, is a great scientist and the founder of the theoretical system of classical physics.
On January 4, 1643, Newton was born in a family of farmers in the small town of ulsthorpe in England.
Newton’s father died before he was born.
Newton was born weak.
After three years, his mother married another priest and left the children with his grandmother.
Eight years later, when the priest died, Newton’s mother returned to ulsthorpe with a son and two daughters born to her stephusband.
Newton was silent and stubborn since childhood.
This habit may come from his family situation.
Newton liked to play with mechanical tricks in his youth.
It is said that he once made a model of a mill, driven by a small mouse.
Once when he was flying a kite, a small lamp was hung on the rope.
At night, the villagers were surprised to see that a comet appeared.
He likes painting and carving, especially the sundial.
Sundials painted by him are placed everywhere in the corner and windowsill of his home to check the movement of the sun’s shadow and know the time.
At the age of 12, he entered Grantham middle school not far from home.
Newton’s mother had hoped that he would become a farmer and support his family, but Newton himself was so fond of reading that he often forgot to work.
As he grew older, Newton became more and more fond of reading, meditation and scientific experiments.
When he was studying in Grantham middle school, he lived in the home of a pharmacist and influenced him by chemical experiments.
Newton’s academic achievements in middle school were not outstanding.
He just loved reading and was curious about natural phenomena, such as color, the movement of sunlight and shadow in the four seasons, especially geometry, heliocentric theory and so on.
He also takes notes of his reading experience by categories, and likes to do some gadgets, tricks, inventions and experiments.
At that time, British society infiltrated Christian Protestant thought.
Newton’s family had two relatives who both worked as priests, which may affect Newton’s religious life in his later years.
From these ordinary environments and activities, it can not be seen that young Newton was a child with outstanding talents different from ordinary people.
Stokes, the principal of Grantham high school, and w.
escu, a priest uncle of Newton, had a unique insight and encouraged Newton to go to college.
Newton entered Trinity College of Cambridge University as a fee reducing student in 1661, became a scholarship winner in 1664 and received a bachelor’s degree in 1665.
In the middle of the 17th century, the educational system of Cambridge University was also permeated with a strong smell of medieval scholasticism.
When Newton entered Cambridge University, he was still teaching some scholastic courses, such as logic, ancient prose, grammar, ancient history, theology and so on.
Two years later, a new atmosphere appeared in Trinity College. H. Lucas created a unique lecture, which provides for the teaching of natural science knowledge such as geography, physics, astronomy and mathematics.
The first professor of the lecture, I.
barrow, was a learned scientist.
It was the teacher who led Newton to natural science.
In this learning process, Newton mastered arithmetic, trigonometry and Euclid’s geometric principles.
He also read Kepler’s optics, Descartes’s geometry and philosophical principles, the dialogue between the two world systems, R.
Hooke’s Atlas of microscope, the history of the Royal Society and the early Journal of philosophy.
Newton studied under Barrow’s door, which was a key period of his study.
Barrow is 12 years older than Newton.
He is good at mathematics and optics.
He greatly appreciates Newton’s talent.
He believes that Newton’s mathematical talent surpasses himself.
London plague from 1665 to 1666.
Cambridge is not far from London.
The school is closed for fear of being affected.
Newton returned to his hometown ulsthorpe in June 1665.
Because Newton was influenced and cultivated by mathematics and Natural Science in Cambridge, he was very interested in exploring natural phenomena.
In the two years from 1665 to 1666, he was full of thoughts and talents in the field of natural science, thinking about problems that had never been thought about by his predecessors, stepping into fields that had not been involved by his predecessors, and creating unprecedented amazing achievements.
In early 1665, he founded the series approximation method and the rule of transforming the binomial of any power into a series.
In November of the same year, the positive flow method (differential) was established.
In January of the following year, study color theory.
In May, we began to study the countercurrent number method (integral).
During this year, Newton also began to think of studying the problem of gravity and wanted to extend the theory of gravity to the orbit of the moon.
He also deduced from Kepler’s law that the force that keeps planets in their orbit must be inversely proportional to the square of their distance from the center of rotation.
The legend that Newton realized the gravity of the earth when he saw the apple fall is also an anecdote that happened at this time.
In short, in the past two years living in his hometown, Newton engaged in scientific creation with more vigorous energy than ever since, and cared about natural philosophy.
It can be seen that Newton’s major scientific thought in his life was conceived, germinated and formed during his youth and sharp thought in just two years.
In 1667, Newton returned to Cambridge University and was elected as the secondary partner of Trinity College on October 1 and the primary partner on March 16 the following year.
Barrow was fully aware of Newton’s talents at that time.
On October 27, 1669, barrow let Newton, who was only 26, succeed him as the professor of Lucas lecture.
Newton sent his optical lecture notes (1670 ~ 1672), arithmetic and algebra lecture notes (1673 ~ 1683), the first part of the mathematical principles of natural philosophy (hereinafter referred to as the principles) (1684 ~ 1685), as well as the cosmic system (1687) and other manuscripts to the Cambridge University Library for collection.
He was admitted as a member of the Royal Society in 1672 and elected president of the Royal Society in 1703 until his death.
During this period, Newton communicated most with scientists at home and abroad, including R.
Halley, hook, C.
Huygens, g.w.f.von Leibniz and J.
After writing the principles, Newton was tired of the life of a university professor.
With the help of C.
Montagu, a noble descendant he met when he was a student, Newton obtained the position of mint supervisor in 1696, was promoted to factory director in 1699, and resigned from Cambridge University in 1701.
At that time, the British currency system was chaotic.
Newton used his metallurgical knowledge to make new coins.
He was knighted in 1705 for his contribution to the reform of the currency system.
In his later years, he studied religion and wrote historical textual research on the two major errors in the Bible.
Newton died on March 31, 1727 at his home in Kensington, a suburb of London, and was buried at Westminster Abbey in London.
As a giant of modern scientific revolution, Newton established.