are the facts exposed by Khrushchev in the report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union based?
on this issue, some scholars pointed out that the archival materials and the research results of Soviet History “prove that most of the facts exposed in Khrushchev’s report are based, and few are completely unfounded.” Moreover, the fact that Khrushchev exposed the indiscriminate killing of innocent people is only the tip of the iceberg. Scholars believe that Khrushchev’s action does not violate the self-discipline principle of “criticism and self-criticism” advocated by the Communist Party and the requirement of constantly summarizing historical experience and lessons; Khrushchev was not “an ungrateful man” accused by the Chinese people during the Sino Soviet debate. He sincerely believed that Stalin was wise and correct, and his praise of Stalin had both survival and sincerity. From the early defeat of the Soviet Patriotic War, Khrushchev’s view of Stalin began to change. After 1953, the review of Stalin’s cases made Khrushchev know the real Stalin, and his conscience and morality made him unable to be indifferent to it.
as the tombstone of Khrushchev shows, Khrushchev is a “complex contradictory figure”. Khrushchev did many things to promote the social progress of the Soviet Union. Millions of people came back from concentration camps. Many activists in the Stalin era were restored to their reputation. Many exiled ethnic minorities also returned to their homes. Many harsh laws were abolished. The collective farm workers finally had ID cards, the public bonds that people had to buy were cancelled, and people were free to travel in the country, You can even go abroad. He was more concerned about people’s lives than Stalin. For example, after the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union began a real “housing revolution”. During this period, the Soviet Union also made great progress in science and technology, built thousands of large enterprises, built the world’s first atomic power station, built the world’s first atomic icebreaker, built the Novosibirsk Science City, launched the first man-made earth satellite, and the Soviet spacecraft reached the moon for the first time, The first manned spacecraft “Dongfang” was put into orbit. Gagarin became the first person to enter space, opening a new era for mankind to enter the universe. The field of ideology and culture has also become active, and many popular works have emerged. However, Khrushchev was impulsive and grumpy. Under the highly centralized system, many of his irrational policies could not be corrected and had serious consequences. In short, Khrushchev is still a contradictory and controversial figure, but he is not a “revisionist”.
Khrushchev is a very influential figure in the history of Sino Soviet relations. In recent years, China’s academic circles have deeply expanded their research on it and published the three volume Memoirs of Khrushchev compiled by Khrushchev’s son Sergei. At the same time, Russia has also declassified many archives of this period. The hot issues of Khrushchev’s research in academic circles mainly include the following aspects.
is it Khrushchev’s personal behavior to launch an anti Stalin personality cult?
the most influential and controversial thing during Khrushchev’s reign was his report on personal worship and its consequences at the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which exposed many little-known things during Stalin. In the past, people believed that Khrushchev opposed Stalin mainly for his own power, which was his improvisation at the 20th CPC National Congress. In recent years, according to the newly declassified files, scholars have come to the conclusion that the secret report against Stalin’s personal worship at the 20th CPC National Congress was not Khrushchev’s personal behavior, but was approved by the presidium of the CPC Central Committee and the CPC Central Committee; Although Khrushchev’s personal struggle for power was a factor in opposing Stalin’s personal worship, what was more important was the needs of the social development of the Soviet Union at that time. The trial of Beria and a large number of political prisoners returned from the reform through labor camp needed the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to explain this. If this problem was not solved, it could not meet the wishes of so many victims for rehabilitation. If the cases were reviewed one by one, I don’t know how many years it will take; Soviet society needed reform. Without breaking the superstition about Stalin, the reform was difficult to carry out. Opposing personal worship actually played a role in emancipating the mind.
are the facts exposed by Khrushchev in the report of the 20th CPC National Congress based on facts?
on this issue, some scholars pointed out that the archival materials and the research results of Soviet History “prove that most of the facts exposed in Khrushchev’s report are based, and few are completely unfounded.” Moreover, the fact that Khrushchev exposed Stalin’s indiscriminate killing of innocent people is only the tip of the iceberg. Scholars believe that Khrushchev’s action does not violate the self-discipline principle of “criticism and self-criticism” advocated by the Communist Party and the requirement of constantly summarizing historical experience and lessons; Khrushchev was not “an ungrateful man” accused by the Chinese people during the Sino Soviet debate. He sincerely believed that Stalin was wise and correct, and his praise of Stalin had both survival and sincerity. From the early defeat of the Soviet Patriotic War, Khrushchev’s view of Stalin began to change. After 1953, the review of Stalin’s cases made Khrushchev know the real Stalin, and his conscience and morality made him unable to be indifferent to it.
however, some scholars pointed out that “Khrushchev’s report has serious shortcomings and problems”. He did not seriously analyze the social and historical roots of Stalin’s personal worship, but simply attributed the causes of the problems to Stalin’s personality and bad qualities. Russian scholars believe that Khrushchev “did not touch the essence of the Communist system, and many of Stalin’s ruthless measures (such as collectivization or cruel struggle with the opposition within the party) were praised and proved to be correct. Khrushchev tried to attribute the problem to Stalin’s personal character and regarded the large-scale repression as a historical accident.” Khrushchev did not see the institutional factors that produced this phenomenon, which caused the phenomenon of personality worship to continue to repeat. In terms of original intention, Khrushchev believed that after Stalin’s mistakes were eradicated, socialism would be revitalized and the life of the Soviet people would be better. Unexpectedly, there was a waveThe Hungarian incident shook the socialist system established by Stalin, which Khrushchev could not accept. Although he criticized Stalin’s personal worship, he had no doubt about the socialist model established by Stalin. He wanted to defend the pure public ownership and planned economic system.
how to understand and evaluate Khrushchev’s reform?
when Stalin died on March 5, 1953, the Soviet Union was in a serious state of crisis, with increasing poverty in rural areas, food crisis, housing shortage, tight supply of daily necessities, millions of people were locked up in concentration camps and prisons, the Soviet Union was isolated from the outside world, strained relations with Western powers, and society demanded new changes. Therefore, most researchers recognize that the Soviet Union needs reform and Khrushchev’s historical status as a reformer.
the academic evaluation of Khrushchev’s reform is very different. Some people believe that Khrushchev opened the reform of socialist countries, criticized Stalin’s personal worship and its consequences, restored the socialist legal system, paid more attention to the development of agriculture, etc. Although he did not break through the Stalin system, he played a role in emancipating the mind and prepared the conditions for the subsequent reform of the Soviet Union and the peak of national strength in the Brezhnev period. Some scholars pointed out that “eradicating Stalin’s personal superstition was a great historical achievement during Khrushchev’s administration. It greatly liberated people’s minds and promoted the process of social democratization in the Soviet Union.” Some scholars believe that Khrushchev’s reform should not be overestimated. His reform did not fundamentally break through the Stalin system, but still revolved within the original system. He did not change the Soviet Union’s mandatory planned economy, but just changed a “mother-in-law” for enterprises, which were originally centrally managed by the central government, but now some enterprises are under local management; He also did not realize that the Soviet Union needed to carry out political system reform and did not implement democratization. Instead, it was still individual centralization and centralized decision-making. While opposing Stalin’s personal worship, he created his own personal worship; Although he stopped Stalin’s great cleansing and indiscriminate killing of innocent people, he did not rehabilitate Buharin and others, and the rehabilitation work was very incomplete, which provided conditions for Brezhnev’s re Stalinization and limited the exploration of socialist reform theory; Although Khrushchev eased the international tension, proposed that the relations between countries with different systems should follow the principle of peaceful coexistence, and proposed that world war is not inevitable, he still insisted on engaging in an arms race with the United States and competing with the United States. Khrushchev’s reform did not fundamentally solve the problems of the Soviet Union, but wasted a lot of time, making the Soviet Union lose the good opportunity of reform again. Few mathematicians insist that Khrushchev’s opposition to Stalin’s personal worship is against socialism and revisionism in the Soviet Union. The drastic changes in the Soviet Union began with Khrushchev.