After the failure of the Korean War, the US military finally pulled its legs out of the “quagmire” of the Vietnam War.
At this time, the US DPRK relations and US Vietnam relations fell to the freezing point.
As a firm supporter of North Korea and Vietnam against foreign aggression, China’s relations with the United States have always been hostile.
The signing of the Korean Armistice Agreement did not turn fighting into friendship.
In 1954, the International Conference on the peace issue between North Korea and Indochina will be held in Geneva.
Because China has played a role in solving the problems in the two regions, the United States, which has always been hostile to China and insists on “never dying”, has to agree with the proposal of the Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov to invite China to send delegations to the Geneva talks to share the peace issue with Indochina.
This is in line with China’s old saying that “it’s not friends who don’t gather”.
China and the United States have once again sat at the same conference table since the Panmunjom negotiations.
After years of hostility, it is obvious that the two sides are tit for tat and intransigence on some major principles and right and wrong issues at the meeting.
Even the minimum etiquette of mutual exchanges has been painted with a strong political color.
US Secretary of State Dulles, a diehard anti Communist, issued an injunction to the members of his delegation before the meeting and was not allowed to shake hands with the members of the CPC delegation.
However, people of insight among the members of the U.S. delegation believe that the existence of the people’s Republic of China is an unavoidable reality.
Whether you recognize it or not, it is impossible not to deal with it at all.
Otherwise, what will the Geneva Conference invite others to do? Thus, there was the unusual act of US Deputy Secretary of state Smith to approach the prime minister at the meeting.
On the last day of the Geneva conference, Smith took the initiative to talk to Zhou Enlai.
He smiled and said to Premier Zhou, “the conference is coming to an end.
I am very honored and happy to meet you here.
The Chinese delegation has played a great role in this conference.
We hope that peace will be restored no matter North Korea or Vietnam.
” After that, he grabbed Premier Zhou’s arm and shook it hard, and then walked away with a smile.
Although Smith followed the discipline stipulated by Dulles and did not shake hands with Zhou Enlai, he shook his arm to express the same friendly desire as shaking hands.
In fact, the United States also made a more substantive offer to contact the CPC delegation during the meeting.
On May 19 during the Geneva conference, Zhou Enlai was reading conference documents and relevant materials in his room.
Huan Xiang, a member of my delegation, pushed the door and came in and reported an important situation to Premier Zhou.
He said: “today, William Du, the British charg é d’affaires in China, told me that he is willing to act as an intermediary between China and the United States in his personal capacity on the issue of overseas Chinese in the United States and the issue of overseas Chinese in the United States.
” After hearing the report from Huan Township, Zhou Enlai immediately thought of a group of Chinese students and scientists detained in the United States, including famous scientists such as.
They are valuable “wealth” for new China.
“The United States wants to return the US troops captured on the Korean battlefield and a group of civilians who have committed crimes in China.
” Huan Xiang’s words interrupted Zhou Enlai’s thinking.
“We also have a large number of foreign students and scientists detained in the United States.
We should take this opportunity to let them return to the embrace of their motherland,” Zhou Enlai said While thinking, he said to Huan Xiang, “In such a tense situation between China and the United States, we should seize the desire of the United States to demand the release of detainees in China and open up new channels of contact.
You need to pay attention to this issue and see what the United States will do next.
If the United States tries again, it can agree to have direct contact through the British intermediary.
In addition, we can determine where to go according to the attitude of the United States Hold negotiations.
But in the negotiations, we must first contact the detention of Chinese students and scientists studying in the United States.
” In order to take the initiative, on May 27, the spokesman of our delegation issued a statement to the press on the unreasonable detention of Chinese nationals and students by the United States.
At the same time, he said that China is willing to hold direct negotiations with the United States on the issue of detained persons.
The United States immediately made a positive response.
After two contacts on June 1 and 4, facilitated by William Du, the United States finally reached an agreement: the U.S. delegation designated its minister in Czechoslovakia Johnson as its representative and Martin, deputy director of the Far East Department of the State Council, as his assistant to contact China.
The Chinese side, represented by Wang Bingnan and assisted by Ke Bainian, contacted the US side.
According to the suggestion of the US side, the Chinese side agreed that the contact place would be the “Guolian building”.
At 10 a.m. on June 5, China and the United States held their first talks at the “League of Nations building” in Geneva.
The venue of the talks was chosen by the US side.
Since the United States had not recognized the people’s Republic of China at that time, Johnson deliberately chose a reception room with no table and only a few sofas in the “League of Nations building” in order to avoid the atmosphere of formal negotiations between the two governments, which gave people the feeling of receiving guests.
It can be said that he was well intentioned.
The first meeting lasted about half an hour.
After a burst of greetings, Johnson proposed that there were 83 Americans detained in China and hoped that China would allow these Americans to leave China and return to the United States as soon as possible.
Our representative Wang Bingnan expressed the hope that the US side would submit a specific list of issues raised today.
China will raise the issue of Chinese nationals and students detained in the United States in future negotiations.
On June 10, the two sides held the second meeting.
The venue of this meeting is up to us to choose.
The Chinese delegation chose a room in the building for the purpose of “tit for tat” with the US delegation.
Our side and the United States sit side by side, forming an atmosphere of formal negotiations between the two governments.
At the beginning of the talks, Johnson submitted a list of the so-called American nationals and soldiers detained by the Chinese government, and asked the Chinese side to give these people the opportunity to return home as soon as possible.
In this regard, Wang Bingnan made a principled reply.
He said: as long as both sides have the sincerity to solve the problem, this problem is not difficult to solve.
American expatriates in China will be protected as long as they abide by Chinese laws.
They can stay in China and engage in legal occupations.
If they want to leave China and go back to the United States for some reason, they can go at any time as long as they have no pending criminal or civil cases.
In fact, 1485 American nationals have left China since the founding of the people’s Republic of China.
As for espionage and sabotage in ChinaA very small number of Americans deserve to be detained.
We will study the list you submitted and give a reply in the next meeting.
We are ready to raise the issue of the detention of Chinese students by the US government in the next meeting.
On June 15, China and the United States held the third meeting.
Wang Bingnan first answered questions raised by the US side on June 10, such as the communication between Americans detained in China and their families.
Then he made solemn representations with the US government on the unreasonable detention of Chinese students.
Wang Bingnan solemnly pointed out: there are more than 5000 Chinese students in the United States.
Many of them asked to return home, but they were made difficult by the U.S. government to prohibit them from applying for departure.
They even threatened that anyone who violated this order would be sentenced to a fine of less than 50000 US dollars or imprisonment of less than five years, or both.
This makes no sense.
We demand that the US government immediately stop detaining Chinese students and restore their right to leave the United States and return to China at any time.
As for Chinese nationals residing in the United States, they should also have the right to return home at any time.
In this regard, Johnson argued: “the detention of Chinese scholars is entirely in accordance with the laws of the United States.
” Wang Bingnan understood that the law he mentioned refers to an order issued by the U.S. government during the Korean War, which stipulates that all senior physicists, including Chinese who have received education such as rocket, atomic energy and weapon design, are not allowed to leave the United States.
In response to Johnson’s sophistry, Wang Bingnan retorted: “this is an unreasonable provision and should be abolished.
” In the fourth meeting between China and the United States, Johnson still played the “law” card to defend the detention of our foreign students by the United States, which was severely refuted by Wang Bingnan again, and the two sides broke up unhappily.
The Geneva talks ended on July 21, 1954.
From September 2, 1954 to July 15, 1955, China and the United States continued to hold consular level talks in Geneva on the return of overseas Chinese.
However, in the 17 talks held before and after the talks, due to the lack of sincerity of the US side, the talks did not achieve any results.
Although the Sino US talks at the Geneva conference did not reach any agreement, it opened the door for the Sino US Ambassador Talks in the next 15 years.
After the 1954 Geneva conference, the United States was not reconciled to its failure at the Geneva Conference.
In retaliation against China, the US government and the Group signed the so-called “Defense Treaty” on December 2, 1954.
The purpose of this treaty is: first, the United States attempts to legalize its occupation of Taiwan.
Second, based on Taiwan, expand military confrontation against China and prepare for a new war.
In order to show the Chinese people’s determination to liberate Taiwan and crack down on the “common defense treaty” between the United States and Chiang Kai Shek, the Chinese people’s liberation army launched an offensive on the 18th, liberated Yijiangshan island in one fell swoop, and then Dachen island.
At the end of December, the Chinese government detained another 13 US spies engaged in sabotage activities in China.
In the face of the development of the situation, the United States realized that military blackmail could not frighten the brave Chinese people, and also realized that the policy of refusing to engage with China was a failure.
Therefore, in January 1955, the United States instructed United Nations Secretary General Hammarskj ö LD to visit China in his own name through an Indian intermediary.
In fact, it wanted to test how I would deal with 13 American spies and other situations.
Our government agreed to his visit.
During the talks, Zhou Enlai pointed out to him that the position of the United Nations on China’s representation and the Korean War was unfair.
At the same time, he reiterated that the United States went to the Far East to create tension.
The United States should stop interfering in China’s internal affairs and withdraw its troops from Taiwan and the Taiwan Strait.
In order to sincerely express the Chinese people’s good wish for peace, on April 23, 1955, Zhou Enlai also issued a historic statement on Sino US Relations: “the Chinese people are friendly with the American people.
The Chinese people do not want to fight with the United States.
The Chinese government is willing to sit down and negotiate with the American government to discuss the issue of easing the situation in the Far East, especially the tension in the Taiwan region.
” Zhou Enlai’s statement immediately aroused strong repercussions all over the world and won high praise from international public opinion.
Many countries, especially those participating in the Asian African Conference, have put pressure on the United States to respond to Zhou Enlai’s call and negotiate directly with the Chinese government.
On July 13, the US government proposed to China through Britain that China and the United States exchange ambassadorial representatives for talks in Geneva.
Since then, China and the United States began a 15 year long “marathon” ambassador level talks.
On August 1, 1955, the first China US ambassador level talks were held in the “League of Nations building” in Geneva, Switzerland.
Our representative is Wang Bingnan, Ambassador to Poland.
The US representative happens to be the opponent Wang Bingnan met at the Geneva meeting.
The US ambassador to Czechoslovakia, you a Johnson.
In order to show China’s sincerity and positive attitude towards the China US ambassador level talks, on July 31, that is, the day before the talks began, the military court of China’s Supreme People’s court made a judgment in accordance with China’s legal procedures and released Arnold and other 11 US spies in advance.
As China announced the release of us spies, the atmosphere of the first meeting was more relaxed and pleasant.
The two sides successfully reached an agreement on the agenda of the talks: first, to discuss the repatriation of overseas Chinese from both sides, and second, to discuss other practical issues in dispute between the two sides.
On August 2, China and the United States held the second meeting.
Johnson said that 36 American civilians were still detained, which affected the attitude of the American people and the government towards China.
Wang Bingnan said: “The Chinese mainland Chinese majority of the families in the United States are in mainland China.
For a long time, due to the constraints and difficulties caused by the US government, they can not return to their motherland freely and can not return to their families.
This is not only a pressing problem they are facing, but also a problem that China and the Chinese government have always been concerned about.
” After Wang Bingnan spoke, Johnson defended the United States for obstructing the return of Chinese nationals and foreign students, saying that the U.S. government has absolutely not prevented Chinese students from leaving the United States.
In response to Johnson’s solemn promises and statements, Wang Bingnan took Qian Xuesen’s obstruction of returning home as hard evidence in the third meeting held on August 4, debunked Johnson’s lie that “the United States has absolutely no restrictions on the return of Chinese students”, and solemnly pointed out: “according to the statement of the U.S. delegation to the Geneva Conference on May 29, 1954, as of April 30, 1954,There are 5242 students studying in the United States with Chinese student passports.
From June 1951 to April 1, 1955, the U.S. government banned Chinese students from returning home freely.
Violators were fined $50000 and imprisoned for five years.
Many students who wanted to return home did not dare to apply.
On June 15 this year, Qian Xuesen still wrote to Mr.
Chen Shutong, vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, asking our government to help him return home.
” He strongly urged the US government to immediately restore Qian Xuesen’s right to return to the motherland.
In the face of conclusive facts, Johnson could no longer defend, and the US government had to allow Qian Xuesen and others to return home.
The struggle between the Chinese government and the US government over Qian Xuesen’s return to China has fallen behind for some time, and the two sides have held repeated talks on the issue of repatriated overseas Chinese.
After many efforts, Finally, an agreement was reached as stated by the ambassadors of the two countries: “The people’s Republic of China recognizes that Americans in the people’s Republic of China who are willing to return to the United States of America have the right to return to their home country, and the United States of America recognizes that Chinese in the United States of America who are willing to return to the people’s Republic of China have the right to return to their home country, and declares that appropriate measures have been taken and will continue to be taken to enable them to exercise their right of return as soon as possible right.
The people’s Republic of China and the United States of America have entrusted the governments of India and the United Kingdom respectively to assist civilians of the people’s Republic of China and the United States of America to return to their home countries.
” This is the only formal agreement reached at the ambassadorial level talks between China and the United States.
After reaching an agreement on the issue of Chinese and American expatriates, the China US ambassador level talks entered the second stage of discussion.
However, in the second stage of the talks, the United States adopted an extremely perfunctory attitude and continued to entangle with the problems that had been solved in the first stage, so that the talks were sluggish and almost impossible to move.
On September 20, 1955, China US talks began again.
Johnson bypassed substantive issues and first proposed to discuss the issue of American soldiers missing in the Korean War.
Wang Bingnan refused to discuss the issue.
“The issue of military personnel in North Korea should be discussed by the Panmunjom Armistice Commission.
There is no need for us to discuss this issue,” he said Therefore, Johnson raised the second question: “on the Taiwan issue, China and the United States should ensure that they will not resort to force.
” According to the instructions of Premier Zhou Enlai, Answer Johnson solemnly: “The US occupation of Taiwan has constituted an international dispute, and the tension in the Taiwan Strait has affected the peace, stability and security of the Far East and Southeast Asia.
The first cause of this situation is the US military presence in Taiwan, which is aimed at the people’s Republic of China.
The United States should abandon the use of force against China and withdraw all its armed forces from Taiwan and the Taiwan Strait.
” Then, he continued: “Taiwan is an inalienable territory of China in history, law and fact.
How the Chinese people are willing to liberate Taiwan is China’s internal affairs.
The United States has no right to interfere, let alone ask us not to use force.
” Both sides held their own words, and the negotiations reached an impasse again.
In order to take the initiative, on October 27, We have put forward a draft agreement on the issue of “the two sides promise not to resort to force” raised by the United States: “The people’s Republic of China and the United States of America agree that they should resolve their disputes by peaceful means without resorting to force.
in order to realize their common aspirations, the people’s Republic of China and the United States of America decided to hold a meeting of foreign ministers to resolve and ease tensions in the Taiwan region through consultation.
” Johnson refused to sign the draft agreement.
Nearly half a month later, the United States put forward the case they drafted, saying that “generally speaking, the United States of America renounces the use of force.
Generally speaking, and especially for Taiwan, the people’s Republic of China renounces the use of force except for individual and collective defense.
” We rejected the draft agreement of the United States.
He pointed out that the United States wants to have the right of “individual and collective defense” in Taiwan in order to make the Chinese government recognize the legalization of the US occupation of Taiwan and let us give up the right to liberate Taiwan.
Nevertheless, we continue to work with great patience.
On December 1, Wang Bingnan put forward a new draft.
In order to take into account the reluctance of the United States to explicitly mention the provisions of the UN Charter and the talks between the foreign ministers of the two countries, the draft only mentions that “the disputes between the two countries should be resolved through peaceful negotiations without resorting to threats or force”.
However, the US side is insincere.
Johnson just blindly procrastinates.
At the following three meetings, he refused to make any specific comments on our new draft and took a noncommittal attitude.
Until January 12, 1956, he still insisted that China recognize that the United States has “the inherent right of individual and collective self-defense” in Taiwan.
Between April and may 1956, the United States and China each proposed a new draft agreement, but none of them was adopted.
Time passed in round after round of back and forth talks.
Since the United States adopted the policy of “procrastination” towards the Sino US talks, by December 1957, various talks had been held 73 times, and various texts had piled up, but the talks had not achieved any results.
On December 12, the US side offered to let his deputy counsellor ed Martin take over from Johnson to participate in the negotiations on the grounds that Johnson was transferred to the US ambassador to Thailand, in order to downgrade the talks.
When Wang Bingnan reported this situation to Zhou Enlai, Zhou Enlai said decisively, “since the United States is unwilling to talk, we can also suspend the negotiations.
We do not want the negotiations to break down, but we are not afraid of the negotiations to break down.
If the United States wants to fight, we can also accompany.
” The Sino US negotiations were eventually forced to break down due to the artificial obstacles set by the United States.
After the interruption of the Sino US ambassadorial level negotiations, in order to expand the threat to China, the United States, after signing the “common defense treaty” with Chiang Kai Shek, actively encouraged the Chiang Kai Shek group to “counter attack the mainland” in July 1958, encouraged the Kuomintang to strengthen its harassment of the mainland, dispatched a large number of warships and aircraft from its own country and the middle sea, and strengthened the activities of the seventh fleet in Taiwan.
With the support of the United States, the Chiang Kai Shek group sent planes to distribute leaflets across the mainland and even as far away as Yunnan, Guizhou, Xikang, Qinghai and other provinces, drop spies, bomb Fujian, harass Jiangsu and Zhejiang, and the clamor and sabotage of “counterattack against the mainland” are rampant.
For a time, the Taiwan Strait was filled with gunsmoke and the situation was dangerous.
In order to severely punish the rampant activities of the Chiang gang and crack down on the arrogance of the United StatesYan, the Chinese people’s Liberation Army began to carry out punitive shelling on Jinmen, Mazu and other islands on August 23, 1958, and announced on October 25 that it would not shoot artillery on one day and two days.
The shelling was very fierce.
Suddenly, Chiang Kai Shek was scared out of his wits.
He quickly packed up his luggage and prepared to move, and transferred one of his economic ministries to the countryside.
The United States also panicked for a moment, and, Dulles and many senior American officials were very frightened.
They held an emergency meeting overnight to discuss countermeasures and decided to send troops from the west coast to Taiwan.
They also sent a fleet from the Mediterranean to assemble in the Taiwan Strait.
At the same time, US Secretary of State Dulles paid a visit to Eisenhower in Newport on September 3 and issued a statement, which issued a serious warning to the mainland, saying that “after the Communist Party of China launched a crazy artillery battle on the outer islands of Jinma, China, it threatened the transportation and supply of the island and depended on the armed escort of the 7th Fleet of the United States”.
Dulles further threatened to expand the scope of US aggression in the Taiwan Strait to China’s coastal islands such as Kinmen and Matsu, and even threaten with atomic bombs.
To stop the American escort, China announced on the same day as the “Newport statement”: The Dongsha Islands are the Chinese mainland China and its coastal islands, including the islands of Taiwan and the surrounding islands, such as Penghu archipelago, Dongsha Islands, Paracel Islands, the Zhongsha Islands, Spratly Islands and all the islands and their coastal waters separated from the mainland by the high seas and the mainland of China, including the islands of Taiwan, the Taiwan, the 12 islands.
2、 No foreign vessel or aircraft for military purposes may enter or fly over China’s territorial waters without the permission of the government of the people’s Republic of China.
” On September 6, Premier Zhou Enlai issued a public statement on the actions of the United States, “Taiwan and the Penghu Islands have been Chinese territory since ancient times.
China must liberate Taiwan and the Penghu Islands.
The liberation of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu is China’s sovereignty and no foreign country can interfere.
If the United States imposes war on the Chinese people in disregard of China’s repeated warnings, the U.S. government must bear all the serious consequences arising therefrom,” he said At the end of the statement, Zhou Enlai called, “we propose that the Chinese and US governments sit down and negotiate, appoint ambassadors within a time limit, and resume the ambassador level talks unilaterally interrupted by the United States.
” On the same day, the US government welcomed Zhou Enlai’s proposal and agreed to resume the China US ambassador level talks.
The central government has decided to re send Ambassador Wang Bingnan to Warsaw as the representative of the China US ambassador level talks.
Under the concern of international public opinion, the US government was forced to appoint Jacob BIM, US ambassador to Warsaw, as the representative to reopen the negotiations, and no longer insisted that the venue of the talks must be held in the third.
As Wang Bingnan and BIM were stationed in Warsaw, the venue of the talks was also transferred from Geneva To Warsaw.
On September 15, 1958, the Sino US ambassador level talks began under the very tense situation in the Taiwan Strait.
The venue of the talks was chosen at the khelivi C í ki palace in Warsaw city.
The layout of the venue was simple and exquisite.
The four tables are arranged in a rectangle.
The representatives of the two sides sit opposite each other.
The head of the delegation sits in the middle, with their respective advisers and interpreters on both sides.
After the talks, Wang Bingnan asked Ambassador BIM to speak first.
BIM put it bluntly: “The United States demands that China stop shelling Kinmen and Mazu islands.
The United States acknowledges that China and the United States have long had serious disputes over Taiwan and its nearby islands.
The United States does not require either party to give up its views at this stage.
The purpose of the United States is to eliminate actions that may be regarded as war provocations by the other party, otherwise, military actions may expand.
” “The common task of China and the United States is to ease tensions in Taiwan and the Taiwan Strait.
” Wang Bingnan refuted the remarks made by the US side in deliberately shifting the responsibility for the tense situation in the Taiwan Strait to China: “Mr.
ambassador has no right to speak on behalf of the Taiwan authorities or propose a cease-fire.
Taiwan and the Penghu Islands are China’s territory, and the liberation of Taiwan and the Penghu Islands is China’s internal affairs, including Kinmen and Matsu.
After recovering the Kinmen and Matsu islands, China will strive to liberate Taiwan and the Penghu Islands in a peaceful way.
There is no war between China and the United States, and there is no” cease-fire “at all ’The key to eliminating tension in the Taiwan Strait lies in the withdrawal of US troops from the region.
” BIM was speechless about our well founded statement.
Later, we put forward a proposal that the two sides jointly declare that they will not resort to the threat or use of force, which was unreasonably rejected by the United States.
In the case, the US side asked me to give up the “use of force and threat of force” against Kinmen and Matsu, and the US side will try to make Kinmen and Matsu “not be used for attacks or other provocative actions against the mainland or other coastal islands”.
This is actually a permanent stop line between China and China and the Chinese mainland, so as to realize its plot to split China’s territory and create “two Chinas”.
Naturally, this plan was resolutely rejected by China.
By September 30, at the 78th meeting, BIM proposed a “draft statement of China US talks”, which was carefully drafted by Dulles himself and his last “work” in the China US talks.
The draft statement once again requires the Chinese government to stop military activities against Kinmen and Mazu.
On the same day, Dulles further said at a press conference that if China is willing to “cease fire” in the Taiwan Strait, the United States can persuade Jiang’s army to withdraw from Kinmen and Matsu.
The intention is still to draw a permanent ceasefire line in the Taiwan Strait.
The difference is that the golden horse is drawn to the west of this line this time.
The United States wants to use this “step back” method to legalize its occupation of Taiwan and Penghu, so as to realize its “two Chinas” conspiracy.
This is not only something that the Chinese government cannot agree with, but even Chiang Kai Shek is very dissatisfied with it.
In view of this, the Chinese government timely adjusted its deployment and decided to let Kinmen and Matsu remain in the hands of the Taiwan authorities for the time being.
On October 6, the letter to Taiwan compatriots issued by the Ministry of national defense pointed out that the battle in Kinmen was “punitive”.
On October 13, the Ministry of National Defense issued an order declaring that the shelling on Kinmen would be stopped for another two weeks, “so that they can stick to it”, and stating that “this is to deal with the Americans”.
However, the United States still did not give up, and sent Dulles and Defense Secretary McElroy to Taiwan to personally mobilize Chiang Kai Shek to withdraw from Kinmen and Matsu, which Chiang refused.
In this way, the United States failed to succeed in its plot of “two Chinas” in both the China US talks and the US Chiang Kai Shek talks.
China US AssociationThe discussion is always held in an atmosphere of lack of trust and repression.
You talk about yours and I talk about mine.
It is the same and has never improved.
The Sino US talks held on September 6, 1960 were the 100th.
In order to make progress in the future talks and let the world know the truth that the talks have stalled, Ambassador Wang Bingnan made a concluding speech.
This speech, with iron facts, exposed the US trick of “false talk and real fight”.
According to Wang Bingnan’s speech at the 100th meeting, the people’s daily specially issued an editorial entitled “100th China US talks” on September 8.
It further exposed the insincerity and recklessness of the United States in the negotiations.
The correct position of the Chinese government has won praise from peace loving countries and people all over the world.
In 1960, the United States held a general election to replace Eisenhower as president.
In early September 1961, the U.S. ambassador to Poland BIM was transferred back to China to serve as the deputy director of the U.S. arms and disarmament administration.
Cabot, a former Consul General of Shanghai, served as the ambassador of Warsaw to replace BIM.
Cabot became my third opponent for the ambassador level talks.
Despite frequent personnel changes in the United States, the China US ambassador level talks are still going on in a lifeless manner.
In 1964, Wang Bingnan was transferred back to China as Vice Foreign Minister.
Ambassador Wang Guoquan continued the intermittent Sino US ambassador level talks with the US ambassador in Warsaw, but there has been no result on the substantive issues between China and the United States.
On October 16, 1964, China’s first atomic bomb exploded successfully, causing great shock in the world.
The Chinese government has issued a statement that it will not be the first to use nuclear weapons.
According to the instructions of the Central Committee, at the 123rd China US talks held in November 1964, Ambassador Wang Guoquan proposed to the United States a draft agreement statement on no first use of nuclear weapons.
The US representative was unprepared and did not dare to make a statement at all.
It was not until the 124th meeting in February 1965 that the United States responded and expressed its opposition on the pretext that it could not do without supervision, which exposed the intention of the United States to adhere to nuclear monopoly.
On November 26, 1968, the spokesman of the Information Department of the Ministry of foreign affairs of the people’s Republic of China made a speech on the duration of the 135th meeting, which further clarified the two principles that the Chinese government has always adhered to in the China US ambassador level talks: first, the US government pledged to withdraw all its armed forces from China’s territory, Taiwan Province and the Taiwan Strait region immediately, Dismantle all its military facilities in Taiwan Province.
Second, the US government agreed to sign an agreement between China and the United States on the five principles of peaceful coexistence.
However, the US government has always refused to reach an agreement with the Chinese government on these two principles.
China US ambassador level talks have been held for 15 years and have reached more than 100 times.
Apart from reaching an agreement on the return of civilians from China and the United States, they have yielded no results on all substantive issues related to China US relations.
However, this was the only formal channel for China and the United States to maintain contact and communicate under the specific historical conditions at that time.
After every major international event, China and the United States can express their views and put forward their own views in the ambassador level talks, so that one side can understand the other’s attitude and practice.
This is why the China US ambassador level talks have been maintained for 15 years.
Although China and the United States have continued diplomatic negotiations for 15 years, because the US government regards communism as a scourge and adopts a hostile policy towards socialist China, while playing the “negotiation” card, they have never relaxed their infiltration and subversive activities against the people’s Republic of China.
Among them, it is particularly important to send U-2 aircraft to continuously spy on China.
This espionage and reconnaissance activity was caused by the United States’ fear of China’s development of nuclear weapons.
On August 9 and 13, 1945, when two groups of mushroom clouds were rising in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, the human war entered the nuclear era, and the United States occupied the first place in the nuclear club.
The United States, which was the first to have nuclear warheads in its hands, wanted to engage in nuclear monopoly from the beginning.
Fortunately, it was arrogant and arrogant in the world.
The Soviet Union soon broke the monopoly of the United States on nuclear weapons.
The helpless United States has targeted China as the next target to restrict the development of nuclear weapons.
Because the United States is well aware that this eastern power rising in 1949 will pose a great threat to the United States’ global hegemony strategy once it has an atomic bomb.
Facing the nuclear threat from the United States, in 1958, with the help of the Soviet Union, China began to build experimental heavy water reactors on the outskirts of Beijing, and then successively built several other reactors to start the long planned development of nuclear weapons.
Meanwhile, Sino Soviet relations broke down and the Soviet Union stopped providing atomic bomb samples to China.
The Chinese people have to rely on their own power to continue to develop the atomic bomb.
After the US intelligence department learned that China was preparing to develop an atomic bomb, the government and the public panicked.
In order to curb China’s development of nuclear weapons, Eisenhower gave the CIA a dead order: we must closely monitor China’s nuclear program.
As a result, a high-altitude espionage battle with U-2 aircraft as the protagonist began to compete in the Soviet airspace, and at the same time, it began in China’s airspace.
U-2 aircraft is a high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft specially developed by Lockheed for US intelligence agencies.
After the advent of the U-2 aircraft, it has won the favor of American intelligence agencies and the military.
To this end, the aircraft has received many “nicknames”, such as “Mrs.
Jiaolong”, “angel”, “mysterious girl”, “female spy in black”, etc.
some people also call it “black widow”.
Before the advent of the U-2 aircraft, the United States also conducted high-altitude reconnaissance on China and the Soviet Union.
However, due to the vast territory of China and the Soviet Union, it is difficult for ordinary reconnaissance aircraft to enter the hinterland of the two countries even if they take off from American overseas military bases around China and the Soviet Union.
From the perspective of security and intelligence, Such inaccessible areas often hide secret facilities or construction projects with more strategic value.
To this end, the US intelligence agencies and the air force have racked their brains to extend their intelligence tentacles to the mainland of China and the Soviet Union.
In early 1950, the US air force launched spy balloons in the jet stream zone of the troposphere and launched a flying operation codenamed “Moby Dick”.
The hanging basket under the balloon, known as “atmospheric observation supplies”, is equipped with automatic stabilization equipment, which can make the balloon float continuously along the air flow under high pressure, while the automatic camera hanging at the other end continues to take high-altitude photos of ground targets in more than ten days and nights.
But balloons are naturally loose.
Once they take off, they go with the wind.
Most of them can’t enter the flight route designed in advance.
Operation BelugaAfter five years, the return rate was only 8%, while less than 1% found the shooting target.
What bothers Americans more is the blurred photos, many of which are simply illegible.
In desperation, Americans had to turn to the “black widow” with high martial arts skills.
However, although the “black widow” has “excellent martial arts”, it also has inherent deficiencies.
In pursuit of high speed and lightness, the net weight of the U-2 aircraft is only 12000 pounds, the body material is aluminum alloy, lacks strong structural support, and the body appearance is only 0.
02 inches thick.
In addition, the wing design has not completely got rid of the mechanical structure constraints of insufficient high-altitude buoyancy, so the pilot may die in the sky if he is careless at high altitude.
Americans are not willing to take more risks in such a desperate job! So someone came up with a clever way: let the United States out of the plane and let Chiang Kai Shek’s pilots fly.
In this way, if the plane is destroyed and people die, the Chinese will die.
If Chiang Kai Shek should bear the responsibility for exposing his horse’s feet, wouldn’t he have the best of both worlds! However, things are not as smooth as Americans think, and Chiang Kai Shek’s military and political commissars are not so easy to manipulate.
One day in the late spring of 1958, Klein, director of the CIA office in Taipei, returned to the United States to receive intelligence missions.
His boss revealed a core secret to him: according to reliable intelligence analysis, China is developing an atomic bomb in Gansu, Qinghai or Xinjiang.
The differences between China and the Soviet Union continue to expand, and the Chinese are likely to accelerate the development of nuclear weapons.
To this end, with the approval of the president of the United States, the CIA is ready to use the Taiwan air force to fly U-2 aircraft through the “bamboo curtain”, go deep into the mainland for reconnaissance and photography, comprehensively collect information on the important industrial facilities and military deployment of the Communist Party of China, and monitor the development process of the Communist Party of China’s atomic bomb and long-range missile in the whole process.
After receiving the order, Klein dared not neglect it and immediately returned to Taiwan to contact Yu Dawei, Taiwan’s “defense minister”.
Unexpectedly, Yu Dawei believed that the information on the mainland’s nuclear program concerned by the Americans was of little use to Taiwan.
It was not worthwhile for the US air force to take risks and use the “national army” as cannon fodder, so he did not buy Klein’s account.
In desperation, Klein drove to the residence of Jiang Jingguo, the eldest son of the Chiang family, and asked Jiang Jingguo for help.
After listening to Klein’s briefing, Chiang Ching Kuo, then Secretary General of Taiwan’s “National Defense Conference”, was very interested in the US cooperation plan.
After all, he is the “crown prince”, and Jiang Jingguo’s strategy is far above Yu Dawei.
Although Chiang Ching Kuo is not interested in the mainland’s nuclear program, he is more concerned about the dynamics of the mainland, because the Chiang family has never given up their attempt to return to the mainland.
If they do return to the mainland one day, isn’t the mainland also his Chiang family’s world? So Xiao Jiang agreed to the US cooperation plan, but asked for some American “leftovers” to Taiwan.
Klein immediately said that he could retain some reconnaissance intelligence that the United States did not need.
Chiang Ching Kuo was very happy.
He immediately made clear the old Chiang.
With a stroke of his pen, Chiang Kai Shek approved the cooperation plan.
After the US Chiang cooperation plan was approved, it began to be implemented in a top secret state.
Chiang Ching Kuo presided over the Taiwan side.
Lei Yanjun, director of operations of Taiwan’s air force, and Yi Fushi, director of the intelligence agency, were ordered to select 12 pilots from Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Chiayi and Tainan bases to receive physical, physiological and psychological tests at the US military base in Ryukyu.
Finally, six people were selected to go to the United States for training.
By 1971, a total of 27 Kuomintang Air Force pilots had gone to the United States for training.
KMT pilots going to the United States have always been trained under extremely confidential conditions.
After the Kuomintang air force arrived in the United States, it immediately changed into the uniform of the United States Air Force and was warned not to leave the base without authorization.
When these pilots were trained in driving, the dispatching commanders of the nearby airport were told that “pilots who are not fluent in English are using the dialogue channel”.
Wang Taiyou, who received training, recalled that at that time, he could only listen to lectures and questions in class, could not take notes, and was not allowed to take any training courses out of the classroom.
Although the KMT pilots’ English skills are fairly good, it is difficult to understand so many complex courses, but Americans do not compile the training materials of U-2 aircraft on the grounds of confidentiality.
After nearly a year of training, Americans believe that the KMT pilots have been able to fly across the Taiwan Strait and spy on the Chinese mainland.
Therefore, in July 1960, the first batch of two U-2 aircraft provided by the United States to the Taiwan authorities arrived at Taoyuan Airport secretly.
Taiwan, on the other hand, selected six pilots from the United States who had more than 2000 hours of flight time and had high-altitude reconnaissance experience to form the “35th meteorological reconnaissance squadron” subordinate to the Intelligence Department of the Kuomintang Air Force headquarters.
As the newly arrived U-2 aircraft was dark without any identification marks, Chen Huai, a pilot of the 35th Squadron, designed a black cat pattern.
The black cat body represented the U-2 aircraft, and a pair of cat eyes symbolized the high-altitude camera.
The black cat soon became the emblem of the 35th squadron.
The pilots specially ordered a batch of jackets with black cat pattern, so people call this squadron “black cat squadron”.
The “black cat squadron” nominally belongs to the Intelligence Department of the Kuomintang Air Force headquarters.
In fact, the squadron is directly controlled by Americans.
The maintenance and custody of the aircraft are undertaken by the US military.
The hangar for parking the U-2 aircraft can’t even enter the joint captain and battalion commander of the Kuomintang air force.
Most of the US personnel are Lockheed employees.
Before they came to Taiwan, they signed a work contract with the CIA.
Other maintenance, scheduling, navigation, photography and other professionals also come from the US military.
However, for the sake of confidentiality, these professionals do not wear military uniforms and are commensurate with each other as “managers”.
For aircrews from different bases, the CIA requires them to write the original base when writing letters to their relatives and friends, and then send them home from the original base, so as not to be found that there are American aircrews in Taoyuan.
However, there is no airtight wall in the world.
The U.S. intelligence agencies tried their best to hide the U-2 aircraft known as the “black widow” in Taoyuan, but it was not long before this secret was explored by the mainland.
The people’s radio station on the other side of the Strait shouted to the Taiwan air force that those who fly the U-2 aircraft can be rewarded with the equivalent of US $280000.
The United States and Taiwan suspected that there were Chinese Communist spies near the base.
Where do they know that this “spy” is the mainland’s coastal air defense radar network.
After more than a year of retraining and debugging, “black cat squadron” began to dispatch U-2 aircraft to carry out high-altitude reconnaissance on the mainland on January 13, 1962.
Chinese mainland nuclear plants and nuclear test sites are distributed in China’s West.
In the north, these places are thousands of kilometers away from Taiwan.
When the U-2 aircraft carries out reconnaissance missions at such a long distance, the pilot’s physical strength and aircraft performance are greatly consumed.
If there is a failure in the middle, it is impossible to return to Taiwan.
The key is not to let the mainland seize any evidence, otherwise the CIA will not be able to explain to the world.
In particular, in May 1960, a U-2 plane was shot down in the Soviet Union.
The Soviets made a big fuss and caused an uproar.
Eisenhower lost his face, and the Americans were more cautious about high-altitude espionage.
In order to increase the insurance coefficient of U-2 aircraft, the United States and Chiang Kai Shek considered looking for an airport for U-2 aircraft to take off and land in countries around the mainland.
They chose Thailand and India.
However, under the circumstances at that time, neither of the two countries was willing to bear this bad reputation for the United States and Taiwan.
Having no choice, the “black cat squadron” had to take off from Taoyuan base.
Since China was equipped with long-range multi tube radar at that time, the tracking success rate of U-2 aircraft was quite high.
Therefore, after taking off in Taoyuan, U-2 aircraft generally flew east towards Ryukyu to escape the monitoring of coastal radar network.
After reaching an altitude of 50000 feet, he turned around near Eluanbi, flew into the mainland from near Shantou, crossed the so-called “bamboo curtain” and began a voyage with unpredictable good and bad luck.
The Chinese mainland has long sought out the conspiracy of the United States and Chiang to collude with U-2 aircraft to conduct high altitude reconnaissance on our nuclear test, but the height of the U-2 aircraft really did not keep the PLA Air Force fighters at all.
In the early 1960s, only sam-2 missile was able to deal with the “black widow” driven by the “black cat squadron”.
According to the suggestion of the air force, the Central Military Commission immediately decided to transfer the sam-2 missile force to ambush and stand by to annihilate the enemy on the route where U-2 aircraft often move.
Under the chairmanship of Luo Ruiqing, chief of the general staff, our army has held many meetings of leaders of air defense systems.
After carefully studying the flight route of the “bamboo curtain” of the U-2 aircraft, it was found that 8 of the 11 flights of the U-2 aircraft in the first half of 1962 passed through Nanchang.
Therefore, it was decided to set up three surface to air missile battalions in Nanchang in the name of “geological drilling team” to catch and kill the mysterious “black widows”.
In 1962, the U-2 aircraft in Taoyuan base attended an average of three times a month.
Every time I always take advantage of the change of defense of my coastal Air Force fighter.
Our army found out this law, so after the second battalion of a missile unit of the air force was in place, it threw out bait to lure the snake out of the hole.
In July 1962, a large group of light bombers of our air force changed their defense from Nanjing to Nanchang.
The next day, another large group of bombers flew to the south of Nanchang.
The above-mentioned activities were controlled by the Kuomintang radar on the coastal islands.
Thinking that our army must be mobilized, the Taiwan military decided to send U-2 aircraft for reconnaissance in consultation with the United States.
On September 8, Yang Shiju, pilot of “black cat squadron”, received an attendance order.
After taking off from Taoyuan by U-2 plane, he flew south to Kunming and then back to Nanning and Guilin.
Just as he was about to continue to fly to Nanchang, the plane’s oil system suddenly broke down and had to turn around from Guilin and fly back to Taiwan.
At that time, the officers and soldiers of the second battalion were very puzzled.
They didn’t understand why the U-2 plane suddenly turned around and flew to Guangdong, leaving a series of arcs in the sky.
Then it took a sharp turn and flew across the urban area of Guangzhou.
They didn’t know that Yang Shiju didn’t continue to go north and embark on the road of death because of oil circuit failure.
The next day, Chen Huai, who picked up Yang Shiju’s class, took the road of no return on his behalf.
At 6 a.m. on September 9, Chen Huai took off from Taoyuan base again.
After entering the mainland from Pingtan, Fujian, he passed Fuzhou, followed the Yingxia railway, crossed Nanchang, and then flew straight to Nanjing.
Our army’s radars have kept a close eye on him.
The ground to air missile force entered a combat ready state.
Chen Huai’s U-2 plane flew over Jiujiang, turned left 180 degrees and headed for Nanchang.
At 0832 hours, at the Nanchang missile position, three sam-2 missiles lifted off the ground, and the U-2 plane crashed into the death net woven of 3600 shrapnel.
The wreckage of the U-2 crashed into a rice field in luojiaji, 18 kilometers southeast of Nanchang.
The whole body was honeycombed by shrapnel.
Although Chen Huai parachuted successfully, he was hit by shrapnel and was dying when he landed.
The people’s Liberation Army rushed Chen to the hospital, but he died because of his serious injury.
According to the instructions of air force commander Liu Yalou, the soldiers of the 2nd Battalion buried him in a coffin on a hillside full of small trees.
The victory in the battle of Nanchang made the Chinese proud.
Xinhua News Agency announced on September 9: “a U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance plane made by the US Chiang Gang flew over East China on the morning of September 9 and was shot down by the air force of the Chinese people’s Liberation Army.
” At that time, China was tight lipped about how to shoot down the U-2 plane.
Military experts and journalists in Taiwan and the West have been trying their best to spy on what weapons our army uses to shoot down advanced U-2 aircraft.
Although the U-2 plane was shot down by the Soviet national air defense force as early as 1960, the United States always thought that the KGB had done something on the plane.
Many people abroad are skeptical that the Chinese army can have the ability and means to shoot down U-2 aircraft.
At a press conference, foreign journalists raised this question again.
The foreign minister said humorously, “we stabbed it down with a wooden stick.
” After the U-2 plane was shot down, the Taiwan authorities and the United States released information respectively to cover up the truth.
Both sides claimed that Lockheed sold two U-2 aircraft to Taiwan after obtaining an export license from the US government.
The implication is that the whole incident has nothing to do with the US government.
The Chinese people certainly don’t believe this.
The people’s Daily published a front page editorial accusing the United States of strengthening the reconnaissance activities of the U-2 reconnaissance plane, “which is a concrete step for the US imperialists to deepen tensions in the Far East and accelerate their preparations around the world in order to engage in a new war.
” The U-2 plane incident also triggered dissatisfaction among the media circles of the US allies.
Japan’s major newspapers reported the matter on the front page, saying it was a terrible signal.
Bad omen said the incident was an ominous sign of the deterioration of the international situation and called for Jiang Jiang to stop high altitude reconnaissance activities on the Chinese mainland.
The Yomiuri Shimbun also warned that this incident would provide a “powerful excuse” for the countries in the eastern camp to attack the western countries led by the United States at the United Nations.
Facing the accusations and doubts of the international community, the United States and Chiang Kai Shek refused to admit it and were forced into helplessness”We have said everything we need to say about the U-2 plane.
We have repeatedly made it clear that it is the business of the ‘government of the Republic of China’.”. He kicked the ball to Taiwan.
In order to expose the lies and paintings of the United States and Chiang Kai Shek, Wu Baozhi, the captured pilot of the former Kuomintang air force rf101 reconnaissance plane, personally came out to testify and exposed the truth of the United States and Chiang Kai Shek’s joint U-2 aircraft reconnaissance of the mainland, giving them a fatal blow.
In the face of hard evidence, the U.S. government had to come out and make a gesture to ease the pressure at home and abroad.
Kennedy hinted at a press conference at the White House that the United States would not agree with Taiwan’s purchase of new U-2 aircraft to carry out reconnaissance missions in the mainland.
(another U-2 aircraft in Taiwan crashed into the sea and exploded during flight training).
But this is just a “smoke bomb” deliberately released to relieve pressure.
Not long after that, the US provided two U-2 aircraft to the Taiwan air force in December 1962 and stepped up its reconnaissance of the Chinese mainland’s nuclear program.
After a period of reconnaissance, the Americans have mastered the working frequency of the sam-2 missile navigation system, and installed an electronic early warning system on the U-2 aircraft newly provided to Taiwan.
When flying to the ground to air missile position, the system can capture the signal of the missile, warn the pilot, and get rid of the tracking of the missile through the shaking of the flight.
On March 28, 1963, a U-2 plane took off from South Korea, passed Baotou and Urumqi, and then flew over a base in Gansu to spy on nuclear facilities.
The 4th Battalion of a ground to air missile unit under the Commission of science, technology and industry for national defense at the base caught the target twice, but the target had already fled before the missile was launched because the U-2 aircraft had been equipped with an early warning system.
On June 3, another U-2 plane went to Lanzhou for reconnaissance.
The old trick was repeated, and the 4th Battalion lost the enemy fighter again.
The successive failures in attacking U-2 aircraft made our army aware that the enemy aircraft had the means to deal with missiles.
Through the analysis of battle cases, the personnel of the ground to air missile force found that the U-2 aircraft began to swing every 20 seconds after the ground to air missile guidance radar turned on the antenna.
It seems that if the missile is launched within 20 seconds, it is still possible to shoot down the enemy aircraft.
However, according to the operational rules of sam-2 missile, when the radar antenna is turned on and is generally 100 kilometers away from the target, it takes at least 7 to 8 minutes from turning on the guidance antenna to launching the missile.
In order to effectively crack down on the arrogance of the U-2 aircraft, the cadres and technicians of the second battalion of a surface to air missile Department of our country have conducted repeated research.
After dozens of start-up tests, they finally reduced the distance of opening the guidance radar antenna to 38 kilometers, and compressed the launch preparation time to less than 10 seconds, creating a “near decisive battle method”.
In this way, even if the U-2 aircraft receives the guidance signal of the missile, it has no time to change direction and escape quickly.
On the early morning of November 1, 1963, another U-2 plane took off from Taoyuan.
Pilot ye Changdi is an ace pilot with great practical experience.
He was elected as a “hero to overcome difficulties” twice, won the “Flying Tiger Medal” once, and was received by the Chiang family’s father and son for many times.
This is his fourth time to fly a U-2 plane to the mainland for reconnaissance.
When ye Changdi, who had completed the reconnaissance mission, flew the plane over Shangrao, Jiangxi Province, our missile troops had been deployed.
Ye Changdi’s “visit” once again created a meritorious opportunity for the second battalion of a certain department.
According to the speed of the enemy aircraft, Chen Huiting, the combat staff of the 2nd Battalion, speculated that the U-2 aircraft had reached 35km.
Battalion commander Yue Zhenhua issued an order without hesitation: “turn on the antenna!” After the antenna was turned on, no target was found on the three tracking displays.
The commanders and soldiers were absorbed in searching on the screen.
When the signal of half a grain of rice is exposed at the lower right end of the high-low angle guidance display, the operator quickly turns the hand wheel to lock the target, and the missile enters the automatic tracking state.
Within eight seconds, all three missiles took off.
U-2 aircraft internal alarm sound.
Aware of the imminent danger, ye Changdi made a sharp turn to avoid the attack of the first missile, but the second missile came one after another.
With a loud bang, the U-2 plane disintegrated in the air.
Ye Changdi was thrown out of the cockpit and lost consciousness.
The wreckage of the plane fell on wanluo mountain, Guangfeng county.
Ye Changdi fell into the air for two or three minutes without knowing it, and then woke up.
He quickly opened his parachute and landed on a small hill.
After landing, he tried to escape, but his legs and arms had been injured by shrapnel and could not move.
At this time, the people’s Liberation Army and the militia surrounded, and ye Changdi was caught with his hands tied.
On the afternoon of the day ye Changdi was shot down, the Kuomintang Air Force headquarters announced: “a high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft of our air force crashed during a routine reconnaissance mission over the bandit area on the afternoon of November 1.
” He flatly denied that ye was shot down by the PLA.
Five months later, the Kuomintang air force officially announced ye Changdi’s “heroic benevolence”.
In the biography of martyrs published by the Kuomintang army, ye Changdi said that “loyalty can ask heaven”.
The U-2 plane piloted by Ye Changdi was shot down.
We have conducted a serious study on the wreckage of the aircraft.
The biggest harvest is that a new antenna was found in the wreckage of Ye Changdi and an electronic early warning equipment called “No.
12 system” was found.
The “anti-interference research group” composed of the Ministry of aerospace industry and the Electronic Research Institute of the Commission of science, technology and industry for national defense installed the “No.
12 system” on the U-2 aircraft on the IL-12 aircraft for operation experiments.
It is found that as long as the signal from the missile radar is received, the system will light the fuel-saving light to warn the pilot 60 kilometers away from the missile position, and the red light will be lit to instruct the pilot to escape as soon as possible within 60 kilometers, with high-frequency scream warning.
After our researchers understood the function of “system 12”, they worked out a counter reaction method of repeated frequency to deal with the enemy, that is, tracking the enemy aircraft with false frequency, “system 12” will not respond.
When the missile is launched, they will use the true frequency to guide the missile.
At this time, system 12 has no time to respond.
This repetitive electronic reaction system is called “anti electronic early warning No. 1”. After entering 1964, our army is still looking for aircraft to attack U-2 aircraft.
On May 8, the 2nd Battalion of a surface to air missile unit, which had repeatedly made war achievements, was ordered to withdraw from the position of tumed banner in Inner Mongolia.
It was dusty and sent south to set up defense in Zhangzhou, Fujian Province.
While the mainland air force is waiting to hunt, the United States and Taiwan are also planning new reconnaissance operations.
In June, the Taiwan air force sent “number one ace” pilot Li Nanping to fly the U-2 plane to kuci Cape Air Force Base in the Philippines for standby.
Li Nanping’s main reconnaissance mission is: the relevant intelligence of the mainland’s first nuclear test entering the final on-site assembly stage and the mainland’s support for North VietnamSupply situation of.
Li Nanping is famous in Taiwan’s military circles.
As early as 1957, he flew an rf-84f reconnaissance plane across the Taiwan Strait to conduct high-altitude reconnaissance of Shanghai.
After being injured by our fighter plane, he narrowly escaped.
In 1963, Li Nanping went to the United States for training in flying U-2 aircraft.
After returning to Taiwan, he flew U-2 planes to spy on the mainland 12 times.
Chiang Kai Shek summoned the “hero to overcome difficulties” and “Flying Tiger hero” four times.
On July 7, Li Nanping flew the U-2 plane to the mainland.
In order to cooperate with his actions, the Taiwan side successively dispatched a U-2 aircraft and an rf-101 reconnaissance aircraft to flee into the mainland in order to distract the air defense attention of the people’s Liberation Army.
But these tricks have long been seen through by our ground to air missile forces.
At the Zhangzhou missile position, our army’s commanders and fighters are in full readiness.
At 12:25, Li Nanping flew the U-2 plane into the mainland and headed straight for Zhangzhou.
At 1236 hours, the U-2 plane flew 32 kilometers away from the missile position.
With the command of commander Yue Zhenhua, three sam-2 missiles soared into the air.
At this time, the early warning system on the U-2 aircraft gives an alarm.
Seeing the high-frequency repetitive pulse signal light flashing on the instrument panel, Li Nanping exclaimed to Taiwan: “No.
12 high-frequency light is on!” While operating the aircraft, it turned and disengaged at a steep slope of 30 degrees, but it was too late.
Our army’s “anti electronic early warning No.
1″ took anti early warning measures.
Before Li Nanping escaped, the missile close at hand had already exploded, and Li Nanping’s plane was shattered at an altitude of 10000 meters.
On October 16, 1964, China successfully exploded its first atomic bomb in Northwest China.
Perhaps because of Chiang’s repeated failures, or for some other reason, the United States did not let the Taiwan air force dispatch U-2 aircraft this time, but the U.S. military sailed in person to collect nuclear dust samples.
After analyzing China’s nuclear dust samples, the United States found that the Chinese used uranium 235 as nuclear fissile material rather than plutonium estimated by the United States in advance.
In order to better understand the Chinese mainland’s nuclear development plan, the Americans think it is necessary to conduct more intensive aerial monitoring of nuclear materials factories in Lanzhou and Baotou, and install an infrared night camera and an electronic interference 13 system on the U-2 aircraft.
13 mace” of the United States is another “mace” of the automatic system.
As long as the system receives the radar signal from the mainland air force, it starts to transmit the wrong signal, mislead the tracking radar of the surface to air missile, fabricate the course, altitude and speed of the U-2 aircraft, and make the sam-2 missile go astray.
“System 13” was originally equipped on the B-52 bomber.
After the Cuban missile crisis, Lockheed company slightly modified it and installed it on the U-2 aircraft that often fly to Cuba.
Since September 1964, the CIA began to install this facility on the U-2 aircraft in Taoyuan base.
Relying on this facility, Wang xijue of “black cat squadron” went to Lanzhou on November 26, 1964 for reconnaissance and espionage activities, escaped the pursuit of our surface to air missiles and narrowly flew back to Taiwan.
After the defeat in the battle of Lanzhou, our army decided to install a newly developed anti-jamming system on the guidance radar to deal with the deceptive jamming system of U-2 aircraft on the basis of carefully summarizing the experience and lessons.
At 19:56 on January 10, 1965, Zhang Liyi of “black cat squadron” flew a U-2 plane from the coast of Shandong into the mainland and headed for Baotou.
Before leaving, his boss told him that this route was a brand-new route and would never encounter PLA missiles.
But in fact, our army had already obtained intelligence before Zhang set out and was ready to intercept.
The U-2 plane passed through Huanghua and Datong and soon entered Inner Mongolia.
Zhang Liyi looked at his watch and was about to reach his goal in a quarter of an hour.
He secretly congratulated himself on his safe journey, but never thought that our missiles were waiting for him below.
At 2115 hours, three sam-2 missiles fired a flare that pierced the night sky.
Zhang Liyi never received the alarm of “No.
13 early warning system” at an altitude of 2000 meters.
Zhang Liyi was puzzled by the messy small bright spots on the display.
He thought that if he was attacked by a missile, there would be a smooth bright line on the display.
Just as he was about to open the “No.
13 system”, a fire had rushed under the wing, the whole fuselage shook violently, and the sealed cabin was dark.
Knowing that the plane had been hit, Zhang Liyi turned on the ejection device switch of the seat.
After parachuting, Zhang Liyi, after landing and waking up, found that there were people searching for him all around, so he hid.
But in front of the snare laid by the people, he became another prisoner of our army.
In the next two years, the U-2 aircraft of Taoyuan base sneaked into the mainland airspace for many times, but they were not hit.
Meijiang was very proud.
They even believe that Sino Soviet relations have deteriorated, and the Chinese air force has lost its missile source and is unable to compete with the U-2 aircraft.
As everyone knows, during this period, our army produced hongqi-2 surface to air missiles comparable to Sam missiles.
The air force has set up more ground to air missile units, and air defense nets are ready to wipe out the incoming enemy at any time.
On September 8, 1967, a U-2 plane took off from Taoyuan base and intruded into China’s southeast airspace to prepare for reconnaissance of Jiaxing airport.
After receiving the enemy’s information, the missile unit of the Air Force stationed in Shanghai immediately prepared to meet the enemy.
After the U-2 aircraft flew to Jiaxing airport, it continuously sent jamming waves to the ground guidance radar.
When the U-2 aircraft was 32 kilometers away from the missile position, three hongqi-2 missiles were launched and shot down the U-2 aircraft.
Huang rongbei, the second lieutenant pilot of the Kuomintang air force in the plane, was in darkness.
The horizon disappeared in his mind.
He became the last pilot of the “black cat squadron” shot down by our air force.
After entering 1968, the Kuomintang air force stopped using U-2 aircraft to conduct in-depth reconnaissance on the mainland, and the cooperation between the Taiwan air force and the U-2 aircraft of the US Central Intelligence Agency ended temporarily.
While meddling in Asian affairs, the United States has never relaxed in the Middle East and has repeatedly provoked trouble in the Middle East.