Tuyuhun was originally a branch of Murong Department of Xianbei in Eastern Liaoning. At the end of the Western Jin Dynasty, the leader Tuyuhun led his troops to move westward to Yibao (now Linxia, Gansu). Later, it ruled the Qiang and di tribes in Qinghai, Gannan and Northwest Sichuan and established a state. Until his grandson yeyan, he took his ancestor’s name as his family name and country name. The Southern Dynasty called it the state of Henan; The neighboring families call them achai prisoners or wild prisoners; In the late Tang Dynasty, it was called “retreat Hun” and “spit Hun”.

Tugu (y) ǜ) Hun, also known as spitting Hun and retreating Hun, is one of the ancient nationalities in Northwest China.

Tuyuhun was originally a person’s name – Murong Tuyuhun. He is a Xianbei man and has been a Xianbei aristocrat for generations. Tuguhun’s great ancestor, Murong mohuba, once helped calm Gongsun yuan and was granted the title of leader of righteousness.

Murong Xianbei gradually moved inward in the process of sinicization, and his status gradually rose. When Tuyuhun’s father Murong was involved in inheriting his father’s business, he was finally granted Xianbei Chanyu.

Tuyuhun was originally the eldest son of Murong’s return, and was originally very advantageous in inheriting Shan Yu’s position. Unfortunately, he was born to Murong sugui’s concubine and was born from a concubine, while his brother Murong @ was born to Murong sugui’s wife. The status difference between the legitimate and common people is far more important than that between the elderly and the young. Therefore, the throne of Shan Yu of Murong tribe was passed to Murong @ hands after Murong’s death. However, Murong didn’t treat his eldest son badly. Before his death, he was enfeoffed to 1700 Tuyuhun herdsmen.

Murong @ is also a talented and promising figure. The four Yan states in the five Hu are all built by his descendants, and he also personally laid the foundation of the former Yan. In the novel Tianlong Babu, what murongbo and his son never forget is to rebuild the ancestor’s Dayan state. Without Murong @ this person, it may not lead to Jin Yong’s interpretation.

after Murong @ ascended the throne, Murong tribe and the tribe led by tuyuhunsuo still lived together and grazed on the same grassland. Since we are divided, it is not as harmonious as living in one home. For nomads, grassland is life. There are many contradictions between the two brother tribes grazing in one place because of the problem of grassland. Although Murong @ and Tuyuhun have separated, as Shan Yu, Murong @ is the monarch of Tuyuhun. Naturally, he thinks it’s rude to compete with himself as his brother. Moreover, Murong @ also knew that Tuyuhun was a man of great ambition and was always worried that his brother would grab his seat. One spring, when the livestock was in heat, the male and female horses of Murong @ and Tuyuhun fought and were damaged. Murong @ found an excuse for such trivial matters. He sent someone to blame Tuyuhun and said, “our father divided your family property with your brother. Why don’t you move elsewhere and hurt my horse?”

Tuyuhun was scolded for no reason and was very angry. He was not an ordinary person who was willing to stay in the crowd for a long time, so he angrily denounced Murong @’s messenger and said, “since my brother is tired of me, I’ll go thousands of miles away from my brother to avoid getting in the way of my brother.”

did what they said, and Tuyuhun immediately led the headquarters to move west. Murong @ heard that his eldest brother really wanted to leave, but he was ashamed and regretful. There are powerful tribes everywhere on the grassland. I forced my brother away. Isn’t this going to kill my brother? Probably Tuyuhun and Murong @ had a good relationship when they were young. Murong @ was sorry. He immediately sent someone to catch up and apologize. Please Tuyuhun come back.

Tuyuhun made up his mind, declined Murong @’s modest words and went west with emotion. Murong @ regretted it. Later, because he often missed his brother, he made a “Agan song” to commemorate him. After Murong @’s descendants established the “Kingdom of Dayan”, Agan song was used as the music played by the emperor when he went on a tour or offered sacrifices to the ancestral temple.

around 313 A.D. (the end of Yongjia in the Western Jin Dynasty), Tuyuhun went down from Yinshan Mountain to the south of Hetao, Dulong mountain to Hanyuan in the northwest of Linxia city, Gansu Province. Taking this as a taste, descendants inherited it and expanded to the south, North and West, ruling the surnames, Qiang and other ethnic groups in the south of Gansu Province, the northwest of Sichuan Province and Qinghai Province.

in 317 ad (the first year of Jianwu in the Eastern Jin Dynasty), Tuyuhun died and TuYan, the eldest son, took the throne. In 329 (the fourth year of Xianhe), TuYan was stabbed by Jiang Cong, the chief of Qiang in angcheng (now ABA, Sichuan Province). On his deathbed, he asked his eldest son Ye Yansu to baobulan (now Bulan mountain in the Balong River Basin of Qinghai Province, that is, Dulan County of Qaidam basin) to consolidate his rule. Ye Yan established his headquarters in Shazhou, imitating the imperial tradition of the Han nationality, took the name of his ancestor Tuyuhun as his surname and took it as the country name, and initially formed a set of simple political institutions for managing the country. Since then, “Tuyuhun” has changed from person’s name to surname, clan name and even country name.

located in the south of the Yellow River, the leader of Tuyuhun was granted the title of king of Henan by Daxia and Liu Song. Therefore, “Tuyuhun state” is also known as “Henan State”. In addition, the ethnic groups in Northwest China used “a Chai Lu” or “a Qian Lu” and “Qian Lu” as cheap names for the Tuyuhun tribe. The territory starts from Taoshui in the East, extends to Bulan (now Dulan county and Balong County in Qinghai Province) in the west, reaches angcheng (now ABA territory in Sichuan Province) and Longgan (now Songpan County in Sichuan Province) in the south, and reaches Qinghai Lake in the north. At its peak, it governs Ruoqiang county and Qiemo County of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region; It is separated from Qilian Mountain in the north and adjacent to Hexi corridor. The political center in the later stage was Fuqi city (now 15 miles west of Qinghai Lake, tiebuka ancient city of Gonghe County). In the long-term development process, Tuyuhun, originally a branch of Xianbei in Eastern Liaoning, gradually merged with some nationalities such as Qiang, Shi, Han, Xiongnu, xiyuhu and Gaoche to become a new national community.

the area ruled by Tuyuhun is high, open and bitter and cold, far inferior to Mobei grassland. The natural environment is very cruel. Vegetation is scarce, and it is dry and rainless for many years. It is in this harsh natural conditions that Tuguhun people still successfully developed animal husbandry and agriculture, and relied on this economic strength to make the country strong and prosperous rapidly.

Tuyuhun is famous for “many good horses” and “good horses”. Its improved breed is Qinghai Pang, also known as dragon stallion. It is recorded in the biography of Tuyuhun in the northern history that “there are hills in the sea more than a mile back to Ganli in the Zhou Dynasty of Qinghai. After the ice closes in winter every year, it is good to

The stallions set up this mountain. When they are collected in the coming spring, all the horses are pregnant. The Colts born are called Dragon breeds. There must be many different steeds. Tuyuhun tasted the Persian grass horse and put it into the sea. Because he had a foal, he could travel thousands of miles a day. It is said that Qinghai foal is the same. ” This kind of horse is made from the mating of Persian mare and local stallion. It has the qualities of being tall, strong, hard-working and cold resistant. In addition to the tall Qinghai Pang, Tuyuhun also produced a “Shu horse”, which should be a small, hardworking and mountain horse introduced from Bashu. Tuyuhun has two kinds of good horses, which can gallop on the grassland and on the mountains. Therefore, although it is surrounded by strong neighbors, its national fortune can last for 300 years, which should be related to its cavalry advantage.

Tuguhun is a master of grazing on the plateau. He still has many herds in the barren ecological environment. In terms of horses alone, in 371 ad (the first year of Xian’an of Jin Dynasty), Tuyuhun sent 5000 horses to Fu Jian of Qin Dynasty at a time. In 460 ad (the first year of peace in the Northern Wei Dynasty), when the Northern Wei Dynasty attacked Tuyuhun, it obtained more than 200000 camels and horses. Camel is the boat of the desert. For Tuyuhun, who owns the desert in the territory, camel is an important pack animal second only to horse and a necessary livestock for commercial activities. Cattle also account for a large proportion in Tuyuhun animal husbandry, including ordinary cattle and yaks. Yak is a kind of plateau pack animal. It is hard-working, cold resistant, load-bearing, thick skin and long hair. It was once paid tribute to the Central Plains as a specialty. There are also a lot of ordinary cattle. In 625 ad (the first month of the eighth year of Wude in the Tang Dynasty), Tuyuhun and Turks asked for mutual market and were allowed. Before that, the Central Plains had just ended the war and was short of cattle. Through this exchange, the Central Plains bought many cattle from Tuyuhun, making farmers no longer worry about adding more cattle strength.

at the beginning of the founding of the people’s Republic of China, Tuyuhun, like Xiongnu, Xianbei and Rouran, belonged to a pure nomadic people, living by water and grass, living in yurts without city walls. In the later stage, the king of Tuyuhun began to build his own palace, but the people of Tuyuhun still lived in yurts. After all, Tuyuhun people are mainly engaged in animal husbandry, so they can’t settle down and build a large number of houses with earth and stone structures. Later, Tuyuhun gradually mastered agricultural technology and cultivated more fields. The main crops are barley, millet and beans; however, in the north of Tuyuhun country, due to the cold climate and harsh environment, they can only plant turnips (i.e. vines) , barley. Because of agriculture, many Tuyuhun people began to live a settled life at this time, and a large number of cities appeared in Tuyuhun country. Only those found in history books have Mantou City, Fuqi City, Xiqiang City, Honghe City, Douhe City, Shudun City, Hezhen city and Minghe City, all of which have a considerable scale. Therefore, Tuguhun people are actually a nation with two forms of living in rooms and houses.

with the development of agriculture, Tuyuhun’s handicraft industry has also developed. Tuyuhun is rich in mineral resources, producing gold, copper, iron and cinnabar. They have long known the mining and utilization of minerals. The bows, knives and class a ironware used by soldiers are locally smelted, while most of the ironware in the hands of other nomadic peoples are obtained and re smelted from the Central Plains. According to historical records, in 519 ad (the 13th year of Tianjian), Tuyuhun presented two gold agate clocks to Nanliang.

this shows that Tuyuhun has not only reached a high level of metal forging and smelting, but also its exquisite decoration technology is quite good. The mining of

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minerals and the production of iron ware not only made Tuyuhun grasp a major source of wealth, but also led to the development of Tuyuhun’s commerce. Since the Qinghai Road was built, especially after the occupation of Shanshan and Qiemo, the commercial trade between Tuyuhun and the countries in the western regions also began to flourish. At the same time, the silk horse market was maintained with the Central Plains and Jiangnan dynasties. These silks and silks were sold in the western regions. Khanate’s wealth is growing.

although deeply influenced by the culture of the Central Plains, the social organization of Tuyuhun still seems to be based on tribes. However, due to the intermarriage and mixed blood between Tuyuhun and the local Qiang people for many generations, most of the other tribes except the royal family have evolved from blood relationship to geographical relationship. Each tribe is mixed with a number of ethnic groups with relatively loose blood relationship and common region. In this social environment, private ownership has been fully developed, and the family has become the basic cell of Tuyuhun society, with a certain feudal nature.

in terms of marriage customs, Tuyuhun was not affected by the feudal ritual system in the Central Plains, and inheritance marriage was still popular like other nomadic nationalities. When father and brother die, children can marry stepmother and sister-in-law who are not directly related by blood. For example, after King Tuyuhun Shixiao died, his brother uheti took Shixiao’s wife Nian as his wifeFor another example, Princess Guanghua first married Tuguhun Shifu Khan. After Shifu died, her brother Fuyun married Princess Guanghua again. This marriage system has the function of protecting the economic interests of the family and firmly controlling the loss of labor and property, so it has always been prosperous.

in the prevalence of adoptive marriage at the same time, due to the increasingly prominent phenomenon of property and hierarchical differentiation, Tuyuhun began to appear the coexistence of old predatory marriage and new buying and selling marriage. The poor in Tuyuhun will go to the family with a daughter and rob the woman, which is similar to stealing marriage; The rich will give generous bride price and marry a wife. Stealing a wife belongs to plundering marriage, and accepting employment is the characteristic of buying and selling marriage in feudal society. The former is Tuyuhun’s traditional marriage system, which implements marriage snatching regardless of high or low. Later, it has become a helpless move of the poor and despised by the rich. This means that the decline of women’s status and the establishment of male authority in Tuyuhun country are very obvious, which is very feudal.

in terms of funerals, Tuguhun people are buried after death, which is very different from cremation and celestial burial of some nomadic nationalities, with a strong color of agricultural civilization. The customs of mourning in the central plains are different from those of mourning in the Central Plains. The filial piety clothes they wear for their dead relatives will be removed immediately after the funeral. This is an old custom of Xianbei. According to the records of Song Shu, the burial custom of Tuoba Xianbei is to bury people in earth after death without building tombs. As for the funeral, “there are empty coffins. When the coffins are erected, the carriages, horses and tools are burned to send the dead”. Tuyuhun was born in Xianbei tribe. Although he has been Qiang nationality since he moved west, there are still some remains of ancestral customs.

like other nomads, Tuyuhun people eat meat and cheese. However, due to the emergence of farming, Tuyuhun people began to mix meat and vegetables and skillfully combine meat and cheese with grain. For example, Zanba made of cooked highland barley powder mixed with cream is used as the main food for

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Tuyuhun’s hair and clothes have complex multicultural colors. Tuyuhun’s hair style should be braided according to ancestral customs. However, in fact, Tuyuhun men have the same hair style as Huaxia people. According to the records of the biography of Tuyuhun in the book of Wei, Tuyuhun boasted that LV Khan “made beads on his vertebrae, took soap as his hat and sat in the Golden Lion bed”. The hair forms a vertebral shape at the top and wears a black hat, which is completely consistent with the customs of the Chinese nationality. This is because Tuyuhun was one of the local national regimes in the Sixteen Kingdoms period, and experienced the historical evolution from the Kingdom era to the Khanate era. During the period of Tuyuhun Kingdom, Tuyuhun tried to be recognized by the Han Dynasty. He once regarded the Southern Dynasty as the Chinese new moon, was canonized by it, and then married well in the Northern Dynasty. He was deeply influenced by the Han culture. Changing his hair style is also one of the important contents of the Chinese and Korean dynasties. The Golden Lion bed is influenced by the Persian customs in the western regions. “Spekds” and “spkds” are not common for women, but “spekds” and “spkds” for men. The biography of Tuyuhun in the book of Wei records that Tuyuhun Khan’s wife “knitted into a skirt, wore a brocade robe, braided hair behind and wore a golden crown”. It is also recorded in the biography of Tuyuhun in the old Tang Dynasty that Tuyuhun’s women are decorated with golden flowers and beaded shells. When they move, they sway. It is called “Bu Yao” in the Central Plains. Therefore, the Tang Dynasty calls Tuyuhun’s leader “Bu Yao chieftain canal”. This kind of golden swaying was originally in the shape of a tree branch and originated from kusana. Its older hometown is Persia. After it was introduced into Tuyuhun, the shape of Bu Yao has changed greatly, and then it was introduced into the Central Plains, which has a great impact on later generations, especially on women’s headwear, and has become the object of chanting in Tang poetry for many times.

Tuyuhun’s clothes change more. According to the records in the book of Jin, Tuyuhun men “wear long skirts”, while the biography of Tuyuhun in the book of Wei records that “the clothes of Tuyuhun men are slightly the same as those in China. Most of them take Luo Mi as the crown and tie as the hat. Women wear pearl shells and tie their hair, which is more expensive.” According to the records of Liang Shu%26amp; #8226; Henan biography, the clothes of Tuyuhun people become “small sleeved robes, small mouth pants and big head long skirts.” Tongfu long skirt is the basic clothing style of the Han people in the Central Plains. When the Tuyuhun state was just established, the clothing style was subject to the Han clothing; Small sleeved robes and small mouth pants have strong Xianbei clothing characteristics. The so-called “slightly similar to China” in the book of Wei actually refers to slightly similar to the Northern Dynasty. My uncle is Tuoba Xianbei. It can be seen that Tuyuhun’s clothing style is different because he first served in the Southern Dynasty and then in the Northern Dynasty. however, “Luomi” was originally invented by Tuyuhun people. It is a kind of face protection equipment that covers the face with a veil and prevents wind and sand. It was originally created to adapt to the plateau climate. Because Luomi looks chic and elegant, it soon became popular in the Northern Dynasty. By the Tang Dynasty, it became a common dress for noble women and palace maids.

As a branch of primitive nomads, Tuguhun people originally believed in Shamanism, but with the change of generations, Buddhism later became the national religion of Tuguhun. It is recorded in the biography of Tuyuhun in the book of Jin that Tuyuhun, the founder of Tuyuhun, said to Chang Shi Yina Lou, who was sent by his younger brother Murong @ to apologize and retain him, “first name the words of divination…”, saying that Tuyuhun and Murong @’s father once asked Wizards to divine, Get the prediction that Tuyuhun and Murong @ will develop

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in the future. It can be seen that Murong Xianbei worships Shamanism. Tuyuhun, who has just separated from Murong Xianbei, should also have professional shaman wizards for divination. After Tuyuhun’s son TuYan was stabbed to death by Qiang chieftain Jiang Cong, his cotyledon Yanzhi was determined to revenge. He pricked a grass man every day, saying that it was Jiang Cong. He cried and shot with an arrow. When he hit, he cried loudly. If he didn’t hit, he was angry and shouted loudly. This grass pricker curses his enemyThe method of is actually a kind of witchcraft, which is commonly used by Shamanism. Until the Tang Dynasty, there was a case that Tuyuhun people “lied about offering sacrifices to mountain gods” to hijack kehannuo hobo Khan and break Tubo. This is enough to prove that Tuyuhun once prevailed in mountain worship and sacrificial activities of mountain gods and river gods. This concept of animism is unique to Shamanism.

while believing in Shamanism, Buddhism began to be introduced into Tuyuhun after muliyan, king of Tuyuhun, conquered Khotan in 445 (the sixth year of Taiping Zhenjun). At that time, the monk Huilan returned to the Central Plains through Khotan. Muliyan’s Prince Qiong and others had heard that Huilan was an eminent monk of great virtue, so they sent someone to build a Youjun temple and asked Huilan to preside over it. After Shiyin ascended the throne, the book of Liang already called Tuyuhun “there is a Buddhist dharma in China”, and recorded that Tuyuhun asked for permission to set up a nine story Pagoda in Yizhou in 514 (the 13th year of Tianjian). Tuyuhun is adjacent to the Northern Dynasty in the East and the Southern Dynasty in the south. Both countries are the dissemination areas of Mahayana Buddhism. Tuyuhun has been greatly influenced, and the accepted Buddhism also belongs to the Mahayana Pope.

Tuyuhun was originally a branch of Xianbei. The language originally belonged to the Donghu language family of Altaic language family, but later it was founded in Qiang and became increasingly Qiang, and the language was gradually close to Tibetan. Tuguhun people have been regarded as the same race in Tibetan literature. However, due to the close relationship with the Central Plains Dynasty, the upper rulers of Tuyuhun have been in general use of Chinese and Chinese for a long time. The historical books call them “quite familiar with characters” or “quite familiar with secretaries”, which refers to their general use of Chinese.

Tuyuhun’s music is a part of Beidi music. It is recorded in the music records of the old Tang Dynasty that “the knowers of Beidi music are Xianbei, Tuyuhun and tribal Ji. They all play music immediately, preaching the voice of their own military. Therefore, since the Han Dynasty, Beidi music has always been promoted by the advocacy Department… There are 53 chapters now, and the name can be explained in six chapters: Murong Khan, Tuyuhun, tribal Ji, Prince Baijing…” Wait, it’s “Xianbei song between Yan and Wei”. Judging from the title, it seems to be an epic of the ancestors of Tuguhun who moved westward and sang in Xianbei language.

in the field of modern Chinese martial arts novels, “Jin Yong” is definitely a very important name. Jin Yong has created 15 martial arts novels in his life, including “shooting white deer in the sky with flying snow, laughing at the divine Xia leaning on Bi Yuan” and “Yue NV Jian”, most of which have been highly praised by martial arts novel lovers. The word “heaven” refers to the eight heavenly dragons. In this novel, a character named Murong Fu is mentioned. He is proficient in “taking the other way and giving back the other”. He is known as “South Murong and North Qiaofeng”. In the novel, Murong Fu is a descendant of Murong Xianbei and a descendant of the royal family of Yan state, who is bent on restoring his hometown.

many people don’t know that murongfu is not completely a fiction of Jin Yong. There is a real person in history. However, the background of the novel “heaven

is in the period of confrontation between Liao and Song Dynasties, but the real Murong Fu lived in the middle of Tang Dynasty.

in the winter of 688 A.D. (the 14th year of Zhenyuan of emperor Dezong of Tang Dynasty), the cold wind was bleak in the northern desert outside the Great Wall, while the residence of murongfu, deputy envoy of Shuofeng Jiedu and general Zuo Jinwu, was decorated with lanterns and full of joy. In December of that year, Li Shi, Emperor Dezong of the Tang Dynasty, issued a decree that Murong Fu was the governor of Anle Prefecture and the king of Qinghai, and was awarded the title of “wudiya baladou Khan”. Of course, the king or Khan is nothing more than a noble title, not a real division of the land, but the title from the imperial court is not trivial after all, which is worth celebrating.

this general murongfu did not have brilliant achievements and distinguished reputation in history. The old and new Tang books were a passing experience for him. Then, why did Tang Dezong favor him so much and grant him xianjue? There is only one reason: murongfu is a descendant of the Tuyuhun royal family who has an affinity with the Tang Dynasty.

Tuyuhun first moved west to Yinshan, and soon moved west to Ganlong, crossed Taoshui, and established a country in the hometown of Qiang nationality. It was 312 ad (the last year of Sima Chi Yongjia, Emperor Huai of the Western Jin Dynasty), and an era of great turbulence and division was coming. However, Tuyuhun, located in the remote western border, did not feel much impact. Within the territory of thousands of miles from Gansong in the north to Bulan in the south, Lintao River in the East and Khotan in the west, Tuguhun people live a quiet nomadic life. Tuyuhun himself lived to 72 years old, which was a rare longevity at that time, and left 60 sons.

Tuyuhun’s career was inherited by his eldest son TuYan, who reigned for 13 years and left 12 sons. TuYan was stabbed by Jiang Cong with a sword and died because he competed with Jiang Cong, the leader of the Qiang Nationality in angcheng. Before his death, Jiang Cong asked Yu to help his eldest son Ye Yan succeed to the throne. Ye yanman read poetry and biography, and later claimed that since his great grandfather Yi Luohan had been granted the title of Changli Gong, he was the son of Gongsun. The son of the Duke of Zhou can be used as the basis for the son of the Duke of Zhou. Therefore, Ye Yan changed his surname to Tuyuhun and gave up his original surname Murong. However, most historical books, such as the old and new Tang books, mention the Tuguhun royal family and still call them “Murong family”. Therefore, Murong Fu should actually be called Tuguhun Fu.

Ye Yan has talent and ambition. It’s a pity that time is not lost. At the age of 33, Ye Yan died in his prime. The subsequent generations of King Tuyuhun, who succeeded to the throne, were inherited by his father and son, or his brother and brother. Although there were internal disputes of the Royal regime, they did not cause any chaos, so they were relatively peaceful. Later, a jackal, Ye Yan’s great grandson (Zizhi Tongjian)Xiang, tuyuhunshun was forced to stay with the emperor for a long time to accompany the king.

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the rule of emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty soon perished. Yunfu returned to his hometown while taking advantage of the chaos in the world. He thought that the Tang Dynasty had the effect of calming Liangzhou and returned to his legitimate son tuyuhunshun. During the honeymoon between the Tang Dynasty and Tuyuhun, Yunfu thought there was an opportunity when the world was disrupted. He forgot the lesson of being almost destroyed by the Sui Dynasty and took the initiative to attack the Tang Dynasty. After he ascended the throne, Yunfu sent troops to plunder and harass Shanzhou, Lanzhou, kuozhou and other places. Under the great anger of Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty, he sent famous generals and Hou Junji to fight on a large scale until they reached the source of the Yellow River. The poet left the poem “the former army fought in taohebei at night and captured Tuyuhun alive”. However, it is said that Yunfu was killed by his followers, and some people say he hanged himself. The crown prince Tuyuhun followed the whole country to the Tang Dynasty.

Tuyuhun lived in Chang’an for a long time, and the kings and ministers of the Tang Dynasty were quite satisfied with him. Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty made him a prefect and asked him to return home to be a Khan. However, tuyuhunshun had been immersed in the Central Plains for too long, and the ministers refused to accept it. When he was sent to support the withdrawal of his Tang army, he was killed. His young son was hugged by him. Ministers took the opportunity to fight for power. For fear of further trouble, Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty sent troops to support nuohobo, and named him “king of Heyuan Prefecture” and “wudiyabeledou Khan”. When nuohobo became an adult, he married Princess Honghua, the daughter of the imperial family.

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after several ups and downs, Tuyuhun’s national strength has been quite poor. And Tubo on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau flourished. In the 63rd year of

(the third year of longshuo of Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty), Tubo invaded Tuyuhun on a large scale. In order to save Tuyuhun, Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty sent a senior general to help. However, due to various reasons, the Tang army was defeated in dafichuan, and the empress of Tuyuhun royal family withdrew to Liangzhou with the Tang army. Since then, Tuyuhun was annexed by Tubo and never revived. Later, Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty intended to make nuohobo king of Qinghai and place him in Liangzhou. However, Liangzhou is too desolate and too close to Tubo. Tuyuhun felt that it was difficult to establish a country there, and nuohobo also repeatedly asked Juzu to move inside. Therefore, Tuyuhun clan people were finally settled in Lingzhou and built a city to live in. Gaozong gave it the name of Anle Prefecture, and nuohobo was used as an assassin of Anle Prefecture. I hope they can. Unfortunately, after several generations, Anle Prefecture was captured by Tubo. The people of Tuyuhun moved to the south of Shanxi again, and gradually evolved into the Tu nationality living in the north of Huangshui in the east of Qinghai Province, on both sides of the Yellow River and its adjacent areas.

murongfu mentioned earlier is the last descendant of the Tuyuhun royal family. Although he was granted a large number of titles by Tang Dezong, after his death, Tuyuhun Murong royal family no longer had knighthood, and the Tuyuhun royal family, which had lasted for more than 300 years, was cut off. Until the nuohobo kingdom was broken and moved inside, Tuyuhun lived for 352 years and passed on the throne of 19 monarchs. In a sense, Murong Fu is Tuyuhun and the last king of Murong Xianbei – although only in name.

qingzuiwan, Nanying Township, 20 kilometers south of Wuwei City, Gansu Province, has undulating peaks, vertical and horizontal canyons, and turbulent downwelling of two major rivers, flood and ice ditch. At the confluence of the two rivers, there is a Nanying reservoir, and an ancient tomb is located on the hill at the south foot of Qilian mountain opposite the reservoir.

due to the lack of historical records, no one knows who is buried in this ancient city for thousands of years.

during the Tongzhi period of the Qing Dynasty, the Manchu and Qing governments created ethnic contradictions, which led to the hatred and killing of Hui and Han Dynasties. Local people in Wuwei, Gansu Province went up the mountain to dig caves for refuge. Someone with personality Liang happened to dig into this ancient tomb. When they took a look at the fire, they saw that the tomb was resplendent, with murals all over the wall and a lot of funerary objects. In addition to a large number of wooden artifacts such as painted wooden figurines, horses, cattle and camels, there were also a lot of bronze and jade jewelry. Liang stole and sold gold and jade jewelry and made a windfall.

since then, the misfortune of ancient tombs has followed one after another, but people only pay attention to the search for gold, silver and jewelry. Most precious cultural relics, including epitaphs, have not been greatly damaged and are well preserved. No one is going to find out who the owner of the ancient tomb is.

in April 1915, the ancient tomb was excavated again. The grave digger dug up a epitaph and collected it without telling anyone. There is no airtight wall in the world. After a short time, it became a household name within a radius of tens of miles. An endless stream of people went to the tomb digger’s house to visit the epitaph, just like going to a temple fair. Tang Furong, the magistrate of Wuwei County at that time, was a man of insight. He knew that Wuwei was an important town in the western border since ancient times, and there must be ancient stone carvings buried underground. Therefore, he asked Jia Tan, President of the chamber of Commerce, to visit on his behalf. Jia Tan accidentally learned that the epitaph of qingzuiwan ancient tomb was unearthed. He immediately found the person who collected the epitaph and took it back to the

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palace in Wenchang, Wuwei for preservation. The epitaph of

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is square, and the epitaph is covered with the central seal character “epitaph of Princess Xiping in the great Zhou Dynasty”, surrounded by carved patterns of twigs and grass leaves. The carving is extremely exquisite. There are 25 lines of text on the bottom of the annals, with 24 words on the full line, and the font is dignified and beautiful. In history, Da Zhou was the title of emperor. From the epitaph, the owner of the ancient tomb is Princess Xiping of the great Zhou Dynasty. After further study of the epitaph, it is found that the owner of the ancient tomb, Princess Xiping of the great Zhou Dynasty, is a person known as Princess Honghua. The epitaph said that the princess Honghua “gave birth to the emperor and daughter of the spirit, showing a strange quality in LianBo; surprised queen, Zhanqing instrument in Gui soul; Gong Gong’s training, bathing Chen you of fetal education; Si’s strategy, following the rules, is very wise and sensitive.” Obviously, Princess Honghua is a very beautiful and cultured Royal woman. At this time, everyone knew that a generation of princesses were buried in Wuwei. So who is Princess Honghua?

Princess Honghua, surnamed Wu during the reign of Empress Wu, was renamed the eldest princess of Xiping. She was born in A.D. 622 (the fifth year of Wude of emperor Gaozu of the Tang Dynasty) and is the daughter of Li daomin, the king of Huaiyang in the Tang clan. This Lord Honghua has made a period of history of the Tang Dynasty.

in 634 A.D. (the eighth year of Zhenguan of Tang Dynasty), Tubo Songzanganbu and Yangtong (ancient nomadic tribes living in the West and north of today’s Tibet Autonomous Region) Attack Tuyuhun together. The following year, Tuyuhun was attacked by the Tang army, defeated and divided into two parts. Led by Fu Yunzi, Tuyuhun in the West retreated to the west, centered on Shanshan in Xinjiang, and then subdued Tubo; Tuyuhun in the East was led by Murong Shun, the eldest son of Fuyun, centered on fuqiecheng (now in Gonghe County, Qinghai Province) and attached to the Tang Dynasty. The Tang Dynasty granted murongshun the title of Xiping County King. Later, Murong Shun was killed by his subordinates, and the Tang court made nuohobo, the son of Murong Shun, king of Yan, king of Tuyuhun, king of Heyuan Prefecture, and later changed it to “king of Qinghai”. Nuohobo issued the calendar of the Tang Dynasty, received the year of the Tang Dynasty, and had a good relationship with the Tang Dynasty. The reserve Tang Dynasty was awarded as “wudiya baladou Khan”. In 636 ad (the 10th year of Zhenguan), nuohobo went to Chang’an, the capital of the Tang Dynasty, to pay a visit to Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty and asked him to marry him. Taizong generously agreed and said that he would betroth Princess Honghua, the daughter of the imperial family, to nuohobo.

in 640 ad (February of the 14th year of Zhenguan), Princess Honghua was 18 years old, with both talent and appearance and beautiful beauty. General Zuo Xiaowei, Li daomin, king of Huaiyang, and general murongbao, general of right Wuwei, were sent to escort Princess Honghua to Tuyuhun to marry nuohobo.

that year, Princess Honghua left Chang’an, far away from the hometown of wealth, far away from her parents and relatives, came to the vast plateau grassland, sparsely populated barren mountains and barren mountains, and lived a nomadic life of “living without city walls, living with water and grass tents, and eating meat and cheese”. Seven years later, at the age of 25, Princess Honghua and nuohobo gave birth to their eldest son Murong Zhong.

began with Princess Honghua and her relative Tuyuhun, who was increasingly close to the Tang Dynasty. Ten years later, in 650 ad (the first year of Yonghui of the Tang Dynasty), Emperor Gaozong Li Zhi of the Tang Dynasty succeeded to the throne and granted nuohobo as the prince in law. The next year, nuohobo sent envoys to offer horses to the court. In 652 ad (the third year of Yonghui), Princess Honghua asked to visit relatives in the dynasty. Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty sent General Zuo Xiaowei Xian Yu Kuang

to meet her. In November, Princess Honghua and nuohobo arrived in Chang’an to meet Emperor Gaozong. Princess Honghua is the only princess who has ever returned to Chang’an among more than a dozen princesses married outside the Tang Dynasty. Emperor Gaozong treated each other with courtesy, and married Murong Zhong, the eldest son of nuohobo, with the daughter of Jincheng County, and the second son of nuohobo, with the daughter of Jinming county. In 663 ad (the third year of longshuo, Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty), Tubo defeated Tuyuhun. Nuohobo took Princess Honghua and led the remnant to Liangzhou to ask for help from the Tang Dynasty. However, the ineffective rescue of the Tang army led to the final demise of the Tuyuhun Kingdom, which had been established for 350 years.

in 670 ad (the first year of Xianheng), the Tang Dynasty sent Xue Rengui to attack the Tubo army and planned to escort nuohobo back to his hometown. However, Xue Rengui was defeated by the Tubo army in dafichuan (now Kuangyuan, Cheji Township, Hainan prefecture, Qinghai), the Tang army was almost completely destroyed, and Tuyuhun’s hope of restoring the country was completely dashed.

in 672 ad (the third year of Xianheng), the Tang Dynasty moved nuohobo to the south of Datong River in Shanzhou (now Ledu, Qinghai). Nuohobo was afraid of Tubo and was uneasy about his residence. The Tang Dynasty moved it to Lingzhou (now Tongxin area of Ningxia). Princess Honghua lived in Tuyuhun for 58 years and died of illness in Lingzhou in 698 (the first year of the Tang holy calendar) at the age of 76; Moved and buried in Liangzhou at the beginning of the next year.

Princess Honghua lived in Tuyuhun for more than half a century and contributed her whole life to the reunification of the motherland and national unity. Princess Honghua’s entry into Tuyuhun is also the beginning of the Tang Dynasty’s marriage of the princess to foreign countries. It is a major event in the history of Chinese national unity. It not only improved the relationship between Tang and Tuyuhun, but also promoted the friendly exchanges between Tang and Tushan.

on the epitaph of Princess Honghua, there is also a poem written by an unknown person:

nanxue mountain is a 100% bird City, and bangai is part of the spirit.

the grass is withering at the beginning, and the sound of mourning is heard. When is the quiet spring dull and bright? The poem

fully expresses the love and nostalgia of the Tang people and Tuyuhun people for Princess Honghua.

since the discovery of the epitaph of Princess Honghua, eight epitaphs of Tuguhun in the Tang Dynasty have been found in Wuwei area, belonging to Murong Ming, king of Dai music, Murong Shenwei, king of Anle, King Murong Zhong of Qinghai, Murong ghost, king of political music, Lord of Jincheng County, Murong Xiguang, king of Yan, Mrs. Murong Ruo, king of yuan Tang Dynasty, so Mrs. Wu. According to the epitaph, the tombs of the four generations, from Princess Honghua to Murong Xiguang, are buried in Wuwei.

Tuyuhun didn’t live long in Wuwei area. Why should he be buried here after death?

originally, Liangzhou Nanshan is close to the original Tuyuhun center Qinghai, separated by Qilian Mountain is their original territory. Today, Qilian, Danma Township and Nanying Township qingzui and Lamawan in Wuwei are their main areas for recuperation. Buried here, you can be protected by the Tang Dynasty and close to itHometown can express the feeling of nostalgia for the hometown and the nomadic life. The Murong tombs found in qingzui Lama Bay are all built on the hills with the tomb gate to the south, which has the meaning of looking forward to home. Secondly, although the Murong family moved to Anle Prefecture, there are still Tuyuhun tribes nomadic here. Based on the above reasons, Liangzhou became the tomb of Murong, the royal family of Tuyuhun.

since it was known that the ancient tomb was the tomb of the Lord Honghua, the local people filled the stolen cave, so that the remains of the princess and a large number of cultural relics in the tomb could be preserved. At the same time, a princess temple was built on the hill next to the tomb, and the princess was painted. People from far and near often went to worship, and incense kept burning all year round. In 1927, the princess temple was unfortunately destroyed by the earthquake.

later, due to neglect of management, local people dug tombs at will, took bricks, destroyed tombs, and threw a large number of painted wooden figurines and ceramic artifacts at the foot of the mountain. It was not until 1980 that experts and scholars cleaned up the tomb of Princess Honghua according to the clues provided by the masses.

from the epitaph of Princess Honghua, the unearthed funerary objects and the structure and shape of the tomb, we can see the funeral customs of Tuyuhun nationality. The tomb chamber is a single chamber brick tomb, which is composed of tomb passage, corridor and tomb chamber. The tomb passage is of slope type, and the corridor and tomb chamber are of through hole type, stacked with bricks, with coffin beds in the room. Most of the funerary objects were wood, and there were lacquerware, pottery, porcelain, bone ware, bronze ware, as well as a large number of silk products, gold, silver and jewelry. Among the woodwork, in addition to the male and female terracotta figures reflecting the luxury of the royal family, there are many funeraries such as horses, camels and poultry, reflecting the nomadic life of the Tuyuhun nationality, which “has a city Guo but does not live, follows the water and grass, takes the Lu tent as the room, and takes meat and cheese as food”.

the painted wooden figurines unearthed from the tomb of Princess Honghua are vivid in shape and realistic in appearance, which adds new material materials to the study of the carving art of the Tang Dynasty and is also a rare art treasure. Most of the unearthed lacquerware and the lacquerware inlaid with silver flowers have been damaged, but the superb craftsmanship can still be seen. It can be seen from the remnants of silk fabrics that the texture of brocade, silk and Qi is fine and firm, the jacquard is accurate, the color is properly matched, the color is bright, the yarn is thin, transparent and gorgeous, which reflects the exquisite silk weaving skills of the Tang Dynasty. Tuyuhun has long lived in Gansu, Qinghai and Xinjiang, and is located on the main road of the silk road. It has played a great role in the exchange of Chinese and Western cultures. These cultural relics are not only the physical witness of the developed Silk Road trade in the Tang Dynasty, but also the physical witness of the friendly exchanges between the two countries.

Tuyuhun has existed for 350 years from the formal founding of the people’s Republic of China to the final collapse. In the first 100 years, through the efforts of several generations of monarchs such as shuluogan and ahe, Tuyuhun gradually became a small and powerful country in the western region. In order to obtain the space for its own survival and development, in the case of surrounded by strong neighbors, Tuyuhun adopted the strategy of peaceful exchanges with other countries as a whole, constantly accepted various gifts from various powerful countries, and paid tribute to them for a long time. It can be said that Tuyuhun is a country that strives to meet the needs of both sides.

Tuyuhun’s most glorious page in Chinese history is their role in economic activities and cultural exchanges between the East and the West.

opened up the Qinghai Road of the Silk Road in the Western Han Dynasty. It was once deserted after the Han Dynasty. In the Tuyuhun period, the Qinghai Road began to be reused and became an important channel for transportation and trade at that time. Because Qinghai road crosses the border of Tuyuhun, it is also called “Tuyuhun road” by later generations. At that time, Tuyuhun road could be described as extending in all directions: it could reach the Northern Wei Dynasty and later Northern Zhou Dynasty of

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in the Northern Dynasty to the East; To the south, you can reach the upper reaches of Taohe River along the South Bank of the Yellow River, and reach Jiankang (now Nanjing) through here; Westward to the western regions; To the north, you can cross the Hexi corridor to Rouran, the Eastern Wei Dynasty and the Northern Qi Dynasty.

Tuyuhun first acted as the interpreter and guide of foreign envoys and businessmen on this road. When envoys from some countries in Central Asia and West Asia came to the Southern Dynasty, they were led by Tuyuhun people and arrived in China through Tuyuhun road. Apart from the shuttle envoys, there are also businessmen from Eastern and Western countries, monks who go to the west to learn scriptures and Indian monks who come from the east to preach Dharma.

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the traffic of all kinds of people from East, West, North and South continued the cultural exchanges between China and the West since the Han Dynasty, and also had a great impact on Tuyuhun itself. For example, the Tuyuhun people did not believe in Buddhism at first, but in the late period of muliyan’s rule, Buddhism began to be popular in Tuyuhun. The reason is that Buddhism was introduced into Tuyuhun from the western regions and the Southern Dynasty through Tuyuhun road. This also shows the profound influence of Tuyuhun Taoism on Tuyuhun’s culture and religion.

of course, the main activity of Tuguhun people on this road is to carry out transit trade with foreign businessmen and thus intervene in international trade; At the same time, they also engaged in the commercial activities of “trading and buying in the name of offering” with the southern and Northern Dynasties. In this large-scale international trade, Tuyuhun has made huge profits by relying on the status of “intermediary”. Many rich businessmen are so rich that they are so rich that the national financial expenditure is borne by these people. In 553 ad (the second year of the abolition of the emperor in the Western Wei Dynasty), Tuyuhun Khan kualu sent a delegation to pay tribute to the Northern Qi Dynasty. After learning the news of the return of the mission, Shi Ning, the governor of Liangzhou in the Western Wei Dynasty, led his troops to attack, captured more than 240 businessmen who followed the mission, captured more than 600 camels and mules, and tens of thousands of silk and colored silk. The scale of its trade is large, even inIt also seems surprising today.

since 1983, a large number of silk fabrics have been excavated in Tubo tombs in Dulan county. The varieties include brocade, silk, Luo, Kesi, etc., almost including all known silk fabrics of the Tang Dynasty and the “Persian brocade” of the Sogdians in Central Asia. The number, variety, pattern beauty The essence of skills and the large time span are rare. These silk fabrics and a large number of other unearthed cultural relics provide the most direct evidence for the Qinghai Silk Road and fully prove the importance of this route.

on the black market in Xining, the capital of Qinghai Province, the sale of cultural relics from Tubo tombs is very rampant. Some cultural relics of Dulan Tubo tomb stolen from the market may be much more precious than those officially excavated. More than ten years ago, many precious silk fabrics had been lost overseas. The Tuyuhun people in remote times can’t imagine that their painstaking management and disguised tombs were so easily looted.

the last virgin land on the silk road is suffering a great disaster. This is a cultural disaster.

in 329 ad (the fourth year of Xianhe in the Eastern Jin Dynasty), Ye Yan inherited the Khan position, took the first generation Khan’s name as his surname and country name,

and changed his surname to Tuyuhun, officially establishing the Tuyuhun state.

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in 609 ad (the fifth year of the great cause of emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty), the Sui army defeated Tuyuhun and put most of today’s Qinghai under the territory of the Sui Dynasty. At the end of the Sui Dynasty, the Tuyuhun Khan promised to recover the lost land, and the Tuyuhun country revived, but the strong and prosperous period has become history.

in 634 A.D. (the eighth year of Zhenguan), Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty issued the imperial edict to discuss Tuyuhun. He counted Tuyuhun’s crimes over the years and sent 100000 Tang troops to Qinghai in three ways, which achieved an all-round victory in less than half a year.

in 635 A.D. (the ninth year of Zhenguan), Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty ordered Tuyuhun to restore the country and granted murongshun as the king of Xiping Prefecture. Murong Shun was not supported by the Chinese people and died in the civil strife. His son nuohobo, king of Yan, succeeded to the throne. Tuyuhun officially became a vassal state of the Tang Dynasty.

in 636 A.D. (the twelfth lunar month of the tenth year of Zhenguan), nuohobo asked the Tang Dynasty for reconciliation, and the Taizong promised Princess Honghua, the daughter of the imperial family. In the winter of 639 ad (the 13th year of Zhenguan), nuohobo went to Chang’an to marry the princess. In February of the following year, Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty sent General Zuo Xiaowei, King Li daomin of Huaiyang, to send off his relatives and accompanied him with a large number of precious dowries. Since then, the relationship between Tuyuhun and the Tang Dynasty has become increasingly close.

in 663 ad (the third year of longshuo of Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty), Tubo Lu Dongzan attacked on a large scale, and with the help of Tuyuhun’s Pro Tubo ministers, he successfully invaded Tuyuhun. Tuyuhun perished.