Chapter 1 Lei Zu’s mother’s family – another root of the Chinese civilization of Xiling country

after Xiling came out of China first,

Xiling country memorabilia

Chapter 2 the surname Xu came out of the world –

The legendary heroes of

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in the state of Xu, which have lasted for thousands of years, The tyrant

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in history

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the king of Xu Yan who lost his country in benevolence and righteousness

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inherited the surname

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of Xu for thousands of generations. Chapter III

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the key to the treasure of ancient Chinese history – Yong country

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Yong country, the source of Chinese civilization?

the Yong state

the unique characteristics of the Yong state culture

hid in the peach blossom garden,

Chapter IV paradise of the Ba people — the

paradise of the Ba country, Where do you come from

interpret the sad and beautiful fairy legend of

of Ba culture

Chapter 5 of the chronicles of the state of Pakistan

looming history — the drowning city of

of the state of election and the

of the state of election

Chapter 6 “the kingdom of unknown Han” – the

of the kingdom of Yunnan, the mysterious and unique culture

of the Kingdom of Yunnan

chronicles of Yunnan

Chapter 7 looks for its trace in the gap of history – qiongdu

qiongdu and the legendary

large stone tomb and its mystery

chronicles of qiongdu

Chapter 8 paradise in the western regions –

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hidden behind the “seven grid Star House” of Yanqi

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what

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is buried in the

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and “high and magnificent city” of Yanqi horse

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Chapter IX important town of Anxi – Silk Road hub of

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in Shule country. Geng Gong, the Buddhist country of western regions,

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in Shule, is dependent on life and death. He sits in Shule and guards the

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in western regions. His heart is in the Han Dynasty, Shule wholeheartedly joins hands with the Central Plains

the love between the prince and the shepherdess

the chronicles of the state of Shule

Chapter 10 the wasteland and wasteland in the spring and Autumn Period – the

of the state of Cheshi in the five Western Han Dynasties,

Chapter 11 media spreading from the west to the East – Kang Ju Guo

Hu Xuan female

Kang Ju lived in the cracks, and

was the ancestor of Huayan,

Chapter 12 of the chronicles of the Kangju state

in the Kangju Dharma possession

in the south of the five ridges for nearly a hundred years – the first national

in the South Yue kingdom with Guangzhou as its capital, Zhao Tuocheng, the Royal Palace of the South Yue,

“no one can solve the mystery of the South Vietnam country

the tomb of the treasures of the South Vietnam King’s tomb

the chronicles of the South Vietnam country

Chapter 13 a vein of the state of Yue – the descendants of Gou Jian of the

of the state of Fujian and Vietnam created the

of the state of Fujian and Vietnam

the colorful Minyue culture

the peculiar customs inherited by the Minyue people for thousands of years

Chapter 14 of the memorabilia of Minyue state

Tuyuhun went away from home and became an enemy of the Central Plains, resulting in the destruction of the tomb of the princess

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, Occasionally open the mysterious door of history

the last virgin land of the Silk Road threatened by thieves

the chronicles of the Tuyuhun Khanate

Chapter 15 the king of Yunnan – Nanzhao state

Ye Jia escaped the disaster and became the ancestor of Nanzhao king

the relocation and capital establishment of Nanzhao

defeated the Tang Dynasty three times. Although Nanzhao was small, it should not be underestimated

chronicles of Nanzhao

Chapter 16 legend on the snowy plateau – the

of Tubo ”

“the birth of an ancient kingdom in the forbidden zone of life

Princess Wencheng and her mysterious life

Princess Jincheng and those legends that can’t tell the taste

capture xiaobolu and seize the frontier, and fight wits and courage between Tang and Tubo

“Striving for expansion, Tubo has made great achievements

made enemies on all sides, and Tubo finally reaped its own fruits

important events of Tubo

chapter 17 dominating the kingdom of Qinghai Tibet in Gaoyuan -” Guge state

“Guge Silver Eye” and Dynasty ruins

The highland regime following the Tubo state

mysteriously disappeared overnight

important events of Guge state

Chapter 18 immediately Wu Shanzhi unpaid – the state of Jin

unite the Song Dynasty to destroy the Liao Dynasty and establish the great state of Jin

“The iron cavalry of the immortal trampled on the mountains and rivers of the Han family

the dissolute and cruel Hailing King became the laughing stock of history

the story between the death of the immortal and the song and Jin Dynasties

a cycle of history

the great events of the state of Jin

postscript

birth and disappearance are two major themes of human society. One of the characteristics of human beings different from other animals is that they constantly give birth to new things and constantly pursue the history of disappearance.

in Chinese mythology, the Phoenix is a divine beast that combines birth and disappearance – the Phoenix is reborn in its own ashes.

rather than” Phoenix Nirvana ” It is a myth, rather than a true portrayal of human society. Just like in China, there have been many ancient countries in the past thousands of years. They disappeared one after another, and then, on their ruins, a new country was born. The wheel of history ran over. When all ancient countries turned into dust, on this ruins, the Chinese nation broke down and then established, creating today’s China.

is not a narrow term for the Chinese nation and the Chinese people. Looking at the history of those lost ancient countries, we can truly feel that today’s 56 ethnic groups in China can be called the Chinese nation and the Chinese people. We are connected by blood and inseparable, which can be proved by the history of those scattered ancient countries.

history is a strange knowledge. This knowledge does not seem to be related to our lives, but almost everyone has a desire to understand history. This is human nature – the more it disappears, the more people want to find out the truth. We want to know where

come from. Just like the little dragon man in the TV series “Little Dragon man” more than ten years ago, we try to solve all mysteries about ourselves. It is from this nature that we want to understand the history of those lost ancient countries. In the previous book, we introduced readers to 18 ancient countries that have been lost. In history, those 18 ancient countries are famous. In this book, we also introduce 18 lost ancient countries, most of which are unknown. Whether famous or unknown, these ancient countries are inextricably linked with us today. According to the theory of “Butterfly Effect”, without these ancient countries, we might not be today. Therefore, any ancient country that once existed on the land of China is of great significance to every Chinese.

people familiar with history know that the more unknown history is, the more valuable it is. When we know that Lei Zu came from Xiling state, we know that the combination of the Yellow Emperor and Lei Zu is not accidental; When we know that the state of Xu is the leader of the Dongyi group, we know the origin of the surname Xu; When we understand the scene of the demise of Yong state, we know the origin of “”; When we interpret the myth of Pakistan, we can see the historical truth that may be hidden behind the goddess and sex…

of course, because most of them are ancient countries with unknown origin and have been lost, it is more difficult to understand their history. Few people have the opportunity to read the books, and few people have the time to ask up and down and check again and again. In the history books of the past dynasties, the records of some ancient countries may be only a few words, or even no records at all.

in order to provide readers with an opportunity to understand history more comprehensively, the editors try their best to find the history of these ancient countries and dedicate them to readers. Although we cannot completely restore the style and features of these ancient countries, we can still “see the leopard from the fragments of history”. Of course, the editor hopes to introduce all the mysteriously disappeared ancient countries to the readers in detail. However, Shi Hai’s sinking is not simple. Many regrets have occurred. We can only speculate the overall situation in the fragments.

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are also due to the fragmentation of historical materials and the lack of talent and learning of the editor. Although carefully verified, there are still some omissions and mistakes in this bookNow. If readers find any mistakes, please don’t hesitate to comment.

the former civilization has become the yellow flower of yesterday, and the relics of the ancient country have been incomplete. Now, let’s make a cup of tea and turn over the forgotten history in the fragrance of tea.

Xiling kingdom is an ancient country in legend. Many people do not know its existence. As the Chinese people call themselves, we should understand its past, because it is also a source of the blood of the Chinese nation.

Xiling Kingdom, as the first ancient country at the beginning of this book, is well deserved.

it is not surprising that many people do not know the existence of Xiling state. Strictly speaking, this ancient country only exists in the records of historical books. Taishigong recorded in the records of the Five Emperors: “the Yellow Emperor lived in the hill of Xuanyuan and married the daughter of Xiling family. Lei Zu was the emperor’s imperial concubine and had two sons. After that, he had all the world.

” justice “explained: “Xiling is also the name of the country.” The combination of these two historical materials means that the Yellow Emperor who lived in Xuanyuan Hill (now northwest of Xinzheng, Henan Province) married the daughter of the king of Xiling. In other words, Lei Zu, the wife of the Yellow Emperor, our most respected ancestor, was originally from Xiling. We all believe that the Yellow Emperor and Lei Zu are real people. Therefore, the Xiling state may indeed exist. So, where is the Xiling state? According to the textual research of experts and scholars, Yanting County, Mianyang City, Sichuan Province is where the Xiling state was located.

Yanting County was named after its proximity to salt wells that produce salt. In modern times, people have found a large number of unearthed sericulture relics, fossils, Leizu cultural relics and the monument of Leizu Holy Land in Yanting, as well as many legends about Leizu’s discovery of natural insects and sericulture. Therefore, people believe that Yanting County should be the birthplace of Lei Zu and the location of Xiling state. There is also a Leizu mountain 60 kilometers south of Yanting County, on which there is a Leizu cave, which is said to be the birthplace of Leizu. At the end of the last century, two stone carvings were found in the local zujiawan ancient tombs, namely, the picture of chief Xuanyuan praying for the new year and the picture of Fusang watching the night in the ruins of Chiyou after the wind. Today, every place name related to silk weaving in Yanting has a story about Leizu’s sericulture and weaving industry, and the people still retain the folk custom of offering sacrifices to Leizu every year.

of course, Yanting is only an area under the jurisdiction of Xiling state. The exact extent of the Xiling Kingdom’s sphere of influence cannot be verified by detailed data. Today, people can only guess. There is a river in Yanting called gurgling water, which was called Xiling River in ancient times. The ancient tribes living nearby at that time built the Xiling vassal state along the Xiling River and chose the leader of the tribe who later gave birth to Lei Zu as the chief. Its power reached Zitong, Jiange, Zhaohua and Guangyuan in today’s Sichuan in the north, Santai, Zhongjiang and Guanghan in Sichuan in the west, Shehong and Pengxi in Sichuan in the south, Langzhong, southern, Yilong and Bazhong in Sichuan in the East.

Xiling kingdom is an extraordinary ancient kingdom in the ancient Bashu region. People once unearthed bronze kneeling figurines 60 cm high in Xiling, which are older than Sanxingdui. There is also an ancient boundary monument, which is engraved with more than 50 lines of symbols similar to the characters, which is similar to the symbols engraved on Banpo painted pottery in Xi’an. It belongs to the cultural relics before 4500 BC. In terms of time, it is much older than the characters in the period of Lianghe civilization and Egyptian civilization.

then why did Xiling people gather and settle here? This is closely related to the geographical conditions of Yanting area.

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Bashu is known as the “land of abundance” since ancient times. It has very suitable living environmental conditions. There are mountains, water and hills in the territory, which belongs to subtropical climate. The temperature difference between the four seasons is small, which is especially suitable for the growth of all kinds of plants and crops. Yanting generation was the opening of the Yangtze River, located in the southwest of Jingshan mountain and the east of Wushan mountain, with a radius of hundreds of miles. According to the widely recognized theory of human origin, the types of local people should be the descendants of late Homo sapiens who arrived in southern China from Africa. They had little contact with primitive humans living in the Central Plains at the beginning, but their physiological characteristics should not be much different. “Spekds”, “spkds”, “spekds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spekds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spekds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “sp. At that time, the Yangtze River had not yet been dredged. The Xiling area of Sichuan was seriously flooded, and the flood was often inundated for months or even years. The clan community could not live along the river, and only Yanting area was conducive to human habitation. There is a leiqiu (Leigong Mountain) near Yanting, which was once inhabited by the Lei tribe in the tribal alliance of Xiling state. This tribe lives on hunting and planting, and nourishes silkworm reeling and weaving. Xu Lei tribe is the tribe where the ruler of Xiling state is located, and the name of Lei Zu may also be related to the word “Lei” of Lei tribe. After the arrival of the Yellow Emperor, Xiling state was unified with the Central Plains due to the marriage between Lei Zu and the Yellow Emperor. It should also have experienced a period of considerable prosperity.

in the previous book, we once introduced the mysterious ancient Shu state. The ancient Shu state appeared in the Sichuan Basin several years after Xiling state, and it also had a mysterious relationship with Xiling state. Was it the Xiling people who founded the ancient Shu state? Or did the Xiling state perish by the tribes that established the ancient Shu state? Did the people of Xiling survive under the rule of ancient Shu, or were they expelled or even completely eliminated? History does not tell us the answer, and no one knows the right answer.

Lei Zu, also known as “silkworm mother” in the folk. She is the wife of the Yellow Emperor and an ancient womanThe first lady of China. She had two sons with the Yellow Emperor: xuanxiao and Changyi. According to the records of the historical records, the emperors of Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties, the twelve princes of the spring and Autumn period and the ancestors of the seven heroes of the Warring States period all came from the blood lines of the Yellow Emperor and Lei Zu.

about 4500 years ago, the Yellow Emperor went to Chengdu plain to marry Lei Zu. The Yellow Emperor is the Chinese Communist after the Yan Emperor. He was originally the monarch of the Xiong state, called Xuanyuan, and was active in today’s Henan and Shanxi areas; Lei Zu was the daughter of the king of Xiling. Why did the Yellow Emperor travel all the way from the Central Plains to Chengdu Plain in the southwest to marry Lei Zu? Perhaps this is related to the advanced civilization of the ancient Shu people – after Lei Zu married the Yellow Emperor, she brought the advanced sericulture civilization to the Central Plains, which changed the process of the Central Plains Civilization.

the story of the Yellow Emperor marrying Lei Zu can be found in Shiben, the book of rites and historical records, but they are only a few words, and folk legends should be more specific and vivid. According to the legend of

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, on the lush Chengdu Plain, the king of Xiling kingdom had a beautiful and kind daughter. She worked hard every day and went out to pick wild fruits. After picking the wild fruits nearby, she traveled mountains and rivers to pick them in the distance. But before long, the wild fruits in the distance were also harvested. The girl burst into tears at the thought of starving the old and young of the family.

the Jade Emperor was very moved when he heard this, so he beat down the sin Fairy “Ma touniang” in the heaven and turned it into a silkworm that eats mulberry leaves and spits silk. The silkworm sent the mulberry fruit from the mulberry tree to the girl’s mouth. When the girl ate it, she felt sour and sweet, so she picked many and took them back to the people to eat. In summer, silkworms begin to spin silk to make cocoons. Seeing that the silk was both tenacious and light, the girl woven it into clothes for the people. Silk woven clothes are cool in hot weather and warm in winter. They are very comfortable to wear. Inspired, the girl took the silkworms home and fed them. She gradually mastered the skills of raising silkworms and the skills of silk reeling and weaving, and taught these records to the people. The people of Xiling

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countries no longer wore bark and animal skin, but wore beautiful and lightweight silk. Therefore, people call the king’s daughter “Lei Zu”. The news that Lei Zu invented sericulture and silk weaving soon spread all over China. The Yi people in the East and the Yue people in the South all came to Xiling state to propose to Lei Zu, but they were politely refused. Finally, the Yellow Emperor also proposed to Xiling state. They fell in love at first sight and became friends of Qin and Jin Dynasties. The Yellow Emperor became the son-in-law of the king of Xiling state.

after marrying the Yellow Emperor, Lei Zu may have lived on the Chengdu Plain with the Yellow Emperor for a long time. According to the historical records, their two sons, the eldest son Xuan Xiao, were born near the “River”, which is now the Qingyi River (today’s Leshan area); Chang Yi, the second son, was born near Ruoshui, on the Bank of Yalong River in Western Sichuan.

the combination of Lei Zu and the Yellow Emperor is not a simple wedding. Under the premise of marriage, the Xiling state and the Yellow Emperor tribe have gradually come together. The Huangdi tribe in the Central Plains originally didn’t know about sericulture. Lei Zu brought the advanced sericulture and silk reeling technology of Chengdu plain to the Central Plains, and this time is probably the time when sericulture appeared in the Central Plains Civilization. From Xiling Sinology to sericulture and silk reeling technology, and from Emperor Yan to farming technology, the Yellow Emperor tribe gradually became stronger and gradually migrated eastward. At this time, the Yellow Emperor tribe was no longer the backward nomadic nationality.

at this time, the Central Plains was unstable, and the southern Jiuli tribal alliance attacked the central plains under the leadership of Chi you.

Jiuli tribe is a large alliance, which is composed of many tribes. Each tribe has its own leader, and the most powerful tribal leader is the common leader of Jiuli tribe, which is the origin of the legend of “Chi you has 81 brothers”. They were originally the same as the Yandi tribe, a little southwest of today’s Weishui basin. Yan Emperor Shennong’s family passed to Emperor Yuwang (W) ǎ NG) in this generation, the national power is gradually weakening, and the tribes that originally surrendered are competing for each other. Among them, the most powerful and aggressive is the Jiuli nationality. Because they lived together with Emperor Yan, some records also said that they were also after Emperor Yan.

the culture of the Jiuli nationality is not backward. It is said that they were the first tribes to use bronze ware. At that time, the copper mine of the nine clans was smelted, and the bronze weapons were collected and made by the nine clans in Shunhong. At this time, it was the Neolithic period. The weapons of other tribes were still some stone knives and bone knives. The combat effectiveness of Jiuli tribe was amazing for other tribes. People hated and feared Jiuli, so that Chi you was later described as a terrible monster.

in the face of the attack of Jiuli tribe, Yandi tribe made every effort to resist. At first, Emperor Yan adopted a policy of reconciliation, but the Jiuli tribe still didn’t stop fighting everywhere. Other tribes complained. When Emperor Yan woke up, the Jiuli tribe was extremely powerful. Finally, the “battle of Zhuolu” between the two groups took place in Zhuolu, Hebei today. The Yandi tribe was beaten down, and the victorious Chiyou invaded and merged everywhere. The whole China was headless and in chaos. The defeated Yan Emperor had to ask the Yellow Emperor for help.

at this time, the Yellow Emperor had returned to the state of Youxiong with Lei Zu and his son. Through this trip to Xiling state, the Yellow Emperor has contacted some tribes long oppressed by Chiyou, including Xiling state. The joining of these tribes is the premise for the Yellow Emperor to defeat Chiyou.

the Yellow Emperor was determined to kill Chiyou, but he did not want to follow the mistakes of Emperor Yan. In order to deal with the bronze weapons of Jiuli tribe, he ordered people to train beasts to fight; In addition, the Yellow Emperor tribe has a powerful weapon, bow and arrow. In the age of cold weapons, bows and arrows are definitely a terrible and effective weapon. There are also several generals under the Yellow Emperor, the most famous