not only aroused New Nationalism in the printing industry, but also brought about the transformation of social consciousness. After the rise of printing industry, the role of pulpit was gradually replaced by other things. First monthly bulletins and pamphlets in the 16th and 17th centuries, and finally developed into periodicals and newspapers.

the front page of Gutenberg Bible, the first movable type printing in Europe, was printed in Mainz, Germany from 1454 to 1455 by the same celebrity Gutenberg.

this article is extracted from World History: Renaissance to the 16th century, published by new world press in September 2014.

the contribution of printing to European religion.

when Protestantism prevailed, the Roman Catholic Church also made full use of the printing industry. Before the advent of printing, the entire community of priests in the Christian world could only rely on handwritten prayers that were often wrong in mass. However, after the development of the printing industry, the new version unified the words and rituals, so as to unify the prayers heard by Catholics everywhere and the rituals attended.

another advantage of the church with relatively complete system is that the unification of ritual provisions can prevent some malicious changes to the worship ceremony. Other important theological works, such as the Christian creed written by St. Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century, also rose again with the help of the printing industry. As the scale of prayer of ordinary believers and priests is gradually expanded, the scope of prayer can be limited to ordinary believers and priests.

printing promotes the “secularization” of European Society “

however, no matter what the specific belief is, the printing industry always plays a positive role in promoting religion. In the early stage of fighting against “illiterate Turks” in the Gutenberg Crusade, printing played an important role and was widely praised. A century later, John fox, an activist of the British Protestant reform movement and author of the popular book of martyrs in the 16th century, wrote: “the Lord no longer uses the sword to conquer his prominent enemies. His weapons are writing, reading and printing.” Whether Roman Catholics or Protestants, whether literate or illiterate, whether poor or rich, the by-products of Protestant reform and the development of printing industry have completely changed the way European people look at the state, church, city and family. We are so used to seeing a vivid portrait of public figures that we don’t realize how difficult it is to see the “portrait” of a country. Of course, the portraits of national rulers are usually engraved on coins, but it is likely that the concept of “celebrity” and the national temperament represented by the monarch emerged due to the clear and straightforward way of information transmission in the printing industry.

,

,

and

not only arouse new nationalism in the printing industry, but also bring about the transformation of social consciousness. The parish church has always played the role of the social and political activity center of the town residents. The news is uploaded from the pulpit and then transmitted to each other through the ears and oral statements of relatives and friends. After the rise of printing industry, the role of pulpit was gradually replaced by other things. First monthly bulletins and pamphlets in the 16th and 17th centuries, and finally developed into periodicals and newspapers. By the 19th century, people could just stay at home on Sunday morning and get all the other information from the newspaper, such as whose family had a child, whose family died and political events.

the front page of the bulletin, the earliest known newspaper in Europe, was printed and published by John Carlos in Rhine, Germany.

printing scattered European society into small units.

in addition to contributing to the formation of a “secular” society, those bulletins, pamphlets, periodicals and newspapers also enabled people to participate in politics in another way. In the past, people had to attend rallies to hear public speeches. Now people are scattered in different places and use their own convenience to read reports with the same content. As a result, the scope of communities once based on churches and families is expanding day by day. People can show solidarity with people far away from their own areas. People do not have to personally experience civic and public activities; They can read newspapers afterwards to learn about the relevant situation, or even indirectly get the feeling of the activity by buying commemorative newspapers and items.

we can use a small example to describe this decentralized audience and its society. For example, in a classroom, when students do not have to sit in front of the professor to listen and study, students will be scattered everywhere. However, even if students sit in the same classroom, each student’s reading behavior is not always in step. When students silently read handouts by themselves, because they read at different speeds, the time they receive information is not different. When the professor asked the students to turn their attention back to the podium in front of the classroom, the students with different steps were unified again. Historian Elizabeth Eisenstein pointed out in her important research on the impact of the printing industry: “society is composed of scattered small units, in other words, individuals precede the collective, which is more applicable to the reader than the listener.”

European wood movable type printing workshop in the 16th century.

printing preserves and records the local language

. Although this decentralized social form will have some adverse effects on social cohesion on the surface (the smaller the scope, the more so), the force of social unity still exists. We agree that language will bring people together and awaken people’s sense of nationalism, and the printing industry plays a vital role in preserving and recording local languages.

Eisenstein proposed that in the 16th century, in areas where printing technology was not used, some minority groups speaking special dialects were not protectedLeave behind the written works they once owned. At the same time, in areas where printing technology is used, the dialect characters used by the same minority dialect groups have been retained and even enriched. In the latter case, we can see the formation process of a national character and culture; In the former case, usually only the oral dialects used in a certain area are left. The rise of

,

,

,

printing industry consolidated and developed the language. The rise of

,

,

and

printing industry also affected the development of language. Just as the printed books consolidated the Catholic liturgy in those years, the printed words also consolidated and developed the language. Although the standardization of language and the form of language will be subject to many factors such as politics, society and economy, the development of printing industry still has a vital impact on language development.

let’s take English as an example to explain this problem in detail. The development history of English language can be roughly divided into three stages: the first stage is the Old English period, which starts and ends from the Germanic occupation in 449 to the Norman Conquest in 1066; After that, it was the second stage until 1500, that is, the medieval English period; From 1500 to now, it is the third stage, that is, the modern English period. In the period of Old English and medieval English, the changes of English were relatively violent, and the differences between regions were very obvious. Until the 9th century, England was divided into many small kingdoms, and people from different kingdoms spoke different dialects. Even in Chaucer’s period 500 years later, dialects still vary greatly from place to place.

later, when London became the political center of Britain, it meant that the London dialect immediately became a local language with important national influence, laying the foundation for the standard English spoken today. Caxton then set up a printing plant in London, England, which made London the center of the British printing industry. At the same time, it also meant that a large number of printed words would be printed and published in the form of London dialect.

say