Under the leadership of the Juncker aristocracy in Prussia, Germany developed rapidly through war reunification.

This led to the deep-rooted militarist tradition and feudal remnants in German social and political life.

In German political life, the Prussian royal family and the Junker aristocracy occupy a prominent position.

The political representative of the Junker aristocracy, the German Emperor, holds the final decision-making power in politics, military and diplomacy, and the economic status of the Junker aristocracy is protected.

Due to the special role of the Prussian army in the unification of Germany, it occupies a very important position in the political and social structure of Germany.

Germany highly advocates force.

No country in Europe can compare with it.

The army has almost become a “country within a state”, and the military corps has become a special social class with privileges.

Its members are basically composed of noble children.

After reunification, Germany has rapidly developed into a highly developed and highly monopolized industrial power.

Although the bourgeoisie has an advantage in economy, it is difficult to rival the Juncker aristocracy in politics.

It was not only afraid of the working class that was increasingly inclined to revolution, but also fell at the feet of the Juncker aristocracy.

Politically, it had never formed a political party with decisive influence in China, so it was unable to establish a bourgeois republic with parliamentary democracy.

In 1918, the German army continued to rout on the front line and the domestic political situation was turbulent.

German Emperor William II hastily issued an edict on Reform on September 30.

On October 3, the liberal Prince Baden Max served as prime minister and formed a parliamentary government including the central party, the Progressive Party and the Social Democratic Party.

Social Democrat sherdman served as home secretary and Bauer as Labor Secretary.

Subsequently, the new government expressed its willingness to end the war to the United States.

However, such concessions by the ruling group have been unable to stop the outbreak of the revolution.

When the government sought peace from the allies, the naval command, which had always adhered to the war policy, ordered the ocean fleet to go to sea to fight a decisive battle with the British navy in October 1918.

If it could not win, it would “sink with honor”.

This adventurous act of killing the sailors aroused great indignation among the sailors.

The sailors of Port William refused to lift anchor and went to sea, and anti war leaflets appeared on the warship.

The naval command ordered the arrest of the troubled sailors and the transfer of the third fleet from Port William to port Kiel.

On the night of November 1, the sailors who arrived in Kiel held a meeting to discuss how to prevent the fleet from going to sea again and demanded the release of their captured companions.

On the afternoon of November 3, more than 5000 sailors gathered at the training ground to demand an end to the war and peace, freedom and bread.

After the meeting, sailors held a demonstration, and workers in Kiel port joined the demonstration.

When the procession arrived at Dakar street, it was shot down by the government military and police, killing and wounding more than 30 people.

The demonstrators also fired back, firing their first shot against the imperial regime.

On November 4, the sailors and workers of the uprising disarmed the reactionary officers and occupied the railway station and other important strongholds.

The soldiers ordered to suppress also turned to the insurgents.

On the evening of the 4th, the whole KIR was in the hands of the newly established Soviets.

The Kiel uprising shook the ruling authorities.

Max, sherdman and others signed a letter of appeal asking the sailors not to start the civil war.

At the same time, northek, a member of Parliament and Social Democrat, was sent to Kiel to restore social order.

Norsk later admitted that he went to Kiel to use his relationship with the navy to calm the incident.

However, he “met 30000 insurgents instead of strikers”.

Seeing that it was impossible to stop the uprising, Norsk instead agreed to some of the requirements put forward by the sailors and promised to improve the supply, so as to win the trust of the sailors and was elected chairman of the Kiel sailors Soviet.

Kiel uprising became the beginning of the German revolution.

The tide of uprising expanded rapidly from north to south.

Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich and other cities won revolutionary victories one after another, and the princes of various states were driven out of their thrones.

By November 8, only Berlin remained in the hands of the government.

On November 9, socialists who took part in demonstrations crowded the streets of Berlin.

The sailors mutinied, the army occupied the headquarters, and the revolutionary enthusiasm dominated the German people.

At 11:30 a.m., the German commander sent a telegram to the prime minister’s residence informing him that William would abdicate immediately.

At noon, the German Chancellor and Prince Baden announced the official abdication of the emperor.

At 12:30, Berlin newspapers reported the abdication of the German Emperor.

The prime minister met the leaders of the Social Democratic Party in his office and transferred power to the chairman of the Social Democratic Party, Friedrich Albert.

At 14 p.m., shedman stood in front of the window of the prime minister’s residence and announced the establishment of the German Republic to the crowd.

At 1500 hours, the military command sent a telegram to the prime minister’s residence, saying: “in order to avoid bloodshed, his majesty William II is willing to give up the German throne, but will never give up the title of king of Prussia.

” At 15:30, a telegram from the prime minister’s residence to the military command said: “there is no need to pay attention to the whereabouts of William II, because the news of his abdication was announced at noon.

” At 16:00, Karl lipknessy, leader of the Spartak party, announced: “a free Socialist German Republic has been born.

” At this time, the German reactionaries were also active.

Albert, the leader of the left wing of the German Social Democratic Party, colluded with the bourgeoisie, took over power from Prince Baden of the royal family, announced the establishment of the “free German Republic” and formed a bourgeois interim government.

At the critical juncture of the revolution, the Spartak group of the left wing of the Social Democratic Party led by lipknessy and Luxembourg established the German Communist Party.

The two of them assumed the leadership of the party and founded the red flag newspaper, which launched a tit for tat struggle with the reactionaries led by Albert.

The German Communist Party issued a battle slogan to the people: “the power of the world belongs to the Soviet!” In January 1919, lipknessy and Luxembourg led the armed uprising of workers in Berlin.

The Albert government mobilized a large number of troops to carry out bloody repression.

Due to insufficient preparation for the uprising and excessive disparity in strength, the uprising finally failed.

The reactionary government began the massacre.

The secret service offered a reward of 100000 marks and a high price for the heads of lipknessy and Luxembourg.

The military and police searched the whole city.

On January 15, lipknessy and Luxembourg were arrested in their hiding basement because of the traitor’s informant.

Albert dared not kill two revolutionary leaders in public, so he planned a despicable murder.

That night, libkenesi, who was beaten black and blue, was taken to prison.

On the way, the military and police pushed him down.