should have been printed and distributed to every representative of the Party Congress, but it has become a communication to the special session of the plenary session of the CPC Central Committee. At the same time, it also stipulates that “no one shall record”; A vote that should have been taken by secret ballot is simplified to a show of hands; Originally, the original communication has become to briefly say some key points. Here we can see how a few people replace the Political Bureau and the plenary session of the Central Committee, and how the plenary session of the Central Committee replaces the Party Congress. That’s how you keep your throne. However, with the intensification of the struggle between Stalin and Trotsky, then gaminev, Zinoviev and Stalin, which expanded the dissemination and discussion of the will, and it was impossible to conceal the will. Therefore, the 15th National Congress in December 1927 decided to include the letter as an appendix in the records of the Congress, and also decided to publish the letter in the anthology of Lenin. When the Soviet Union eliminated the rebellion, those who talked about Lenin’s will earlier and at that time were likely to be imprisoned or shot, or had become prisoners and ghosts under the gun. Since then, people have been silent and don’t know what the will is.

Lenin’s dictation

Lenin was seriously ill at the end of 1921 and had the initial symptoms. At the insistence of the Party Central Committee and doctors, Lenin had to give up working all day. At this time, he got rid of the heavy daily affairs and practical work, and was able to calmly consider the future and long-term strategy of the party and the country. In Lenin’s own words, “a blessing in disguise is a blessing in disguise; I stayed idle for half a year and observed from the side.” On May 26, 1922, Lenin suffered a stroke for the first time, which made his right arm and leg ineffective and his mouth and teeth failed; On December 13, the doctor persuaded Lenin to take a full rest temporarily; On December 16, Lenin’s disease broke out violently, his health condition deteriorated day by day, and his right arm and right leg were paralyzed. Lenin was clearly aware that his illness was very dangerous and might come to the end of his life. Therefore, on December 23, he decided to dictate a series of notes to write down his thoughts and considerations that he considered “the most important” and “made him anxious”. From December 23, 1922, Lenin began to dictate, to March 2, 1923, Lenin dictated eight letters and articles such as the letter to the Congress. In addition, he also dictated some short messages, “memos” and notes.

here we believe that the will in the strict sense should be the letter to the Congress, while the other seven articles may be appropriate to call it the final order or “will in a broad sense”.




domestic political conditions are becoming more and more worrying. What worries Lenin most is that bureaucracy is becoming more and more intense. Ten days before Lenin wrote his will, his criticism became more acute: “the general situation of state organs is terrible, lower than bourgeois culture.” Lenin even said, “state organs are alien.” The “state organs” here include the ministries and commissions subordinate to the Party Central Committee. These are related to the prevalence of appointment system. There is also a great concentration of power. After Stalin was appointed general secretary, he mastered “unlimited power”. Lenin was dissatisfied with Stalin’s actions and repeatedly severely criticized Stalin for being “too rude”, “being impatient and fond of taking administrative measures”, “being angry”, “being angry usually plays the worst role in politics” and “being impatient is the most harmful”. Lenin has formed a fixed view of Stalin: “he has no mind at all.” Lenin suggested: “make a series of changes to our political system.” One of the important contents of the change is to raise Stalin from the post of general secretary. This is the core content of Lenin’s will. It is also the core content of the inner-Party struggle of the Soviet Communist Party (Bolshevik) in the 1920s and 1930s.

the struggle to expand the Central Committee

the eighth to eleventh National Congress of the Russian Communist Party, the number of the Central Committee is 19-27, which is basically composed of professional revolutionaries. In other words, “the government machinery of the Bolshevik party is mainly composed of intellectuals” (Trotsky), and the party’s leaders are thinkers, writers Politicians are a group of outstanding senior intellectuals. Now Lenin “proposed to increase the Central Committee to dozens or even 100 people”. Where did the new Central Committee member come from? “Ask the working class to appoint 50-100 Central Committee members”. “I think so: if dozens of workers join the Central Committee, they can better inspect, improve and transform our organs than anyone else.” Lenin “refers to workers who include farmers” and should “mainly not come from workers who have done long-term Soviet work”. Because they have been infected with bureaucracy. Obviously, Lenin wanted to change the current situation that the Central Committee was only a group of professional revolutionaries, combine it with the outstanding elements among the ordinary workers and peasants, and let them supervise decision-making. Lenin’s proposal was granted on December 23, 1922 and “delivered to Stalin on the same day”, which can be said to be right in Stalin’s mind. Because the candidates for the expansion of the Central Committee must be nominated and selected by the Secretariat and organization Bureau led by Stalin. In this way, we can naturally expand our own gangs and have more tools under our control. Therefore, on January 29, 1923, the Secretariat put forward a reform plan: the number of the Central Committee should be increased from 27 to 50, which is called “reducing the power of the Political Bureau and strengthening the power of the plenary session of the Central Committee”. After study, Trotsky put forward a systematic opinion to the plenary session of the Central Committee on February 22, 1923: the draft on restructuring and improving the work of central organs. He said: “the Central Committee must maintain its strict form and the ability to make decisions quickly. Therefore, it is meaningless to further expand the Central Committee. Doing so can only make the Central Committee supplemented by some central representatives (mainly some governors) Therefore, it is rare to strengthen ties with the masses, and expanding the composition of the Central Committee and establishing a new and more complex relationship between the Political Bureau and the plenary session will cause a great loss to the accurate work of the Central Committee. ” Comparing the proposals of Lenin, Stalin and Trotsky, their starting points and purposes are different: Lenin started from strengthening the supervision of workers and peasants at the highest level of the Central Committee, tried to set up a supervision organization for the highest level of the Central Committee, and therefore advocated the expansion of the Central Committee. To this end, he has other systematic supplementary suggestions. Trotsky opposed the decision-making from ensuring the efficiency of the central high-level decision-makingExpand the Central Committee. As a decision-making and command organization, how can it be huge? Stalin gave more consideration to forming gangs and strengthening his own interests before proposing to expand the of the Central Committee.