began to play the trick of “referendum”. He put the military action against Rhineland to a vote, which was participated by all Germans. Finally, he agreed to Hitler’s action with 98.8% absolute support. Voting is conducted in an open rather than a secret way. If anyone votes “no”, it may be found by the secret police, resulting in adverse consequences. This shows the hypocrisy of this vote.

Hitler’s

“national self-determination” trial at the Munich Conference

the Saar valley was originally a small area rich in coal in Germany. The main population of this area is Germany. According to the Versailles peace treaty, this area was under the jurisdiction of France and mined coal after World War I. At the instigation of the Nazi party, on January 13, 1935, the separated saars held a referendum and demanded re integration into Germany by an overwhelming majority of 477000 votes to 48000 votes. Hitler touted this as a victory for the great Nazi party. He declared to the Germans that 15 years of injustice had ended.

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there were obvious differences between Britain and France on the Treaty of Versailles. Britain was unwilling to impose too severe sanctions on Germany, let alone dismember Germany. A unified and powerful Germany could contain the French state – the British did not want France to stand alone on the European continent. Therefore, after the success of Germany’s reckless action in the Saar region, sir hutwood, sir Lothian, the backbone of the British Conservative Party, and Sir John Simon, the foreign secretary, all wanted to be kind to Germany. Britain’s appeasement policy continued until Germany attacked Poland, which provided a good external environment for the expansion of Nazi Germany.

after Hitler succeeded in the Saar region, he entered the Rhineland region on March 7, 1936. Although the Rhineland region is owned by Germany, as a punishment for Germany’s failure to launch the first World War, this region has become a military buffer zone between France and Germany. The Treaty of Versailles stipulates that Germany shall not garrison here. Hitler took an extremely risky military action, sending an army of 22000 people and a police detachment into Rhineland. Hitler’s Military Adventure succeeded again. Hitler claimed that entering Rhineland was “the most painful moment of my life. If the French enter Rhineland, we have to retract our tail between our legs, because the military resources we can handle are not enough to organize an ordinary resistance.” At that time, France had 90 divisions that could be used to resist the military action of Germany, but due to the domestic political turmoil, the French did nothing when they should act, and only 13 divisions were mobilized to strengthen the garrison of the Maginot line. After the

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, Hitler began to play the trick of “referendum” on March 29. He put the military action against Rhineland to a vote. This vote is different from the vote of Saarland people. It is a vote participated by all Germans, and 99% of more than 45 million registered voters voted, Finally, he agreed to Hitler’s action with an absolute support rate of 98.8%. Voting is conducted in an open rather than a secret way. If anyone votes “no”, it may be found by the secret police, resulting in adverse consequences. This shows the hypocrisy of this vote.

although Hitler’s actions in the Saarland and Rhineland regions violated the Versailles peace treaty and could not be supported by the international community, there were still “excuses” compared with the later actions, because the Saarland and Rhineland regions were still German territory after all, As Sir Lothian said, “after all, they only enter their own back garden”.

Hitler’s boldness and the unprincipled silence of the international community seriously contributed to Hitler’s arrogance, and the aggression of Nazi Germany soon extended to neighboring countries.

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were greedy and annexed Austria

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. Before the unification of Germany, Austria and Germany had complex relations in history. For a long time, Austria belonged to greater Germany and was ruled by Austria’s Habsburg dynasty. Later, Germany was unified by the hohensoren Dynasty of Prussia. At the same time, Austria, which had declined, was excluded from Germany, while Austria and Hungary formed a loose Austro Hungarian Empire. After the first World War, Austria and Hungary also went their separate ways.

due to historical reasons, the main population of Austria is Germanic, German is the main language of Austria, and Hitler himself is Germanic from Austria. Under the influence of racist thoughts, Hitler seized the German regime, and annexing Austria became an important political purpose of Hitler. Hitler insisted that his motherland was Germany, and his creed was “common blood belongs to a common Empire”. “The purpose of German policy is to consolidate and preserve the racial society and expand it. Therefore, this is a problem of living space”. The “blood relationship” between Austria and Germany made it the first country to be annexed.

in November 1937, Hitler finally failed to resist the ambition of annexing Austria. He began to test the countries that might cause annexation trouble. Austria’s ally Italy made it clear that it would not intervene, while Britain hinted that it would take a neutral position as long as force was not used, France also expressed no fundamental opposition to the assimilation of the institutions of the two countries. After cutting off these obstacles, Hitler began to act.

as early as 1934, Hitler encouraged the Nazi forces in Austria to murder Austrian Prime Minister Engelbert taurfis, and Kurt von schneiger of taurfis took over as Prime Minister of the country. Schneiger is obviously not so obedient, but he is also unable to control the domestic situation. Since Hitler came to power, the Nazi Party has carried out a large number of infiltration into Austria, the Nazi party in Austria has widely publicized the merger of the two countries, and the Germanic people in Austria privately recognized the merger of the two countries. The schneiger government was forced to accept the Nazi regimeAustria’s deputy Seth inquat joined the cabinet.

on February 12, 1938, schneiger met Hitler in upper Salzburg, which was a fatal journey for the Austrian prime minister. In the face of the Austrian prime minister, Hitler made a severe attack on Austria. Slandering Austria’s history is a history of betrayal, saying that “throughout history, every nationalist thought has been destroyed by Austria”. Hitler said: “what I can tell you now is that, Mr. schneiger, I completely decide to end all this”, Hitler also gave a timetable for annexing Austria: “Mr. schneiger, think carefully. I can only wait until this afternoon.” The stunned Austrian Prime Minister cowardly accepted Hitler’s attack and abuse for two hours.

at 3 p.m., schneiger received Hitler’s “list of cooperation”. The main contents of the list include: the Austrian government revoked all prohibitions against the Nazi party, released Pro Nazi prisoners, and appointed inquat as Minister of the interior, Appoint another pro Nazi as defense minister, exchange military officers and integrate the Austrian economic system into the German economic system. This was an ultimatum to Austria. Hitler was not allowed to make any changes to this condition. He also deliberately arranged for general Keitel to have a face-to-face meeting with schneiger, implying that if he did not agree to the condition, he would carry out military occupation.

schneiger was frightened and signed Hitler’s document that night. However, he left a small tail: according to the Austrian constitution, documents need to be signed by the president before they can enter into force.

schneiger, who returned to Austria, decided to hold a referendum and let all Austrians choose Austria’s future. This is also the last means to restore dignity for Austria and himself. Hitler was very angry when he learned the news. He was worried about the outcome of the referendum beyond his control and asked schneiger to give up the practice immediately. Schneiger gave in again, then resigned as prime minister and was replaced by inquat. Although enquatt’s appointment as prime minister was opposed by Austrian president Michaels, Austria has essentially become a part of Germany at this time. No one spoke for the president, so Michaels had to compromise.

on March 10, 1938, Austria was “merged” into Germany to become a province of Germany, named Ostmark, and inquat became the “governor”. Schneiger, the cowardly prime minister, was also arrested by the Nazi government and put into a concentration camp. He narrowly escaped death. He was not liberated by the Allies until Nazi Germany was defeated.

in order to cover up the aggressive nature of Nazi Germany, Hitler once again played the trick of “referendum” after the actual annexation of Austria in order to obtain a legal basis. The referendum was held on April 10. The affirmative vote of the whole “greater Germany” was 99.08%, and that of Austria was as high as 99.75%.

the international community has almost no response to Germany’s annexation of Austria. Only Britain has expressed protest – just protest.

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expanded wildly. Annexing Sudetenland

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dismembering Czechoslovakia was Hitler’s dream. The first step was to annexe Sudetenland. Czechoslovakia is a newly established country after the first World War. It is mainly composed of Czechs and Slovaks. In addition, there are Hungarians, lusenians and so on. Sudetenland is located at the junction of Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia. There are 3 million German speaking Germans here. It is the land ceded by Germany after its defeat in World War I. Hitler took this place as a gathering place for the Germanic people as an excuse to continue to play with the means of “national self-determination” in order to finally achieve the purpose of dismembering Czechoslovakia.

Czechoslovakia at this time can be called one of the most democratic and wealthiest countries in Europe. The founders of the Republic, Thomas masarik and Edward Benes, were very far sighted. They were unwilling to negotiate with Germany, but signed agreements with France and the Soviet Union to defend their country by political and auxiliary military means. However, France’s domestic political turmoil and self-care, while the Soviet Union’s protection of Czechoslovakia is based on France’s protection. In fact, France and the Soviet Union are unreliable allies.