Austria and Germany belong to the category of Germanic national culture.
But the former was never part of the German Empire.
In history, the Germanic people had great political and economic alliances, but the core of this alliance is Austria rather than Prussia.
Until the 19th century, Austria still adhered to the tradition of leading the Germanic people and resolutely opposed the rise of Prussia.
It was only after the general Austrian war in 1866 that Austria’s leadership over the Germanic people was replaced by Prussia.
However, Germany has long dreamed of annexing Austria.
Shortly after becoming Chancellor of Germany in 1933, Theodore Habicht, a member of Parliament, was appointed inspector of the Austrian Nazi party.
Hitler also approved the establishment of an Austrian Legion composed of thousands of people, stationed in Bavaria along the Austrian border, ready to cross the border and occupy Austria at an appropriate time.
He also brought Alfred faroenfeld, the leader of the Austrian party in exile, to Munich to broadcast inflammatory broadcasts against the Austrian government every night.
In addition, all pervasive German intelligence agents poured into Austria in various legal coats.
They developed intelligence personnel, established intelligence organizations, carried out propaganda activities aimed at subverting Austria, supported existing fascist organizations and established new fascist groups in Austria.
They encouraged and United Austrian fascists to seize the power of various departments of the Austrian state by various means.
By 1938, Hitler’s intelligence agents and Austrian fascists had controlled many key departments of the Austrian state.
They can not only enable Germany to keep abreast of various situations in Austria, but also greatly influence the policies of the Austrian government to make it suitable for German tastes.
On July 25, 1934, the Nazis assassinated Austrian Prime Minister taurfez.
But the Nazi uprising, like the beer house uprising in 1923, was soon put down, and the rioters were arrested, 13 of whom were sentenced to death.
Apart from technical reasons, the failure of the Nazi uprising was mainly due to improper timing.
In 1934, Germany was also in an extremely isolated position in diplomacy due to its withdrawal from the conference on Disarmament and the League of nations.
Britain and France oppose Germany’s direct violation of the Versailles peace treaty and the Treaty of Saint Germain, and insist that Austria should continue to maintain its independence.
At this time, the Soviet Union just said for the first time that it was willing to sign an oriental Locarno convention with the West.
Of course, it did not agree with Germany’s actions in Austria, and even Italy, which was also fascist, did not side with Germany.
Hitler had no choice but to bear it for several years.
On May 21, 1935, in order to deceive international public opinion and appease Austria, Hitler publicly declared in parliament that Germany neither wanted nor intended to interfere in Austria’s internal affairs, annex Austria, or merge.
But Hitler never died.
He talks about peace verbally and rearmaments secretly.
On the surface, he respects Austria’s independence, but behind his back, he is stepping up his activities to undermine Austria’s independence.
After several years of intensive preparation, the situation had changed greatly by the beginning of 1938.
At this time, Germany has established an armed force with complete land, sea and air services.
Germany has completed the task of “breaking the shackles of the Versailles peace treaty”.
In Hitler’s view, the time is ripe to achieve his long-term goal.
The international environment at this time is very bad.
In April 1937, Austrian Prime Minister schuschnig once sought for Britain to issue a statement to ensure Austria’s political independence and territorial integrity, but failed.
The French government’s intention to issue a statement on China EU issues with the United Kingdom has not been achieved.
However, Chamberlain told Austrian state secretary Schmidt in May 1937: “Britain hopes to reach an understanding not only with Italy, but also with Germany.
” On November 19, 1937, British privy council president Halifax visited Hitler in Salzburg and made it clear that Britain was willing to recognize Germany’s legitimate requirements in Central Europe, but “to achieve these changes through peaceful evolution.
To avoid using methods that may cause great chaos”.
At this time, france followed Britain’s lead.
Without Britain’s support, France would not take war action against Germany alone, although it did not want to see Austria lose its independent status.
The French Prime Minister also made it clear that if Germany annexed Austria, France would not participate in the war.
In September 1937, Mussolini visited Berlin, reaffirmed the unity between the two countries and reached a general agreement on each other’s sphere of influence.
“Italy’s action in the Mediterranean will not be hindered by Germany, and on the other hand, Germany’s special interests in Austria will not be damaged by Italy.
” By the end of 1937, Italy had closer relations with Germany.
At that time, there were four crises in Austria.
On July 11, 1936, Austria and Germany signed the Austria Germany agreement.
According to the agreement, the German government recognizes Austria’s sovereignty and guarantees non-interference in Austria’s internal affairs.
Austria promised that its policy towards Germany “always follows the basic line consistent with this fact: Austria recognizes itself as a” German state “.
However, in the secret provisions of the treaty, schuschnig made extremely serious concessions.
He agreed to grant amnesty to Nazi political prisoners in Austria and promised to let the “national opposition” – Nazis or sympathizers of the Nazi Party – join the national front and the government, and let them hold “politically responsible” positions.
This is tantamount to allowing Hitler to place his own staff in Austria as an insider when Germany takes action against Austria in the future.
In 1937, the Nazis in Austria intensified their terrorist activities and created one bombing after another.
They also planned to kill schuschnig like they killed taurfus.
In addition, the power of many departments of the state has fallen into their hands.
On January 25, 1938, when the Austrian police searched the office established in Vienna by a group called the “Committee of seven”, they found a document signed by Rudolf Hess, the representative of the head of state, indicating that the Austrian Nazis, with the support of the national defense force, would launch a public rebellion in the spring of 1938.
On February 12, 1938, after papon’s activities, schuschnig held a meeting with Hitler, which later proved to be a fateful meeting.
At the beginning of the talks, Hitler gave Schuschnigg a blow.
He accused OdieLee’s destructive role in German history scolded Austria for building fortifications against Germany on the border.
In the afternoon of that day, German Foreign Minister Ribbentrop handed schuschnig a draft of the “agreement”.
The draft calls for the lifting of the ban on the Austrian Nazi Party and the release of all imprisoned Nazis.
Seth inquat, a pro Nazi Vienna lawyer, must be appointed Minister of the interior.
To be in charge of police and security affairs, he must be appointed as Minister of national defense and Minister of finance respectively.
“Draft “It also stipulates that the German and Austrian armies should establish closer relations through the systematic exchange of 100 officers and other measures, and be prepared to integrate Austria into the German economic system.
This is clearly an Austrian betrayal instrument, but Hitler asked schuschnig to sign this document unopened for three days, otherwise he would order the March to Austria.
Schuschnig offered to sign, but he could not guarantee that the agreement would be ratified.
Later, Hitler said that he would allow another three days to implement the agreement, and the wording of the draft was somewhat mild.
After receiving these so-called concessions, the Austrian Prime Minister reluctantly signed the deed of sale in Austria.
On the morning of February 13, schuschnig immediately reported to President Michaels after returning to Vienna.
Mikras said he could release the Austrian Nazis, but disagreed that Seth inquat should be in charge of the police and army.
On the afternoon of the 13th, Hitler approved military pressure on Austria, which should be maintained until February 15, the last day of Hitler’s grace.
Under military pressure, President Michaels gave in.
On the 16th, the Austrian government announced an amnesty for the Nazis, including those convicted in the case of the assassination of taurfez, and reorganized the cabinet to make Seth inquat Minister of the interior.
The new minister immediately went to Berlin to meet Hitler.
On February 20, Hitler delivered a speech to the parliament.
He clearly declared to the world that the future of 7 million Austrians and 3 million Germans in the Sudeten region of Czechoslovakia is the business of the third empire.
Schuschnig had a hard time at home after signing the Austrian instrument of prostitution.
In order to explain to the Chinese people, he decided to hold a referendum on March 13.
When Hitler in Berlin learned the news, Hitler decided to occupy Austria militarily.
To block Austria’s vote on the 13th, the German army must enter Austria before the 12th.
However, the German military had no plan to enter at that time.
Therefore, the “Otto special plan” originally formulated to prevent the restoration attempt of Habsburg Crown Prince Otto was used for emergency.
At 6:30 p.m. on the 10th, a mobilization order was issued to three armies of the army and the air force.
At 2:00 on the 11th, Hitler issued the first instruction on Otto’s military action.
In the early morning of the 11th, German trucks and tanks began to move towards the German Austrian border.
At 10 a.m., Seth inquot and glass holstery, who had just flown from Berlin and brought Hitler’s instructions on how to deal with the referendum, met with the Austrian prime minister and submitted Hitler’s request: cancel the scheduled referendum and hold another referendum in three weeks.
At 14 p.m., schuschnig summoned Seth inquater and told him that he agreed to cancel the referendum.
At this time, Goering’s price increased again.
After discussing with Hitler, Goering called Seth inquot at 14:45 and asked schuschnig to resign, and Seth inquot must be appointed prime minister within two hours.
That afternoon, President Michaels reluctantly agreed to schuschnig’s resignation, but resolutely refused to let Seth inquat succeed as prime minister.
At 1730, Goering called and ordered Seth inquot to go with German military attache lieutenant general Moff to tell president Michaels that if the conditions were not accepted immediately, the troops already moving towards the border would enter all the way, but the stubborn president still refused.
At 2045, Hitler issued an order for invasion.
The Austrian government had a glimmer of hope for the British and French governments, but the British response to the German ultimatum to Austria was only a diplomatic protest.
The French Prime Minister and his Cabinet resigned on March 10.
A new French government was formed only after the German Austrian merger was announced on March 13.
During this period, Paris has not taken any action.
Under the pressure of German soldiers, President Michaels gave in.
Seth inquot was finally appointed prime minister.
But Hitler still allowed the army to enter Austria as planned.
On the late night of the 13th, the “law regulating the complete merger of Germany and Austria” drafted by William Stuttgart, Vice Minister of the interior of Germany, was signed and sent to Hitler by Seth inquater, who had taken over the presidential power.
Soon Hitler, Goering, Ribbentrop, fleck and Hess signed the so-called German Austrian Merger Law, which was promulgated by the German government in Linz on the same day.
It stipulates that Austria is a state of the German Empire, and Austrians hold a referendum on the “merger with Germany” on April 10.
On March 18, Hitler announced that the Germans would also hold a referendum on this.
In this way, Hitler added 7 million subjects to Germany without sacrificing one soldier, and greatly strengthened Germany’s strategic position.
Nazi Germany not only got Vienna, the gateway to Southeast Europe, but also put Czechoslovakia in the encirclement of its own army.