Donghu is a northern nationality that was strong and prosperous in the Chinese period. It is named because it lives to the east of the Huns. It is an ancient nomadic people in Northeast China. It is a tribal alliance, including large and small tribes with the same clan and different names at that time. As early as the Shang Dynasty, there were records of Donghu’s activities. From historical records, Donghu has always been a powerful tribe. It defeated the state of Yan in the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period. At the end of Qin Dynasty, it blackmailed and blackmailed the Huns.

Donghu is one of the ethnic minorities in northern China. The activities in the Zhou, Qin and Han Dynasties, as well as the Wei, Jin and Qing Dynasties played an important role in the history of our country. On the one hand, they continuously integrate with all ethnic groups on the grassland, on the other hand, they continue to move into the Central Plains to integrate with the Han nationality, and finally integrate into the Han nationality. Therefore, Donghu is actually a major branch of the ancestors of the Han nationality.

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the name of Donghu first appeared in “Yi Zhou Shu · Wang Hui Pian”, which is described by “Donghu and Huang Pi”. Donghu and tuhe, Guzhu, lingzhi and other nationalities coexisted at that time. These ancient nationalities have been merged by Yan since the Warring States period. It can be seen that this record will not be later than the Warring States period. “Yi Zhou Shu Wang Hui Pian” also said that “there are… Xiongnu… Donghu in the due north…” Kong Chao’s note explained: “Donghu, northeast Yi”; It is also said that Xiongnu and Donghu are nicknames of “Beidi”. The book of mountains and seas and the book of haineixi also said: “Donghu is in dazedong, and the barbarians are in Donghu East.” According to research, daze is today dalainor in Inner Mongolia. Donghu is in the east of daze and in the basin of today’s Xilamulun river. The Yi people in it should be the Dongyi people living in today’s East Liaoning. “Guan Zi Xiao Kuang chapter” contains: “(Duke Huan) rescued Duke Jin, captured the king, defeated the Hu raccoon (he), destroyed the Tu he, and rode the bandit before serving.” among them, the Hu raccoon should refer to the East Hu. It is recorded in the historical records – biographies of the Huns: “the official documents of the Jin Dynasty were established at the beginning, and they wanted to repair their hegemony,… They welcomed the king of Zhou Xiang and lived in the city of Luo. At that time, the Qin and Jin Dynasties were powerful,… There were Linhu and Loufan Rong in the north of the Jin Dynasty, Donghu and Shanrong in the north of the Yan Dynasty.” This should also be in the spring and Autumn period, because after the spring and Autumn period, Shanrong has disappeared from history.

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these records about Donghu all prove that Donghu is an ancient ethnic group that operated in the near Xilamulun River Basin in the Zhou Dynasty. When the Donghu nationality established the state, there are no more records to explain in the literature. However, it can be inferred from the records of Yan general Qin Kai as a hostage in Donghu and the records of the king of Donghu in the chronicles of the Huns that Donghu had established a state in the Warring States period, so it also formed the Donghu nation.

about the origin of Donghu, the literature records are brief and chaotic.

Yin Zhizhang said: the ancestor of Donghu was tuhe nationality. However, this statement is contradictory to the historical data of Donghu and Tu he juxtaposed in Yizhou book, Guanzi and other books. According to the records in the book, Donghu and tuhe should have existed at the same time. Tuhe’s scope of activities is in today’s western Liaoning, and Donghu is in today’s eastern Mongolia. Why can’t tu be the ancestor of Donghu.

some people believe that Shanrong in the spring and Autumn period was the predecessor of Donghu. In the Warring States period, Shanrong was renamed Donghu. According to this view, the name of “Donghu” should first appear in the Warring States period. However, according to the records of

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in the book of Yi Zhou, the name of Donghu appeared at the beginning of its establishment. The book of mountains and seas also recorded the emergence of Donghu earlier than the Warring States period. The historical records, biographies of Xiongnu and the book of Yi Zhou also mentioned Donghu and Shanrong side by side. Therefore, Donghu and Shanrong should also be changed into two parallel tribes. Shanrong’s activity range is in the upper reaches of today’s Daling River Basin, and Donghu is in today’s Xilamulun River Basin. After the defeat of Shanrong, Donghu once went south and occupied the territory originally belonging to Shanrong. Later, due to the attack of Yan, one of the seven heroes of the Warring States period, Donghu retreated thousands of miles to the north and then to the Xilamulun River Basin. During this period, Shanrong nationality may have been partially integrated into Donghu, but it can not be said that Shanrong was the ancestor of Donghu. It is also said that the ancestors of Donghu are the Turkmen people. This statement was only put forward in recent years. However, the exact location of earthwork is still difficult to determine, and there are no more historical materials to prove that earthwork is the ancestor of Donghu.

in addition, some people believe that Donghu Zuyuan is related to the establishment of “Beiyin” by Wu Geng; Some people say that the Donghu people are the remnant left by Jizi when he went east to Korea in the late Shang and early Zhou dynasties; It was also suggested that the Donghu people were descendants of the Yin and Shang Dynasties.

relatively speaking, it is more credible that the ancestors of the Donghu nationality originated from the Yin Shang clan.

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Yin Shang tribes took Xuanniao as their totem and initially lived in Fanhe Dishi area north of Yanshan. Fan and Dieshi are the basins of Laoha River and Xilamulun river. They are the birthplace of the Yin Shang clan. It was the area where the Donghu people later lived. Starting from the first leader recorded in historical records, the Yin Shang tribe experienced 14 generations of leaders, during which it migrated eight times. When Tang was established, the Yin Shang tribe settled in today’s Anyang, Henan Province. The eight migrations between them are a long historical process. It is likely that some members of the Yin Shang tribe did not leave when they decided to migrate. The Yin Shang tribes who entered the central plains were quickly assimilated by agricultural civilization, while the Yin Shang survivors who remained in their hometown still lived a nomadic life on the grassland, and their customs had not changed much. When the people of the Central Plains met these Yin Shang survivors again, they didn’t know they were Yin Shang blood. They thought they were barbarians like Xiongnu, Shanrong and other nationalities. At that time, the Xiongnu claimed to be Hu. Because the Donghu nationality lived in the east of the Xiongnu nationality, it was called Donghu.

Donghu people lived in the north of the Shang Dynasty in the early years of the Shang Dynasty and in the north east of the Zhou Dynasty in the early years of the Western Zhou Dynasty. In the spring and Autumn period, Donghu was still in the development stage of clan and tribe at the end of primitive society. In the Warring States period, Donghu expanded from the north of Jin and Yan to the East and south. Its influence reached the north of Yan and the vast area in the northeast, which is now BeijingThe middle and upper reaches of Luanhe River in the north of Miyun County, Xilamulun River and Laoha River in the upper reaches of Liaohe River, including today’s Heilongjiang, Jilin, the west of Liaoning and some areas in the east of Inner Mongolia.

Donghu people advocate nature, worship the sun, moon, stars, water, fire and other natural things, and take bears, tigers, deer, wolves and other animals as totems. In nomadic life and sacrificial activities, Donghu people created a dance system with “rotation” as the main action, which has been called “Hu rotation” by later generations. Donghu people are also good at making baked food, especially “barbecue”, “pancake” and other food, which has been handed down to this day.

evolved from the “Hu cake” baked by Donghu people. As the main body is nomadic, the life of hunting and grazing makes the Donghu people fierce, advocating force and war, and often plundering wealth and slaves through war. Although it was slower than the development of the civilization in the Central Plains, in the early Warring States period, the Donghu people mastered superb bronze smelting technology. The bronze swords, arrowheads, knives, daggers and helmets made by Donghu people were not only of high technological value, but also very sharp and practical. In particular, the copper double-sided curved edged bronze short swords and long swords were called the sharp weapons of war at that time. In particular, the ox horn bow of Donghu people is made of huge ox horn, ox tendon and deer tendon. It is short, strong and powerful, and has strong lethality. With feather arrows made of carved feathers, red willow poles and bronze arrows, it is light, flexible and very suitable. This kind of horn bow feather arrow was one of the more advanced weapons until the Tang and Song dynasties. The ballad of the state of Qi recorded in the Warring States Policy describes the image of the Donghu people, saying: “if the crown is like a dustpan, repair the sword over Yi”. It can be seen that the hat of the Donghu people at that time was very large, like a dustpan. The bronze sword used was vertical on the ground and the length could reach the chin. At that time, the people of Donghu wore this kind of dustpan shaped hat, rode on a high horse, waved a long sword and hung a short bow made of ox horns. They often attacked Yan, Zhao, Qi and other countries. They showed their cavalry and cavalry tactics to the people of the Central Plains. The strong arms and effective tactics were immediately learned and promoted by the people of the Central Plains, and the flexible horse battle replaced the clumsy vehicle battle.

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because of continuous development and merger, Donghu was no longer a single nation, but a tribal consortium from the Zhou Dynasty to the spring and autumn and Warring States periods. Among them, there were ethnic groups mainly engaged in fish hunting in the northeast, nomadic ethnic groups active in the middle, and nomadic and farming ethnic groups active in the West and south.

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when Donghu was strong, there were “more than 100000 string controllers”. According to the calculation that five people in each household produced a string controller who can ride and shoot, the population of Donghu was about 700000.

in the process of nearly 800 years, Donghu people began to exist in the vast area centered on Horqin grassland of Mongolia. Through the friction with the Central Plains countries, the two sides deepened understanding and accelerated the process of mutual integration, which injected fresh blood into Chinese civilization.

of course, it is also a hypothesis that the Donghu people and the Yin Shang tribes share the same ancestor, and there is no further evidence to support it. There are so few relics left by Donghu people who don’t like settlement and burial that we can’t find the truth of history from the limited clues.

during the Warring States period, Miyun area under the jurisdiction of Beijing, the capital of China, was originally under the jurisdiction of the state of Yan, located in the northeast of the state of Yan. It is an important gateway for the Central Plains to and from the northeast and Inner Mongolia. With a special geographical location, it is an important border town and a place for strategists.

at that time, the Central Plains entered the period of seven heroes competing for hegemony after the disputes among the princes in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty. After years of war, the vassal states in the Central Plains had no time to take care of them, and the nomads in the North became very active. Miyun area became the only way for them to go south. Therefore, Miyun region has become an important battlefield for the state of Yan to compete with the nomadic nationalities in the north.

at that time, the powerful Donghu was in the north of Yan state. Taking advantage of the weakness of several generations of monarchs in the state of Yan, the Donghu nationality quickly occupied

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and occupied Miyun area. Through this passage, the Donghu people ran rampant and plundered the wealth and people of Yan state. The border of Yan state was threatened by Donghu, and people fled their hometown one after another. The formerly prosperous villages were desolate and uninhabited. The invincible scenery of Donghu lasted until Wang Jizhi of Yanzhao ascended the throne as the monarch of the state of Yan.

Ji Zhi is the 38th grandson of Duke Zhao of Zhou. At that time, Yan was also a big country. When the throne was handed over to Yan Wang Kuai, Yan Wang Kuai listened to slander and wanted to learn from Yao and shun. Unexpectedly, he gave the throne to the son of the prime minister. General Yan and Ji Zhi, who was taken hostage in South Korea, immediately attacked Zizhi, and there was a riot in Yan. The state of Qi took the opportunity to break into the state of Yan in the name of calming the civil strife in the state of Yan and almost destroyed the state of Yan.

Ji Zhi became king of Yanzhao after calming the civil strife. Seeing that the former powerful state of Yan had been reduced to the smallest vassal state among the seven heroes, he was very unwilling and determined to make the state of Yan strong. Actively look for talents to govern the country in order to revive the state of Yan.

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talents are not as easy to obtain as expected, so King Yan Zhaowang personally went to the door and asked the old minister Guo kaiting what to do.

Guo Kai (W) ě i) , thinking for a while, Said: “I can’t tell if I want to recommend ready-made talents. But please allow me to tell a story first. In ancient times, there was a monarch who loved a thousand mile horse and sent people to look for it everywhere, but they couldn’t find it for three years. A courtier heard that there was a valuable thousand mile horse in the distance, so the monarch took a lot of money to buy it. Unexpectedly, when the courtier arrived there, the thousand mile horse was dead. The courtier didn’t dare to return empty handed, so he took it out I bought the horse head with my money and gave it to the monarch. The king was furious and said, “I want you to buy a live horse. Who told you to spend money on useless horse heads?” The Chamberlain replied, “people outside listenIf the king is willing to pay for a dead horse, naturally someone will give the live horse to the king. ” Sure enough, as soon as the news spread that the monarch paid a lot of money to buy a dead horse, everyone thought that besides spending so much money to buy a dead horse, not to mention a live horse! Within a year, the monarch got several thousand mile horses. The king must ask for talents, so you might as well try me as a horse bone. ”

King Yan Zhaowang was greatly inspired. When he went back, he immediately sent someone to build an exquisite mansion for Guo Kai to live in and worship Guo Kai as a teacher. Talented people from all over the world came to see King Yan Zhao’s honest recruitment of talents, and the most famous one was le Yi from Zhao. The king of Yan Zhao, Bai Leyi, was Yaqing and asked him to rectify the country’s politics and train troops. As expected, the state of Yan became stronger and stronger day by day.

therefore, King Yan Zhao and the states of Zhao, South Korea, Wei and Qin jointly sent troops under the command of Le Yi to attack the state of Qi. Le Yi was good at commanding, the morale of the five countries was strong, and the Qi army was defeated. The soldiers of Zhao, Han, Qin and Wei won the war. They occupied several cities of Qi and didn’t want to fight any more. Le Yi refused to give up and led the army of the state of Yan to attack Linzi, the capital of the state of Qi. After

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eliminated the threat of the state of Qi, King Yan Zhao continued to make great efforts and achieve great national strength. Through his efforts, the state of Yan can start a war with Donghu, but it needs to choose a general who can lead the Yan army to defeat Donghu.

soon, Qin Kai fled back from Donghu. Qin Kai is a famous general of the state of Yan. In order to reach a non aggression agreement with Donghu, the state of Yan once sent Qin Kai to Donghu as a hostage. Qin Kai was shrewd, resourceful, experienced and experienced. While Donghu was a

hostage, he ostensibly obeyed the Donghu people, won the appreciation and trust of the Donghu people, secretly observed and studied the politics, military affairs, customs and mountains and rivers of Donghu, and knew all aspects of Donghu, especially the combat characteristics of the Donghu army The method of operation is clear.

around 302 BC, when King Wuling of Zhao was in power, Donghu people often invaded and harassed Zhao. At that time, the state of Zhao was dominated by vehicle warfare, which was often defeated by Donghu people who were healthy and good at riding and shooting. To this end, King Zhao Wuling carried out reform and implemented “Hufu riding and shooting” — learning to wear tight clothes with narrow sleeves, learning the skills of riding and archery, and replacing vehicle warfare with riding warfare. The Chinese cavalry arms first created by the Donghu people were introduced into the Central Plains from then on.

in 273 BC, that is, in the 26th year of King Hui of Zhao, the Donghu rebels who once surrendered to the state of Zhao and occupied the Daijun of the state of Zhao. So the state of Zhao sent troops to fight back and occupied the territory of Donghu, Ou Dai.

around 315 BC, the state of Yan was defeated by Donghu. King Yan took the famous general Qin Kai as a “hostage” and sent him to Donghu for pledge. Qin Kai gained the trust of Donghu people and became familiar with the internal situation of Donghu. Later, he fled back to the state of Zhao. The leader defeated Donghu. Donghu people were forced to return to the middle and east of Horqin grassland.

in 206 BC (the first year of emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty), the Xiongnu tribe ruling the western part of the Mongolian Plateau killed his father Touman and established itself as a single Yu. The king of Donghu thought that the Huns were weak and deceptive. He first sent someone to ask for a wife and a good horse, and then planned to ask for the land on the border between the two countries. He said angrily, “the earth is the foundation of the country. How can we give it!” So they set up troops to attack Donghu. When the Donghu people were unprepared and defeated, the Donghu state perished and divided into Wuhuan and Xianbei.