered quickly.
Messivi’s fourth army lost to the rainy season in the race against time.
So on May 1, Mountbatten ordered the implementation of the amphibious landing plan in Yangon.
In fact, before that, Mountbatten had considered the possibility that mesavi’s troops would be blocked by the rainy season.
Therefore, he pulled out a division from the 15th army stationed in Chittagong to Christensen in the area of Rakhine to carry out amphibious landing.
This division will be equipped with a medium-sized tank regiment and an umbrella Battalion, and urgently searched for some landing boats to assemble and stand by.
On May 1, a few hours before the British army launched the amphibious landing, Mountbatten ordered the air force to fly over Yangon for reconnaissance and found that the Japanese army had fled.
However, the landing plan continued.
On the 2nd, the paratrooper battalion carrying out the landing mission and the amphibious force joined together.
Enter Yangon city without any resistance.
On the morning of May 6, the vanguard of the Fourth Army of mesavi, who went south from Bogu, finally entered Yangon.
Section III after Japan surrendered and was granted the title of “count of Myanmar”, the next major step after seizing Myanmar was to attack the Malay Peninsula and Singapore.
To this end, montbarton, who is keen on making plans, launched a new product called “zipper”Operational plan of the operation.
Operation zipper will be the pinnacle of Mountbatten’s career as supreme commander.
With regard to this operation, Mountbatten initially envisaged occupying an island called Phuket on the west coast of the Gulf of Siam before attacking the Malay Peninsula.
Americans are in favor of this limited military operation, but they still have doubts about whether the large number of troops required by operation zipper can be deployed properly.
However, after repeated weighing, Mountbatten decided that it was best to attack the main target directly.
He told foreign minister Eden that he would occupy Singapore before the end of 1945: “on the condition that the light fleets and aircraft previously provided to us can reach the Pacific Ocean.
I am very optimistic about this.
” He had planned to implement the plan in July, but he was forced to put the plan on the shelf because of the lack of ships, aircraft and troops allocated to him.
In mid July 1945, Mountbatten was transferred by Churchill to Berlin to attend the Potsdam Conference.
Potsdam Conference mainly studies the war against Japan, so montbarton needs to represent the Southeast Asia theater headquarters to attend.
During the meeting, General Marshall called Mountbatten aside and told him in the most secret way that the United States had successfully developed an atomic bomb and was ready to use it in early August.
This means that the war will end soon.
Churchill revealed the same news that night.
Montbarton later said, “he suggested that I take all necessary steps as soon as possible to prepare for surrender.
I immediately telegraphed Browning to take all necessary actions.
Of course, I didn’t tell him why.
” If the “zipper” plan goes on, it seems that it will not encounter any effective resistance.
On August 7, Mountbatten returned to the theater command by large bomber.
On August 15, Japan announced its unconditional surrender.
At the same time, he received an order from the Joint Chiefs of staff of the United States and Britain to take over the entire southwest Pacific region south of the Philippines in order to enable the US troops to get out of these regions and occupy Japan.
The next day, the British Committee of Chiefs of staff gave him a new task: reoccupy the key areas in the recovered areas, ensure the effective control of the surrendered Japanese army and disarm the Japanese army.
Efforts were made to release British and Allied prisoners and other Japanese prisoners as soon as possible.
Montbarton took immediate action.
He ordered the immediate implementation of the “zipper” plan to march to Malaysia and Singapore with any possible troops.
At the same time, he instructed lieutenant general walker to lead a mixed fleet composed of various warships, including minesweepers, and immediately go to sea in the storm of the rainy season.
Order other troops to dispatch immediately to Hong Kong, Saigon and other places to receive the Japanese command.
However, a few days later, MacArthur gave montbarton a blow in the head.
At this time, the supreme commander of the Allied forces in Asher was ordered not to surrender to Asher on August 31.
Later, due to the typhoon hitting the Japanese islands and other reasons, the surrender ceremony was postponed to September 2 on the battleship “Missouri” of the United States.
Nevertheless, on September 9, Mountbatten still ordered the British troops to land in moribu near podshen and Port Klang, Malaysia.
As montbarton expected, although the emperor of Japan had already announced his surrender, the Japanese army here resisted.
Although the Japanese resistance was soon resolved, the British army suffered some setbacks and many soldiers were killed and injured.
Besides, there are other things bothering Mountbatten.
The issue of prisoners of war is an urgent and worrying issue.
Japanese prisoners of war are very grumpy.
Mountbatten once visited a prisoner of war camp in India.
He was shocked by the insolence and disobedience of Japanese prisoners of War: whenever I think of the scenes that the Japanese abused prisoners of war and often tortured them, I can’t help feeling that when the Japanese became prisoners of war and were under our control, they still seemed to be stronger than us.
However, the situation of allied captured personnel is even more worrying.
Allied prisoners of war are suffering from malnutrition, and the Japanese are likely to kill them.
According to the official regulations, no measures can be taken before September 2, but in fact, rescue materials have already been airlifted to each prisoner of war camp.
“I’ve studied our captives and there’s nothing we can do here,” montbarton told Ismay He suggested sending his wife Edwina here.
Edwina did help a lot.
In March and April, she had toured more than 50000 kilometers in this area.
She put all her strength into work.
Unfortunately, two assistants died in the hospital.
She often went deep into the front positions of the allies.
Although she sometimes encountered surrendered Japanese troops, local nationalists and all kinds of bandits, she was not afraid.
Edwina came here again on August 23.
Hours after the victory was announced, Edwina and Mountbatten visited the notorious Changi prison in Singapore.
The prisoners of war who were waiting for the Allied invasion in the prison were obviously impatient.
They called montbarton “Louis of procrastination”.
A prisoner of war named Russell Braden later recalled, “montbarton was dressed in white.
No one had ever been as eye-catching, charming and handsome as him.
” “I’m sorry I didn’t get here faster.
I know what you call me.
Now, I’ll tell you why I delayed so long,” montbarton said Then he introduced them concisely and convincingly why they could not win faster.
“It was a wonderful moment,” Braden recalled.
During this period, Mountbatten and MacArthur had some differences of opinion on surrender.
He wrote: if we are soft on the Japanese, we will make the most serious mistake.
I fear that if we fail to humiliate the Japanese with total defeat, that is, to beat them back to their hometown, the Japanese leaders will take advantage of the fact that you did not give them a crushing blow to instill in their people the idea that Japan was defeated by science, not on the battlefield.
Generally speaking, I’m not a vindictive person.
However, I always feel that if we are not tough with Japanese leaders, they will eventually start another war.
A letter to a personal friend.