during the Sui and Tang Dynasties, there were many tribes scattered in today’s Yunnan, with many names and difficult to win. In terms of race, there are mainly white man and black man.

in the early Tang Dynasty, wuman generally still lived a life of animal husbandry and could not spin. Both men and women made clothes from cow and sheep skin, and its social development was relatively backward. From the early to the middle of the 7th century, wuman conquered the local Baiman and established six imperial edicts. Wuman called the king an imperial edict, and the six imperial edicts were six kingdoms. The six imperial edicts are: mengshe imperial edict, also known as Nanzhao, is located in the southernmost part of Weishan County; Mengq Zhao, in the north of Weishan County, is the North neighbor of mengshe Zhao; Yue analyzed the imperial edict, which is now in Binchuan and Fengyi counties; Teng D ǎ n) Zhao, in today’s Dengchuan County; Langqiong imperial edict, in today’s Eryuan County; Shi langzhao is in the northeast of Fuzhao.

in 654 A.D. (the fifth year of Yonghui), Zhang lejin, the mengshe imperial edict, begged to give way to Xi nuluo, who came to Nanzhao to settle down in order to avoid revenge. After Xi nuluo ascended the throne, he sent his son to the Tang Dynasty as a pledge in order to get the protection of the Tang Dynasty.

after the 1970s, Tubo forces entered the north of Erhai Lake area. Nanzhao was the farthest away from Tubo and was less threatened, so it was still attached to Tibet. In order to resist spitting savings, the Tang Dynasty strongly supported Nanzhao in the war of reunification. In 713 ad (the first year of Kaiyuan), Xuanzong granted piroge of Nanzhao as the king of taideng Prefecture. In February 729 (the 17th year of Kaiyuan), Tang defeated Tubo and captured Kunming Yancheng (now Yanyuan). Among the six imperial edicts, Deng Fuzhao, langqiong Zhao and Shi langzhao were attached to Tubo, while yuexie Zhao, mengcui Zhao and mengshe Zhao (Nanzhao) were attached to the Tang Dynasty. When

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arrived at piroge, king of Nanzhao, Nanzhao had the strongest strength and planned to unify the six imperial edicts. In order to alleviate the border problems with Tubo, the Tang Dynasty strongly supported the Nanzhao to unify all tribes. With the support of the Tang Dynasty, Nanzhao successively conquered the Baiman tribes in the West Erhe river area, replaced the “Baizi state”, destroyed the other five imperial edicts, unified the Erhai area, established a unified Nanzhao state, and set its capital Taihe city (south of Dali City). The unification of Erhai area by Nanzhao was undoubtedly an important step in the unification of the Tang Dynasty. It not only had a significant and far-reaching impact on the politics, economy, culture and military of the Han nationality in Yunnan, but also laid a foundation for the formation of the Bai nationality. In order to commend the meritorious service of the piroge of Nanzhao in unifying Erhai area, the Tang Court canonized him as the “king of Nanzhao” in 738 (the 26th year of Kaiyuan).

however, Nanzhao’s ambition did not end there. After the successful unification of the six imperial edicts, they hoped to rule a larger area, which was in contradiction with the Tang Dynasty, which hoped that the surrounding small countries would check and balance each other.

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soon after Nanzhao unified Erhai area, they took advantage of the turmoil of Cuan in eastern Yunnan to move eastward and annex Cuan, which had a fierce conflict with the Tang Dynasty. Nanzhao defeated the Tang army with the support of Tubo. The Tang Dynasty was forced to withdraw from Yunnan after the defeat of the Tianbao war. Nanzhao rapidly expanded its power and unified Yunnan. Because the defeat of Nanzhao in the Tang Dynasty mainly depended on the support of Tubo, Tubo’s control over Nanzhao in politics, military and economy continued to strengthen. Since the Qin and Han Dynasties, the Han culture has been deeply rooted in Yunnan, but after the Tianbao war, the influence of the Han culture on Yunnan has weakened due to the withdrawal of the political and military forces of the Tang Dynasty from Yunnan.

since then, Nanzhao had a long-term struggle with the Tang Dynasty and Tubo. After the Tianbao war, Tubo’s political and military forces were continuously strengthened in the

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, and some of the rules and regulations of the Nanzhao were greatly influenced by Tubo. However, Tubo’s control over Nanzhao was very short. In less than half a century, Nanzhao still “abandoned Tibet and returned to Tang”. In 794 ad (the 10th year of Zhenyuan reign of emperor Dezong of the Tang Dynasty), Nanzhao held an oath of alliance with envoys of the Tang Dynasty at DIANCANG mountain shrine on the Erhai sea. Facing the three natural gods of heaven, earth and water and the spirits of the four blasphemies of the five mountains, Yimou Xun, the head of Nanzhao, led the Minister of civil and military affairs to swear: “please all belong to the Han Dynasty (i.e. the Tang Dynasty)”. The tribal leaders under the jurisdiction of Nanzhao also said: I would like to return to Qinghua and swear to be Han officials forever. The Tang Court canonized Yimou Xun as “Nanzhao king” and granted “Nanzhao seal”; The “Yunnan pacification envoy Department” is set up in the territory under the command of Nanzhao, and the governor of the administrative region is “Yunnan pacification envoy”, which is concurrently held by the Jiannan Xichuan Festival envoy, and the Nanzhao is controlled by the Yunnan pacification envoy. Since the Nanzhao was attached to the Tang Dynasty again, Nanzhao got rid of the suppression and oppression of Tubo, and made great progress in social economy. Erhai area became the capital of Nanzhao. Ten eyelids, centered on Dali City (today’s Dali County), was the political, social, economic and cultural center of Nanzhao. These ten cities are Yunnan Province (today’s Xiangyun and Binchuan), Pintan county (today’s Xiangyun County), Baiya county (today’s Midu red cliff), Zhaochuan county (today’s Dali Fengyi), mengshe county (today’s Weishan), Mengqin county (today’s Yangxi), Chuan county (today’s Dengchuan), Dahe county (also known as Yihe County, today’s Dali Taihe Village), jubaa county (today’s ancient city of Dali County) Dali Prefecture (also known as Shi Prefecture, today Dali Prefecture). In Shiyun area, the former Kunming barbarians, Yunnan barbarians, Ailao barbarians, xi’erhe barbarians, K and Han surnames lived together in the same area. In the long-term economic, political and cultural exchanges, they exchanged and integrated with each other. The differences between the original barbarians gradually disappeared, forming a common economic life, a common political system, a common language and a common culture, Merge into a new people’s community. The original names of Ailao, Kunming, Yunnan, nongdong, green sandfly and Heman also disappeared, that is, the boundary between “wuman” and “Baiman” in the early stage no longer existed, and a common special name appeared.

after the 930s, the contradiction between Nanzhao and Tang Dynasty intensified again, and wars continued. In 830 ad (the fourth year of emperor Wenzong Taihe), Nanzhao captured Chengdu, plundered men and women, hundreds of thousands of workers and precious goods, causing huge losses to the Tang Dynasty.

in 877 A.D. (the fourth year of Ganfu of emperor Xi of Tang Dynasty), the chief of Nanzhao, the Dragon died, and Zifa (Longshen) ascended the throne, calling himself “Da Feng Ren”. “Enfeoffment of people” is also known as “enfeoffment of people”. The ancient pronunciation of “Feng” reads “bang”, which has the same meaning. “Seal””Bang” and “K” have the same pronunciation. “Seal people” is “K people”. Nanzhao called the ten branches of Erhai Lake “Dafeng”, that is, the “great K country”. The word “K” is also called “white”. The emergence of the special name “Dafeng people” indicates that after nearly a century of conflict and integration, Zhuman in Erhai has formed a nation with great influence in Chinese History: Bai nationality.

under the influence of the powerful Tang Dynasty, Nanzhao developed rapidly, established a fairly complete political power organization with reference to the Tang system, and implemented the land equalization system. Nanzhao’s textile technology was originally relatively low, but since Chengdu’s weavers entered Yunnan, Nanzhao’s

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weaving technology has caught up with the level of the Tang Dynasty. The smelting technology of Nanzhao is also quite advanced. Its wave sword, Yu Dao, duo scabbard and other weapons are extremely sharp and famous. Most of the buildings in Nanzhao imitated the Tang system. The existing Dali Chongsheng temple tower in the Nanzhao period is towering and spectacular. It was designed and built by Gong Tao and Weiyi, a craftsman of the Han nationality. In the later period of Nanzhao, the ministers were autocratic and the internal contradictions of the ruling class intensified. In 902 ad (the second year of Tianfu of the Tang Dynasty), Zheng Maisi, the seventh grandson of Zheng Hui, a minister of the Han nationality, overthrew the Mengshi Nanzhao, established himself as king and changed the country’s name to “dachanghe”. After experiencing “dachanghe”, “datianxing” and “Dayi Ning”, the Dali state that we know well appeared. After

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piroge unified the six imperial edicts, he moved the ruling center from Weishan (located in the south of Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture in the west of Yunnan Province) to Cang’er (i.e. Cangshan and Erhai in Yunnan Province). Since then, although the capital of Nanzhao state has changed frequently in Dali (located in Xizhou Town, Dali City), Taihe city (located at the foot of heding peak in the west of Taihe village, Qiliqiao Township, Dali City) and Yangju baa city (also known as Yangju mouth Grass City, located at the foot of Zhonghe peak, Cangshan Mountain in the south of Dali City), they are all between the east of Cangshan Mountain and the two passes (Longshou pass and Longwei pass) on the West Bank of Erhai Lake, It lasted 163 years without major changes. This was determined by the interaction of many factors such as nature, politics, economy, military and so on.

moving the capital is not just a change of geographical location. Once a regime consciously moves the location of the ruling center, most of them will eventually choose a geographical location with better conditions than the original location. The political, economic and military aspects must have advantages and long-term interests at that time. Such a move to the capital. It often makes the regime strong and peak. However, if the relocation of the capital is forced by natural and man-made disasters, it is often a sign that a regime begins to shake and decline. In the early Shang Dynasty, the capital was frequently moved, and it was not until the reign of Pan Geng that the capital was finally settled in Anyang (now Henan). Since then, the Yin and Shang Dynasties entered a period of 273 years of stable development and peaking. At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, due to the rebellion of powerful officials, the capital was forced to change repeatedly under the orders of others, which became the unfortunate symbol of the demise of the Eastern Han Dynasty.

for Nanzhao, moving the capital from Weishan to Cang’er area is an important choice for its own development. Its move to the capital is very wise in nature, politics, economy, military and other aspects.

Nanzhao moved its capital from Weishan to canger area. An important objective factor is the difference in geographical environment and economic development level between the two regions.

Weishan, the birthplace of Nanzhao, is located at the north end of Ailao Mountain and Wuliang Mountain, in the south of Cang’er area. There are also flat areas suitable for human survival and development. In the early Tang Dynasty, where the land was fertile, it was a good place to plant rice. However, the climate of Weishan has distinct dry and wet seasons, and the drought in spring is very serious. Moreover, the surrounding steep mountains hinder the traffic with the outside world. More disadvantageous is that according to ancient documents, miasma is rampant in Weishan area. Malaria refers to infectious diseases such as falciparum malaria prevalent in subtropical humid areas, which could directly threaten human life in ancient times. In contrast, at that time, the natural environment, transportation and socio-economic development between the two customs in Cang’er area were far better than that in Weishan. Moving the capital from Weishan to Cang

Er area is undoubtedly the best choice. Another important reason why Nanzhao moved its capital was driven by political factors. At that time, the young Nanzhao was full of vitality. Although it basically unified Erhai area with the support of the Tang Dynasty, this was not its ultimate goal. As an emerging minority regime, their ideal is to develop themselves, seek expansion and expand their power. Ten years after moving its capital to Cang’er area, Nanzhao intervened in the contradiction between the Tang Dynasty and the Cuan department and merged the Cuan department, and then set up troops to rebel against the Tang Dynasty. It is because Nanzhao originally wanted to expand its power, and moving its capital is the premise of power expansion. Having the capital between Cang’er can further improve the Tang Dynasty and make friends with Tubo; To the East, you can occupy Dianchi Lake area, and to the west, you can control Yongchang and bring the farther west into the sight of Nanzhao king.

piroge, the wise Nanzhao king, his move to move the capital in 739 (the 26th year of Kaiyuan of Tang Dynasty) paved a way to the peak for his successor.

pigoro first set the capital in Taihe city.

Taihe city is built on the gentle slope between the peak of Cangshan Buddha and Wuzhi Mountain. The precipitous Cangshan Mountain forms a natural barrier in the west of the ancient city, and the Erhai Lake water area is separated from a vast expanse in the east of the ancient city. It was not easy to cross Cangshan Mountain and Erhai Lake. Therefore, Nanzhao did not waste energy and built a square city like most cities in China. Taihe city has mainly strengthened the defense forces in the South and North. The city wall is mainly built in the South and North. It is open to Cangshan in the west, with mountains as the wall, Erhai in the East and water as the pool. However, the west half of the inner city of Taihe City, the west half of the city wall of King Kong City and the west section of the North-South city wall of the outer city actually played the role of the west city wall.

the walls of Taihe city are mainly made of rammed earth. In different sections, according to the terrainThe soil quality is mixed with rock and sand. While building the city wall, Nanzhao people made use of the terrain of Cangshan Mountain again. In some sections, they made use of the gullies formed by the alternation of hillsides and streams, which greatly increased the height of the city wall; The stream running down Cangshan Mountain is also used as the natural moat of the ancient city. In this way, “with mountains as walls and water as trenches, it is very difficult to attack from the back.”.

in order to strengthen the defense around the capital, piroge built a “Longkou City” 32 kilometers north of Taihe city to block the enemy in the north; Ge Luofeng built a “dragon tail city” on the North Bank of Xi’er river about 13 kilometers south of Taihe city to resist the attack from the south, East and West. The two cities are like the North-South portals of the capital, forming horns and effectively ensuring the safety of the capital.

at present, most of the palace and remains of Taihe city cannot be identified. The King Kong City recorded in historical records is the summer palace of Nanzhao, which is located at the western end of Taihe city. Today, the ruins of two gates in the north and South have been found in the west of the city wall. At the west end of the city wall, there is a large rammed earth foundation site, which is likely to be the foundation site of Nanzhao large-scale building in that year. The palace is very likely to be built at the west end of the summer resort, but it is very likely to have a neutral position, and it is not a summer resort.

the architecture of Taihe city is very characteristic. According to historical records, the streets and alleys of Taihe city are built of stones, with a height of more than ten feet

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. This kind of wall and block built of stone used to be continuous for several miles. Such a custom of using stones as building materials has continued to this day. Today, if you stroll around the ancient city of Dali, you can still see those highly personalized buildings. Such an architectural style is simple and unadorned. It builds a natural beauty and harmonious beauty with the natural color of stone. The second capital used after the unification of Nanzhao was Dali city.

Dali city is also known as Shicheng, Xizhou City, Xizhou City, etc. Among the three capital cities used after the unification of Nanzhao, Dali city is located in the flattest place in dalibazi. As early as the early Tang Dynasty, it was a place where people gathered and had convenient transportation. Therefore, Deng Fuzhao before Nanzhao and later Nanzhao leaders had a preference for Dali city.

Dali city was originally the place where Heman (i.e. Baiman in xi’erhai River District) lived. In 737 A.D. (the 25th year of Kaiyuan reign of the Tang Dynasty), piroge and baa Luopi, the leader of Deng Fuzhao, attacked Heman. After victory, baa Luopi divided Dali city. A few months later, piroge attacked baa Luopi and captured Dali city.

During the period of the fifth generation of Nanzhao emperor Ge Luofeng, GE Luofeng often moved between Dengchuan City, Taihe city and Dali city. When Yi mouxun, the sixth generation leader of Nanzhao, lived in Dali City for two years between 784 and 786, which was called Shicheng at that time. In 827 (the first year of emperor Wenzong Taihe of the Tang Dynasty), Xizhou Earth City was built and the Royal Palace was moved there. Unfortunately, there is no more detailed information about Fengxi’s situation in Xizhou, and it is not even clear when he will return to Yangju baa city.

no matter how long Dali city has been the capital, Dali city has flat terrain, convenient transportation and prosperous population, which are its unique geographical and resource advantages. These have always been an important basis for the development of Dali City as an economic town in Cang’er area. However, as a capital city, no risk is Xizhou’s Achilles heel. Therefore, after Nanzhao, no ruler took it as the seat of the political power center.

Yangju baa city was the final capital of Nanzhao. The north wall of yangjubaa city is built according to Meixi River, and the deep ditch of the stream has become a natural moat. The wall of yangjubaa city in Dali is rammed with soil, with a residual height of about 5m and a length of 1500m. According to historical records, the south wall of yangjubaa city in Dali should be next to Longquan River, but the ruins of the wall are not obvious.

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as early as the coexistence of the six imperial edicts and the river barbarians, Dali yangjubaa city is a large village in the Erhai area of Dali, which has an urban prototype. It is a city occupied by piluoge after unifying the six imperial edicts and conquering the river barbarians. Geluofeng once expanded the Yangju baa city in Dali, making it an important town of Nanzhao. In 779 ad (the 14th year of the Tang calendar), Luofeng, the king of Nanzhao, died. Because his son fengjiayi died early, Yimou, his grandson, was made king of Nanzhao. At this time, the Allied forces of Nanzhao and Tubo invaded Xichuan (now Sichuan) and were attacked by Tang General Li Sheng (Ch ě NG) blow. Tubo blamed Nanzhao, demoted Yimou Xun as the “king of the east of the sun”, and reduced Nanzhao to Tubo’s vassal state. Yimou Xun is a man who has read history books, intelligence and popular support. He found that he was insulted by Tubo after defecting to the Tang Dynasty and taking refuge in Tubo. Therefore, he hoped to return to the Tang Dynasty, but he was afraid that Tubo would ask questions, so he built three

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Yang City as the defense of Tubo city wall, and moved the king’s capital from Taihe city to Yangju baa city in 779 A.D. Like Taihe City, yangjubaa city has only two walls in the South and North, with Cangshan Mountain as the barrier in the West and Erhai Lake as the natural graben in the East. The situation is very dangerous. According to the book of barbarians, the city of yangjubaa has a radius of 15 Li, with Nanzhao palace and the residence of senior officials built in the city. A thoroughfare connects the South and north gates of yangjubaa city. There is a tall gatehouse in the city, and there are tall steps paved with bluestone slabs on the left and right. Go in from the South Gate of yangjubaa city and walk 300 steps to the second gate. There are two gate towers on both sides of the city. Between the two gatehouses is the residence of senior officials, Qingping officials, army generals and six Cao chiefs. Enter the second door and walk 200 steps to the third door. Weapons are placed in front of the door, and two buildings are built inside the door. There is a screen wall behind the third door. You can see a hall after 100 steps. The hall is magnificent. There are tall steps in front of the hall, gatehouses on both sides, and rooms in the hall are stacked layer by layer. After the hall, there’s stillThere are two categories of factors. The two factors cause and effect each other. The former shows the essence of things, and the latter shows the phenomenon and reflection of the former. From the perspective of ethnic relations, since the Tang Dynasty, the prosperity of the northern nationalities has constituted the main ethnic contradiction in the relationship with the Central Plains. Those who often compete with the Tang Dynasty are Turks before Huihe, Koryo and Tubo. For hundreds of years, the war between the Tang Dynasty and these nationalities made itself in a situation of being exhausted and overwhelmed. Part of the reason why the Central Plains was able to win these wars was that the Tang Dynasty was strong and powerful, and the kings and ministers of the Tang Dynasty were able to work hard; Another important reason is the corruption and turmoil of Turkic and other ethnic groups themselves. Another reason is that the rise and strength of other ethnic minorities have a life and death contradiction with the original old minority regime. For example, the defeat of Turks is the embodiment of this law. Turks are divided into Western Turks and Eastern Turks. In addition, natural disasters are frequent, animal husbandry is sluggish, and the aristocratic slave owner class continues to attack and usurp, so it is unable to devote all its energy and arms to deal with the attack of the Central Plains Dynasty. Moreover, Huihe and Xue yantuo, the tribes bordering on Turks, took the opportunity to rise and incline to the Tang Dynasty to jointly fight against Turks, which gave the Tang Dynasty an opportunity to take advantage of it. The future demise of Huihe is related to the growth of Tubo. Mr. Chen Yinke once said: “Huihe has been the most powerful since suzong of Tang Dynasty, and China has suffered a lot from it. In the era of Wenzong, the natural disaster party disturbed it, and cunning Jiasi rose and invaded it, so it collapsed and collapsed. However, according to the historical records, China was not prosperous and strong at that time, and those who could achieve this great cause of bustling with foreigners, although with the wisdom of Li wenrao, may not easily lead to this. The main reason is that the rise of Jiankun led to the rise of Huihe Perish? ” The rise of Tubo made the Tang Dynasty fall into the dilemma of being attacked on both sides. Because the Korean War was still going on during the damage of Tubo. At that time, the capital of the Tang Dynasty was Chang’an, and the northwest became the focus of the deployment of the national armed forces. The victory or defeat of the Korean war would not pose a direct threat to the political center of the Tang Dynasty. The growth of Tubo looked directly at Guanzhong from the West. Therefore, the Tang Dynasty naturally took Tubo as the key object of defense. It was precisely because of being restrained by Tubo in the West that the Korean War in the northeast of the Tang Dynasty had to adopt the strategy of passive retreat. The ethnic relations in the Tang Dynasty developed further under the circumstances of mutual restraint and continuous replacement mentioned above.

in the Tang Wenzong period, the powerful ethnic group Tubo in the southwest began to decline. History said that during this period, “the Tibetan Yi Tai Zanpu died, and the younger brother Damo was established. The Yi Tai was sick, and the Minister of commission and government was only able to defend himself, so he could not suffer from the border for a long time. Damo was indulged in debauchery and cruelty, the Chinese people did not attach, disasters and disasters occurred one after another, and Tubo declined.” The biography of Tubo in the new Tang Dynasty also said that at this time, Tubo “could not resist China and waited for Yan Ran”. In the fourth year of Wuzong Huichang, the Tang Dynasty entered the strategic situation of counter offensive against Tubo. “The imperial court discussed the restoration of Hehuang with the civil strife of Tubo. It was given to Liu Xuan to patrol the border and prepare equipment and food first. The Tubo

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were heard by the public.”. From then on, until the Yizong period, there was a decisive war between the Tang Dynasty and Tubo, which ended with the decline of Tubo and the great loss of vitality of the Tang Dynasty. During this period, Nanzhao regime took the opportunity to rise, which posed a serious threat to the Tang Dynasty, which had no time to rest in the war against Tubo. Nanzhao knew that the Tang court was extremely weak and could find an opportunity to fight with Tang at any time, so as not to lose the good opportunity to expand his national strength. In addition, Tubo had been extremely declining, which could not be a worry for Nanzhao. Therefore, in the face of the growth and decline of the power of this tripartite relationship, Nanzhao had the possibility and conditions to launch a war and be able to fight this war. Therefore, the Nanzhao war in Xiantong was inevitable. From the internal situation of Nanzhao, its economic development and social and political structure also determined the inevitability of its war with the Tang Dynasty. First of all, after Nanzhao unified the six imperial edicts, the national strength became stronger and stronger. The wide use of iron farm tools has greatly improved social productivity and played a great role in developing the economy of Erhai area. Agriculture and animal husbandry not only have a division of labor, but also develop rapidly. There are more surplus products, which makes it possible for slave owners to exploit slaves, and because the Treasury is full, it provides a reliable guarantee for the war of plunder. The emergence and development of towns formed the center of politics, economy and culture, which laid a solid foundation for maintaining the unity of Nanzhao. The multi-ethnic characteristics of its political power structure are also prone to power grabbing and struggle between ruling and ruled nationalities and tribes. If any nationality wants to gain a firm foothold in Erhai area, it must defeat its opponents, restrict other nationalities, and constantly expand its territory in order to obtain more living space and greater room for development. Secondly, the imitation of Tang Dynasty of Nanzhao regime organization is also an internal factor that determines its infiltration and expansion to the mainland. It requires to be integrated with Tang Jiang, but not as a subject, but as a master to achieve this goal. Thirdly, the leaping development of Nanzhao’s social economy has also become the driving force for the inevitable outbreak of the war. The impact of the progressive feudal production relations from the original mode of production will inevitably lead to great changes in its internal economic structure. As the sensitive center of this structure, the superstructure, especially the political power organization, will make corresponding choices and decisions to meet the needs of its production relations under the new situation. In short, the jumping nature of its social economy determines its inherent nature of military expansion. Coupled with the economic and military strength after the unification of Nanzhao as mentioned above, the conflict between Nanzhao and the Tang Empire has become an inevitable thing.

from the perspective of the Tang Dynasty, the search for natural and man-made disasters, financial exhaustion, economic bankruptcy and people’s livelihood led to the weakness of national strength, forming the best time for the Nanzhao to invade the border. First of all, because of political corruption, the emperor did not have a benevolent government and was extravagant; There were few loyal ministers, but treacherous ministers swaggered through the market. Greedy officials collect money, corrupt officials practice law, and the people are boiling with resentment. Nobles and rich people also hurt the countryside by virtue of their privileges. Since the era of emperor Zhongzong of the Tang Dynasty, unhealthy tendencies have intensified. After Tang Yizong came into power, it became more and more popularCorrupt. Tang Yizong, a talented person with mediocre quality, did not care about state affairs and only knew luxury and pleasure. If you have such a king, you can know his ministers. Although some ministers are still honest, thrifty, honest and bitter ministers, they are either slandered and crowded by traitors, or they are old and useless.

can be said that at the time of Xiantong, the rule of the Tang Dynasty was full of holes and dying, and the political power machine was difficult to operate normally. Moreover, since 860 ad (the first year of Xiantong), natural disasters have also occurred frequently, which is even worse for the troubled Tang Dynasty. Political corruption and frequent natural disasters interacted with each other, resulting in the collapse of the economy of the Tang Dynasty. The poor people either died of hunger, or fled, fled to other places and rebelled in groups, forming a nationwide situation of great unrest.

although Tang and Nanzhao had days of harmony and friendship, which was conducive to the social development and economic level of Southwest China, due to their respective class interests, harmony could only be temporary.

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Yunnan imperial edicts could not compete with the Tang Dynasty in economic and military strength because they could not be unified, so they could only serve the Tang Dynasty. However, with the unification of the six imperial edicts by pigoro and the protracted war between the Tang Dynasty and the powerful Turks and Tubo, the Nanzhao became strong and could no longer be manipulated by the Tang Dynasty. Moreover, for the contradiction with Nanzhao, the Tang Dynasty did not correctly deal with the contradiction, but blindly adopted the method of suppression, resulting in the destruction of the relationship between the two sides. Nanzhao defeated Tang soldiers, rebelled against the Tang Dynasty and belonged to Tubo. With the unremitting efforts of Zheng Hui, the adviser of Nanzhao, and Wei Gao, the border official of the Tang Dynasty, Nanzhao finally reconnected with the Tang Dynasty during the period of Dezong. In the next half century, there was peace between Tang Dynasty and Nanzhao. However, these decades; The Tang Dynasty and Nanzhao agreed to jointly attack Tubo. Nanzhao won many victories, but the Tang Dynasty got nothing. As a result, Nanzhao developed again, and then there was another war with the Tang Dynasty. Nanzhao had the military advantage. At the end of the reign of Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty, Nanzhao became the biggest frontier trouble of the Tang Dynasty.

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the Tang Dynasty never made a fair and objective evaluation of the strength of Nanzhao. It did not pay enough attention to the threat of Nanzhao, but only took it as a tool for the war and relationship between Tang and Tubo. Nanzhao took advantage of this opportunity to accumulate hidden growth and take the opportunity to expand itself, which became a new threat to the lower Tang Dynasty in the new era.

on the basis of misestimating the situation, the Tang Dynasty took a series of actions to undermine the national policy against Nanzhao. Since the war in 829 ad (the third year of Dahe), the Tang Dynasty adopted the Huairou policy towards Nanzhao, but this policy has not been fulfilled. On the contrary, there have been continuous events and acts of the Tang Dynasty that will undermine the Huairou policy. Various events deepened the contradiction between Tang Dynasty and Nanzhao.

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the change that the main war faction has the upper hand has also occurred within the Nanzhao ruling group. Nanzhao king can’t keep his word alone, but should be restricted by Qingping officials. Therefore, there will be different attitudes towards the Tang Dynasty among the kings before and after, such as the Lord of piluo Pavilion, the Lord of Ge Luofeng, and the Lord of Yi Mou Xun. After Fengyou succeeded to the throne, he had admired China and advocated maintaining harmonious relations with the Tang Dynasty, but the minister in charge of real power, cuoding, did not implement the Lord and policy. In order to improve their domestic status and seize more wealth, he often attacked the Tang Dynasty, and was supported by more and more soldiers, especially Xun Chuanman, Biao man, Shi man, Shun man Such as the support of minority tribal leaders.

in short, various reasons made it impossible for the Tang Dynasty and Nanzhao to live in peace, resulting in the form of

. No wonder Nanzhao, a small southwest country, can defeat the Tang Dynasty, a big country in the Central Plains. During the

“period, the warlords in the Central Plains separated and the regime changed frequently. Yunnan, located in the southwest frontier, has also experienced a turbulent era of local regime change. It was not until the establishment of Dali that Yunnan regained calm.

Zheng Hui was naturalized into Nanzhao and became an important figure of the nobility of Nanzhao. The Zheng family also multiplied in Nanzhao. By the time the ninth generation Nanzhao Pixin longshun, it had been more than 140 years since the Nanzhao of Zheng Hui, and the Zheng family had also spread to the seventh and eighth generations. According to the general normal situation, there were no less than three or four hundred descendants of the Zheng family and even married daughter-in-law. The number of the Zheng family may be even more, and it has developed into one of the big surnames of Nanzhao.

there are still Bai villages inhabited by the Zheng family, as well as the main temple with Zheng Hui as its main owner. The Qingguan temple at the east gate of Dali city is the main temple dedicated to Zheng Hui. It should be called Qingping official Temple correctly. During the period of the Republic of China, Mr. Li Genyuan wrote a plaque entitled “Zheng Gong Temple”. It has always been said that the Wang family of digging color on the East Bank of Erhai Lake: the Zheng family in Binchuan and the Wang family recognized their own family and came to dig color to worship their ancestors together. The reason is that Zheng Hui was captured by the Wang family when he was in Nanzhao. He was accepted as an adopted son and renamed Wang Manli. Therefore, the Wang family is a family that has made a prime minister and a king. The custom of accepting adopted children by worship and changing their surname to lianzong still exists in the Bai nationality.

Zheng Hui lived in Nanzhao for a long time and had a special relationship with the Mongolian royal family. The Zheng family had its own advantageous cultural tradition. Therefore, its children had high-ranking people in Nanzhao Dynasties and formed a civil official family force in Nanzhao imperial court. When Zheng Maisi, the seventh grandson of Zheng Hui, came to Nanzhao, he believed that long Shun was “lucky enough, good at hunting, killing and losing people’s hearts”: Zheng Maisi was also good at flattering and cooperating with long Shun, won the trust of long Shun and the position of prime minister, spread his heart in Nanzhao court, and cooperated with Gao’s armed forces led by Gao Zan, so as to rule the state.

in the later period of long Shun, he embarked on the old road of absurd emperors’ superstition of god Buddha elixir. Take pills and pills in the practice field and indulge in itThis kind of boring and absurd imperial life feels insipid. People should become Buddhas by taking pills. Zheng Maisi took this opportunity to secretly instruct the supervisor (Chamberlain) Yang Deng to kill long Shun. By forging the imperial edict of long Shun to obtain the qualification of “national elder” with full power, Shun Huazhen, the heir to the throne of the Mongol Dynasty, was completely regarded as a despicable puppet. The five-year period of taking Shun Huazhen as the Pixin of Nanzhao was just a transitional period when the surname of the Dynasty changed from Meng to Zheng. At this time, Zheng Maisi had mastered all the power of the Nanzhao court. At that time, the opportunity was fully ripe. Zheng Maisi murdered Shun Huazhen in July of the second year of Tianfu of emperor Zhaozong of the Tang Dynasty (902 ad, the fifth year of Zhongxing of Nanzhao), followed by the murder of Shun Huazhen’s baby, eliminated the immediate heirs of the Nanzhao monarchy, officially ascended to the highest power, completely replaced the Mongolian Dynasty and established the Zheng Dynasty.

Nanzhao was established for more than 150 years, which promoted the social development of Yunnan and developed the marginal areas. The central area of each section has also caught up with the development level of Erhai region. The nobles with big surnames who were assigned to each section had sufficient economic strength since

; Through the previous wars of foreign expansion, their respective military strength was enhanced, and they gradually had capital to compete with the centralization of power of Nanzhao king. The first reason for the decline of the “spekds” and “spkds” of the imperial family is the decline of the “spekds”. The second is the expansion and advance of their respective big surname forces. The Zheng family is the one who is in a favorable position among the forces of the big surname Bai man. However, Zheng’s surname ranks in the central government. Although it has the administrative power advantage of civil servants, it lacks its own economic and military strength. Therefore, Gao’s forces should be cited as backup, which is the reason why Zheng’s regime is fragile.

the measures taken by Zheng Maisi after he won the country are:

first, kill more than 800 people of the Mongolian family in front of the Wuhua Building, and eliminate the future troubles of the restoration of the Mongolian family.

secondly, the country was still named “Da Feng Republic of China” to comply with the general albinism trend of all ethnic groups in Yunnan at that time. After the unification of Nanzhao for more than 150 years, frequent contact and integration with each other, it turns out that people of different nationalities have a common language, have a common cultural and psychological state, and gradually recognize that they are called white people and white people. Therefore, when long Shun called Nanzhao state “Dafeng Republic of China”, which means the country of white people, the country of white people and the country of great white people. This country name also conforms to the advantage of Baiman’s dominant position in China. The Zheng Dynasty also named the country dachanghe and changed the Yuan Dynasty to settle the country, saying that it wanted to reconcile the sharp social contradictions in the late Mengshi Dynasty and stabilize the domestic situation.

third, establish Zheng’s own country and ancestral temple and establish Zheng’s position as king. All political institutions still operate according to the old system of the Mongol Dynasty. In essence, the Zheng Dynasty only changed its surname through the court coup. The essence of dachanghe state of Zheng Dynasty is still the continuation of Nanzhao state of Meng Dynasty.

fourth, the tablet of Fuyun established by the Mongolian Dynasty in front of Wuhualou was changed into the tablet of Gaogong’s assistant government, so as to establish the status of the white man surname of Gaoshi who supported his usurpation of the country, so as to reconcile internal contradictions and control the other surname forces.

fifth, due to the fragility of the Zheng Dynasty itself, in order to increase its strong image, we had to rely on the God making movement. Immediately build Puming temple and cast 10000 Buddhas. On the one hand, it is to surpass the more than 800 people killed by Meng to appease the people; What is more important is to seek the protection of gods and Buddhism for the Zheng Dynasty and add a sacred aperture to itself.

in August of A.D. 909 (the seventh year of Dachang and Guoan of the Zheng family and the third year of Kaiping of the Later Liang Dynasty), Zheng Maisi died and his son Zheng man ascended the throne at the age of 21. Zheng Maisi reigned for seven years. These seven years have been spent in a precarious situation.

when Zheng man ascended the throne, the Tang Dynasty had perished, and Zhu Wen usurped power to establish the Houliang Dynasty. The Central Plains warlords fought incessantly and began the period of Five Dynasties and ten states. Li Keyong, a noble warlord in Shatuo, confronted Zhu Wen with his father and son in Hedong (Shanxi). He built a separate regime for the warlord king in Sichuan and established the former Shu state.

in order to transfer domestic contradictions, Zheng man rashly launched an attack on Shu at the suggestion of his adviser. Hastily mobilized a large number of troops to cross the Dadu River and attack Lizhou, which was defeated by Wang Jianzhi’s army. Captured, beheaded and drowned, many people died and suffered heavy losses. From then on, the Zheng family

dachanghe country was no longer able to launch armed attacks.

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Zheng man lost the attack on Shu and turned to the Southern Han Dynasty in the east to improve relations. Zheng Zhaochun, the Qingping official, was sent to Guangzhou to propose to the Southern Han Dynasty and ask for a marriage with Zhu mane and white horse. The Southern Han Dynasty was the wife of Princess Zengcheng. Through reconciliation, the Southern Han Dynasty formed an alliance with Zheng’s great harmony country.

in the Central Plains, the Houliang Dynasty of Zhu Wen ended in a scuffle with Li Keyong, a warlord of Shatuo in Hedong. Li Cundao, Li Keyong’s son, established the post Tang Dynasty. Before Wang Jian in Sichuan, the Shu separatist regime was destroyed by Li Jiji, king of Wei in the later Tang Dynasty in 925 (the second year of Tongguang in the later Tang Dynasty). Li Jigu, king of Wei in the later Tang Dynasty, adopted a friendly attitude towards Zheng’s great commander and country in Yunnan and sent good envoys. In 926 ad (the first year of Tiancheng in the later Tang Dynasty), “it was dedicated to officials Li Yankai and other Yunnan envoys.” (general examination of documents%26amp; #8226; Nanzhao)“In July of the second year of Tiancheng (AD 927), an envoy was sent to the barbarians. In September, Xichuan played: according to Lizhou Zhuangshen, Zhao he, the envoy of Yunnan Province, asked him from Dadu Henan, left fifteen cages of keepsakes and handed a volume of Miscellaneous Poems to the que. ” (general examination of documents%26amp; #8226; four descent examination) dachanghe state of the Zheng family also expressed its willingness to make peace with the later Tang Dynasty. “The meeting of the Five Dynasties” records: “in the early days, after Guo Chongtao conquered Shu, he won Wang Yan (successor of Wang Jian)”. In the past, he captured thousands of prisoners (Yunnan). With the order of the emperor, he ordered the envoy to enter his department and was stopped in the world. Only Guoxin and Manyuan could go. Then there was an ultimatum, saying that governor Shuang and Prime Minister Buxie sent a letter to the uncle of the Tang Emperor… And sent it to Lizhou. The paper is as thick and hard as skin, the pen is strong and strong, and there is an imperial edict. Later, it was signed by dushuangtuo chieftain (the official name of Nanzhao), renshuang Wangbao, dushuangmaitreya, renshuang Dong Deyi, dushuang Chang HENGWEI, and renshuang Yang Buxie (the official name of Nanzhao). There is a shaft of colored paper; There are ten couplets in one chapter of Zhuanyun poem, including three rhymes. There are similar Ci poems. It has the meaning of thinking about the in laws of this dynasty. The language is not inferior. ”

have very few historical records of the great Changhe state of the Zheng family. From the above records, we can see the following situations:

1. The organizational form and official system of the political power of the Zheng Dynasty were still the same as that of the Mengshi Nanzhao state.

2. Nanzhao did not submit to the Tang Dynasty since Shilong. The Zheng Dynasty was still not subordinate to the later Tang Dynasty, but was willing to make friends and relatives with the latter Tang Dynasty as an equivalent country. The latter Tang Dynasty also expressed a friendly attitude. According to records: after Li Jigu, king of Wei in the later Tang Dynasty, was greedily killed by Li Cundao, Yunnan was cut off from the Central Plains Dynasty.

3. The two sides are bounded by Dadu River. The border is well guarded. Lizhou in Dadu Hebei has become the main place for bilateral exchanges and transit.

4. When the Zheng family was in the state of dachanghe, the domestic cultural atmosphere was more prosperous than that of the Tang Dynasty in the state of Mengshi Nanzhao. Because of the vulnerability of Zheng’s family, dachanghe state of Zheng lost control over the tribes in its marginal areas. Some of these tribes contacted various separatist regimes in the Central Plains and sent envoys to express their willingness to submit. Records can be found: in 926 (the first year of Tiancheng in the later Tang Dynasty), “Li Bei, the general of the right Wu Wei, the ghost master of the two forests behind Xizhou mountain, sent Fu Neng Ahua, the ghost master, to pay tribute in the evening, (the later Tang Dynasty

) introduced by the Ming clan and sent back by its officials.” (the meeting of the Five Dynasties) also has “the assassin of qunge county and Qingzhou eight counties sent envoys to (later) Tang tribute”. “Wang Pulu of Luodian, the master of the great ghost in Kunming, admired China in troubled times and led his nine tribes to the dynasty.” (history of Yunnan) the tribes of Kainan in the southwest, Mangbu in the Yinsheng Jiedu area, Heni, Puman and so on were also in a separate state in the late period of the Mengshi Nanzhao state.

Zheng man made no achievements in politics, only superstitious alchemists and pills, and entrusted his fate to the god Buddha. Superstitious about auspicious luck, he changed yuan six times in succession, hoping to bless his status with auspicious year names, and successively changed yuan Xiaozhi, Zhenming, Tianrui, Jingxing, Anhe, Zhenyou and Chuli. In his 17 years in office, he changed yuan every other year on average.

in 927 A.D. (the second year of zongtiancheng of the later Tang and Ming Dynasties), Zheng man killed due to taking pills and died in August. His 24-year-old son Zheng longxie ascended the throne,.

two years after Zheng Longxiao ascended the throne, in 929 A.D. (the fourth year of Tiancheng in the later Tang Dynasty), Jianchuan Festival Yang ganzhen bullied Zheng Longxiao’s youth and weakness, pretended to enter the capital in court and killed him. Zhao Shanzheng, the minister (Prime Minister) of the Zheng Dynasty, was established and the country name was changed to Datian Xingguo. The great Changhe state of the Zheng Dynasty ended.

from the usurpation of the state by Zheng Maisi in 902 to the killing of Zheng Longxiao in 929, it has been handed down for three generations and coexisted for 26 years. This short-lived Zheng Dynasty is a weak and loose Dynasty with many internal contradictions, not to mention Wenzhi, let alone martial arts.

in 654 A.D. (the fifth year of Yonghui), Zhang lejin, the mengshe imperial edict, begged to give way to Xi nuluo, who came to Nanzhao to settle in order to avoid revenge. After Xi nuluo ascended the throne, he sent his son to the Tang Dynasty as a pledge in order to get the protection of the Tang Dynasty.

in 713 ad (the first year of Kaiyuan Dynasty), Xuanzong granted piroge of Nanzhao as the king of taideng Prefecture.

in 738 A.D. (the 26th year of Kaiyuan), the Tang Court conferred the piluo Pavilion of Nanzhao as the “king of Nanzhao”.

in 794 ad (the 10th year of Zhenyuan of emperor Dezong of Tang Dynasty), Nanzhao and envoys of Tang Dynasty swore to be attached. The Tang Court canonized Yimou Xun as “Nanzhao king” and granted “Nanzhao seal”.

at the end of 830 ad (the fourth year of emperor Wenzong Taihe), Nanzhao captured Chengdu and plundered hundreds of thousands of men and women, hundreds of thousands of workers and precious goods, causing huge losses to the Tang Dynasty.

in 902 ad (the second year of Tianfu of the Tang Dynasty), Zheng Maisi, the Minister of power, overthrew the Mengshi Nanzhao, established himself as king and changed the country’s name to “dachanghe”.