On February 24, 1885, Chester William Nimitz was born in Fredericksburg, Texas.
In September 1901, Nimitz was admitted to the US Naval Academy in Annapolis.
Four years later, he graduated with honors and went to practice on battleships.
Upon the expiration of the internship, he won the rank of second lieutenant of the Navy and became the captain of the gunboat “Panay”.
In the same year, he was promoted to captain of the Navy and changed to submarine officer.
In June 1920, Nimitz was ordered to build a submarine base at Pearl Harbor.
At the end of the same year, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel of the Navy and became the commander of the base and the commander of the 14th submarine detachment.
In 1922, Nimitz entered the Naval Military Academy for further study.
In June 1938, Nimitz was promoted to rear admiral and became the supreme commander of the first battleship detachment.
On December 17, 1941, Nimitz accepted the post of commander-in-chief of the Pacific Fleet and was promoted to four-star admiral.
Since Nimitz took office, after dozens of sleepless nights of brewing, the sea and air counterattack finally kicked off.
On January 11, 1942, lieutenant general Halsey led a fleet of two aircraft carriers, three heavy cruisers and six destroyers from Pearl Harbor to secretly attack the Marshall Islands and Gilbert Islands.
On January 31, Halsey personally led the first special task force to air raid several islands in the Marshall Islands, and the US military basically destroyed the Japanese strategic facilities on these islands at a negligible cost.
The second special task force commanded by major general Fletcher had little effect on some islands outside the Marshall Islands and Gilbert Islands.
The U.S. military lost six torpedo aircraft in the storm and sank only one small aircraft supply ship on the Japanese side.
According to the order of the naval operations department, Nimitz combined the formation of enterprise and York City to participate in the attack on Wake Island.
On February 14, Halsey led the enterprise and its escort on the journey.
The next day, Fletcher’s York City formation followed up.
Soon, Nimitz was appointed commander-in-chief of the Pacific sea area, which has jurisdiction over other Pacific sea areas except the route of central and South America, and is responsible for commanding the land, sea and air forces of the United States and allies in this sea area.
Nimitz has been exploring the details of the Japanese army’s upcoming new offensive.
Later, according to the news that the intelligence department deciphered the Japanese telegram, Nimitz was worried.
Also panicked at the threat to Port Moresby.
MacArthur is planning to build Port Moresby into an important base to prevent the Japanese army from attacking Australia and serve as a starting point for returning to the Philippines.
The two generals agreed that the Japanese attack must be contained.
Nimitz is deeply worried because his forces are very limited.
MacArthur also has only 200 aircraft, and the pilots have not been trained in maritime operations and identifying warships.
If we want to effectively block the Japanese army, we must use the aircraft power on the aircraft carrier.
However, the aircraft carrier “Saratoga” is being renovated on the west coast of the United States, and the aircraft carried by “enterprise” and “hornet” have not returned from the air raid on Tokyo.
The only thing that can be deployed is the special task force formation centered on the aircraft carrier “Lexington” led by rear admiral Aubrey Fitch.
Fitch joined another special task force with the aircraft carrier York City as the center under the command of rear admiral Fletcher on May 1.
MacArthur’s small fleet sent a reinforcements to Fletcher, including the heavy cruisers Chicago, Australia and Hobart under the command of rear admiral Chris.
They rushed to the Coral Sea from Noumea, a US naval base in New Caledonia, and Australia.
On May 5, these naval forces were combined into the 17th special task force formation of the United States, under the command of rear admiral Fletcher, and the formation was in a decisive posture.
The Japanese army originally planned to occupy Port Moresby and port tulaji in March, but because the US aircraft carrier troops entered the southwest Pacific and Japan had insufficient power on the sea in this area at that time, it had to postpone the operation plan to early May.
In late April, one after another Japanese reinforcements entered the Truk military port, and the large aircraft carriers “Xianghe” and “Ruihe” of the Nanyun force and the light aircraft carrier “Xiangfeng” of the joint fleet were enriched into the Japanese fourth fleet commanded by seimei Inoue.
On May 3, the Japanese attack troops successfully occupied tulaji island.
In the early morning of May 4, 40 carrier based aircraft under Fletcher’s command took off from “York City” and carried out two air strikes on tulaji, sinking one Japanese destroyer and three landing barges.
In addition, five Japanese seaplanes were injured.
Takagi confirmed that the special task force formation of the US aircraft carrier that attacked tulaji was nearby and urgently ordered the mobile forces to break the waves south from the Solomon Islands.
So far, the first battle between aircraft carriers in the history of World Naval Warfare began on the Coral Sea.
Fletcher’s cable reported the fact that the Japanese light aircraft carrier “Xiangfeng” was sunk.
Nimitz didn’t show a smile on his face.
He reminded Fletcher to pay close attention to the movements of the large Japanese aircraft carriers “Xianghe” and “Ruihe”, because they were still cruising on the Coral Sea and could attack his 17th special task force at any time.
Although the number of Japanese aircraft and casualties in the coral sea battle was higher than that of the United States, they exchanged 12000 tons of “Xiangfeng” and several small ships sunk outside tulaji island for the victory of sinking “Neo Shaw”, “Sims” and 33000 tons of large aircraft carrier “Lexington”.
However, since the war, the Japanese military expansion was restrained for the first time, and the battle plan to attack Port Moresby had to be postponed.
More importantly, the damaged “Xianghe” aircraft carrier needs to be repaired and the heavily damaged “Ruihe” needs to be rebuilt, which greatly weakens Japan’s strength in the upcoming midway naval battle.
The coral sea battle is a sign of the reversal of the war situation on the Pacific battlefield and entering the stage of strategic stalemate.
Nimitz had planned to keep Fletcher’s fleet in the Coral Sea, because Halsey was rushing to the Coral Sea and could integrate the Yorktown and its frigate into the sixth task force to find new fighters.
But Nimitz finally gave up the idea.
His strategic vision has turned to the upcoming encounter in the central Pacific.
Therefore, he ordered that the York City must be repaired as soon as possible in order to invest in a more complete lineupA new showdown.
At the same time, Nimitz ordered the submarine force to launch an attack on the wounded Japanese aircraft carrier, and sent a report to the Puget Strait Naval Shipyard, urging them to speed up the repair of the “Saratoga” in case of urgent need.
On May 10, the Japanese army took a military demonstration to recover the face lost in the coral sea battle.
They sent a force to occupy the two islands of ocean island and Nauru.
Nimitz took his plan and ordered Halsey to rush to the sea area within 500 nautical miles of the East Solomon Islands to put the hornet, enterprise and the 16th special task force in an array in order to confuse the other side and make the Japanese believe that all aircraft carriers of the Pacific Fleet have arrived in the South Pacific, so as to contain the Japanese forces attacking north.
This move really worked.
After the Japanese offensive troops found the US aircraft carrier, they hurriedly withdrew from the occupied islands and arranged troops in the South Pacific Ocean.
At that time, the condition of the surface ships of the US Pacific Fleet was very bad.
According to intelligence estimates, the Japanese army will have 10 aircraft carriers, while the United States has only two aircraft carriers, enterprise and hornet, which are still in the Coral Sea and are being ordered to return quickly.
The aircraft carrier Lexington has sunk into the tropical seafloor covered with seaweed.
The aircraft carrier “York City” was badly damaged and could not be put into battle until it was repaired.
“Saratoga” was wounded by a submarine 500 nautical miles southwest of Oahu on January 11.
Although it has been repaired, it is far away in Santiago and is difficult to reach the central Pacific as scheduled.
As for other major ships, the Japanese army has 11 fast battleships, including the world-famous largest warship, namely the new “Yamato”, while Nimitz has only six, which are slow and difficult to cooperate with the aircraft carrier.
According to the intelligence, the Japanese joint fleet will be divided into three main lineups: first, the North Pacific formation, which is personally commanded by Yamamoto.
Including the second assault formation of aircraft carrier and the “Aleutian guard force” commanded by Takasu Shiro.
Yamamoto’s formation has battleships “Yamato” and “changmen”, light aircraft carrier “Longyu”, seaplane carrier “Chiyoda” and “Rijin”, as well as several light cruisers and destroyers.
This force is expected to be deployed 600 nautical miles north of Midway.
Takasu’s “Aleutian guard force” consists of four battleships, two light cruisers and 12 destroyers.
The mission is to support the battle of Aleutian Islands.
Second, the first assault formation of aircraft carrier launched the main attack on Midway Island from the air from the northwest to the south.
Under the command of Nan Yun, who directed the air raid on Pearl Harbor.
This force includes four large aircraft carriers, “Chicheng”, “Jiahe”, “Feilong” and “Canglong”.
According to the interception of the US intelligence department, although the “Xianghe” and “Ruihe” are under this force, they can no longer participate in the war.
Nanyun formation is escorted by 2 battleships, 3 cruisers and 11 destroyers.
The third is to attack Midway Island troops.
Starting from Guam and Saipan, they will approach Midway Island from the southwest.
The commander in chief is nobutake Kondo.
This unit will join the Japanese second fleet at sea, including some ships of the third unit of battleships, and be escorted by this fleet to complete the 650 nautical mile voyage in the final stage.
With the help of intelligence officer Leighton, Nimitz analyzed and believed that the most threatening part of the Yamamoto fleet attacking Midway Island was the four aircraft carriers in the first assault formation of aircraft carriers led by Nan Yun.
Only these aircraft carriers have the strength to destroy the land and air defense system of Midway Island in the United States.
Only these ships can provide sufficient air protection for other ships in the fleet.
Therefore, in order to curb the Japanese offensive against Midway Island, we must work together to destroy the Nanyun aircraft carrier formation.
Nimitz decided to combine the two trump formations in his hand, namely the 16th special mixed formation under the command of Halsey and the 17th special mixed formation under the command of Fletcher, and jointly sail to the Sea northeast of midway to form an ambush, looking for an opportunity to raid the unsuspecting Japanese fleet from the flank.
On May 26, the ships of the 16th special task force commanded by Halsey loomed on the sea level southwest of Pearl Harbor, gradually becoming clearer and clearer, and then quickly filled Pearl Harbor in the splashing white waves.
However, to Nimitz’s surprise, Halsey suffered from severe herpes zoster.
The doctor ordered him to be hospitalized.
For Nimitz, the loss of an aircraft carrier commander with the most enterprising spirit and combat experience on the eve of the crisis is a heavy blow.
Nimitz ordered Spruance to temporarily take charge of the command of Halsey’s 16th task force, enterprise and hornet battle formations.
In late May, in order to induce the Japanese army to believe that the US aircraft carrier was still near the Solomon Islands, Nimitz instructed a cruiser on duty in the Coral Sea to use the frequency normally used by the aircraft carrier aviation brigade.
At the same time, Nimitz asked the officers and soldiers of Midway Island to take all measures to strengthen the defense of the island.
By the end of May, mines had been laid on the beach and the surrounding waters.
The garrison of the Marine Corps had been strengthened on the island, and some anti-aircraft guns had been added.
At 6 a.m. on June 4, Nanyun fleet launched the first attack wave of air attack on Midway Island.
Among them are dive bombers, torpedo bombers, and “type zero” fighters as escorts.
The Japanese army completed the first attack at a small cost of losing six fighters.
Midway suffered heavy losses.
The airport, oil depot, taxiway ramp of offshore aircraft, barracks, restaurants and other places were destroyed, and 15 US warplanes were shot down.
In the battle of Midway, Nimitz relied on deciphering the signals sent by the Japanese reconnaissance aircraft to understand the situation of the US aircraft carrier.
Before 10:00 on June 4, the 16th and 17th special task forces led by Fletcher and Spruance had been waiting patiently for the arrival of the Japanese ship in the Northeast sea of Midway.
Around 8:00, the long planned attack on Japan began.
Despite some mistakes at first, the main force of Nanyun fleet was completely overturned in the end.
The good news of the victory of the midway naval battle led by Nimitz spread all over the world.
His desk is full of letters and telegrams from all over the world.
The great victory of the midway naval battle has given the US military a very valuable period of adjustment.
Until the end of 1942, the Japanese Navy was unable to launch a major plan before the new American “Essex” class large aircraft carrier was put into serviceThe battle of mold.
In order to carry out the real counter offensive, after the victory of Midway Island, Nimitz set his eyes on a small island in the southwest Pacific, Gua island.
The island is 150 kilometers long from east to west and 40 kilometers wide from north to south.
It is the largest island in Solomon Islands.
Since the first World War, it was an American possession and was occupied by the Japanese army at that time.
As it occupies the gateway of Australia and is close to Japan, its geographical location is extremely important.
The Japanese often say that Solomon Islands is like a ladder to Japan, and Guadalcanal is the first step of the ladder.
The Japanese Navy withdrew the main force of the joint fleet to the South Pacific after the fleet was unexpectedly severely damaged by the U.S. military.
In the new plan, the spearhead was directed at Moresby and Solomon Islands in New Guinea.
Therefore, tulaji and Guadao should be the focus of attention of the United States and Japan in the next step.
Nimitz believes that if the U.S. military can occupy Guadao, then U.S. troops can climb the ladder all the way to Japan.
This should be an important step in the action plan to cross the Pacific and eventually attack Japan.
MacArthur opposed Nimitz’s plan to attack tulaji and Gua.
He thought it was too risky.
But he actually came up with a bolder plan.
MacArthur advocated the immediate occupation of Rabaul.
He boasted that if the navy was willing to help him with aircraft carriers and the first marine division, he could immediately raid New Britain and capture Rabaul and the islands, thus forcing the Japanese army to withdraw 700 nautical miles north and back to the Truk island base.
He believes that the implementation of this operational plan means that fast aircraft carriers should undertake the task.
Since there are only two such ships in the Solomon sea area, Nimitz is worried that MacArthur will treat the aircraft carrier as a “victim”.
He can’t ignore their safety.
Admiral Kim also believes that sending aircraft carriers and the only Marine Corps in the Pacific theater to the area with dense air fire nets of the Japanese army is tantamount to a big gamble.
He believed that Rabaul should be captured after gradually winning the Solomon Islands, so that the airport can be repaired and bombers and fighters can be used to support continuous offensive operations.
Admiral Kim also proposed that the troops participating in the war come from the Pacific Fleet and the Pacific sea area, and Nimitz should be responsible for the command.
This matter has caused a lot of uproar among the high-level US military.
After consultation, a compromise plan on Solomon Islands was finally reached, that is, the first stage of the campaign is to seize Santa Cruz Islands, tulaji island and its nearby important places, and general Nimitz will take the strategic command.
In order to facilitate command, the dividing line between the South Pacific region and the southwest Pacific theater was changed to 159 degrees east longitude.
This line is close to the west of Guadao.
As long as we have a firm foothold in the turaji area, with the beginning of the march to salamoa and Laicheng on the Papua Peninsula, we will hand over the strategic command to MacArthur, and start the second stage of the campaign, with him unified command of the combat forces going north along the Solomon Islands.
Then, the two allied fronts attacked Rabaul.
Prior to the order of the Joint Chiefs of staff, general Nimitz had begun to draw up the basic plan, which was largely completed in the first week of July.
Lieutenant general Gormley, on behalf of Nimitz, served as the strategic commander in the South Pacific region.
Lieutenant general Fletcher, who was well-known in the two naval battles of Coral Sea and Midway Island, served as the tactical commander of the landing formation.
Major general Richmond Turner, who was formerly the director of the planning department of the naval operations department, was responsible for commanding the amphibious forces· Major general van der grift was the commander of the first marine division on the landing mission.
In just one month’s time, we should not only assemble troops and formulate detailed operational plans, but also carry out extremely complex training and pre war exercises of amphibious warfare.
The time is really short.
At the same time, since the allies will land in North Africa in November, there is little possibility of sending more troops or surface ships to the region.
MacArthur’s three army divisions needed to defend Australia and seemed unable to fight.
If Nimitz wants to send troops to strengthen the Marine Division, he can only pull apart the east to make up the West and draw troops from the garrison forces all over the South Pacific.
However, just two days after the plan was released, according to a Japanese cable decoded by the Hawaiian intelligence station, the Japanese Navy contingent has landed on Guadao and engineers have built an airport on the island.
Nimitz was deeply shocked by the sudden news, and the situation became extremely urgent for a moment.
If the Japanese army built the airport, the aircraft taking off from Guadao would be able to easily attack the US Air Base on the nearby island, and the existing defense line of the US Army would be seriously threatened.
Obviously, the US military must immediately change its operational objectives, include Gua island in the operational plans of tulaji and Santa Cruz Islands, and capture the island before the Japanese army completes the airport.
Although the scale of operations has been expanded, the preparation time cannot be extended.
Admiral Kim and Nimitz confirmed that one week after the original planned time, that is, August 7, was Guadao landing day.
Nimitz immediately ordered rear admiral Alexander van der grift and commander Fletcher of the 17th task force to prepare to attack Guadao.
On July 31, the South Pacific landing fleet under the command of rear admiral Turner, loaded with 16000 Marines, set out from Fiji Island to attack Gua island under the escort of 8 destroyers, 1 destroyer guard group and aircraft carrier aircraft.
The support and escort formation is under Fletcher’s command.
The aircraft carriers in the formation include Saratoga, hornet and enterprise.
In the early morning of August 7, the landing fleet approached Guadao, and the Japanese troops on the island were unprepared.
After the Japanese engineers were awakened by the US artillery fire, they quickly abandoned the camp and withdrew into the tropical jungle.
On August 8, the US Army easily occupied the newly built Guadao airport and named it “Henderson airport”.
At dusk, after fierce fighting, the US Army successfully captured tulaji island north of Gua island.
The loss of the two islands shocked the Japanese government and the public.
Hideki Tojo scolded the Navy for acting without authorization and failing to win the assistance of the army.
The chief of the military command department, Yukio Nagano, was so angry that he ordered that the joint fleet must re-establish Kwa island and recapture the airport.
As a result, the bloody battle for Guadao began.
On August 8, the naval battle of Savo Bay broke out in the north of Guadao.
The US southern patrol was defeated, the Australian heavy cruiser was sunk, and the US cruiser “Chicago” and destroyer “Patterson” were injured.
On the north side, the American Astoria”When the cruiser was torpedoed, the US “Vincenzo” and “Quincy” were seriously damaged and sank one after another.
The destroyer Ralph Talbot was also sunk while on alert.
In mid August, the aircraft carrier task force led by Fletcher was operating in the southeast waters of Guadao to protect the maritime traffic line of Solomon Islands.
On August 24, the special task force sank the Japanese light aircraft carrier “Longxiang”.
So far, the second naval battle in the Guadao battle, which the US military called the “East Solomon Islands naval battle”, began.
Since then, the US “enterprise” aircraft carrier was severely damaged, and Fletcher’s flagship “Saratoga” was also injured and returned to Pearl Harbor for maintenance.
In September, Nimitz flew to San Francisco for a meeting with Admiral Kim.
There, Nimitz learned that Halsey succeeded Fletcher as a senior tactical commander to command all U.S. aircraft carriers in the South Pacific.
In mid September, the Japanese army launched an assault along the mountains south of Henderson airport.
The Japanese army failed to break through the defense line and suffered heavy losses.
The navy was ordered to speed up the supply of supplies to the island of Migua.
While the U.S. military stepped up to send the seventh Marine Regiment from San Espirito island to Gua Island, the Japanese submarines drilled into the middle of the U.S. frigates and successively attacked the aircraft carrier Hornet, the new battleship North Carolina and the destroyer O’Brien with torpedoes.
The hornet’s oil supply system caught fire and was forced to evacuate the battlefield.
Because the fire could not be controlled, it had to be sunk by torpedo.
The “O’Brien” sank after the explosion, and the “North Carolina” had a huge crack below the waterline and had to return to Pearl Harbor for repair.
Therefore, the “hornet” is the only aircraft carrier that can carry out combat missions in the whole Pacific Ocean.
On September 25, Nimitz led his entourage to leave Pearl Harbor by “Coronado” seaplane.
On the afternoon of September 28, Nimiz’s seaplane arrived in Noumea.
After a short break, he held a joint meeting on Gormley’s flagship, the yarguni.
The day after the meeting, Nimitz flew to Guadao by B-17 bomber.
On October 18, halsi, who was appointed commander of the South Pacific sea area, arrived at Noumea port.
At a time when the struggle for Guadao is white hot and the landing of the U.S. military is in jeopardy, the use of this brave and enterprising general has received a miraculous effect of reversing the war situation.
When Halsey took office, Nimitz ordered a large number of additional troops to the South Pacific, including battleship Indiana, 24 submarines, 50 fighters, 24 bombers, and the 25th Army division.
After the damaged “enterprise” aircraft carrier was repaired, it also returned to the South Pacific to participate in the battle and made contact with the “hornet” aircraft carrier formation located east of Espirito island.
Halsey ordered the main ships, including the formation of enterprise and hornet, to patrol the area north of Santa Cruz Islands in order to attack the Japanese army approaching Guadao from the north and northwest from the flank.
On October 26, there was a fierce battle between aircraft carriers in the waters of Santa Cruz Islands.
The US “hornet” aircraft carrier was sunk by the Japanese army.
In order to win the overall victory in the Pacific battlefield, Nimitz put forward a set of ideas on the future development of the Pacific Fleet.
At the end of 1942, the United States had built or will complete a total of 22 aircraft carriers, which will form an unprecedented fleet.
At that time, the U.S. military will appear in the Pacific Ocean with a new attitude.
Nimitz plans to cross the Pacific Ocean with such a fleet and open the central axis of traffic in the Pacific Ocean.
These places have no large land, only hundreds of large islands and atolls, and many targets can be selected as landing areas and combat bases.
At the same time, MacArthur put forward a distinctive scheme.
The plan proposes to take the army as the main force to march into the Philippine islands along New Guinea, and finally take this as the base to attack Japan.
In a series of leaps with the army as the main attack, the Navy served as the personnel escort and supply service of the army.
The use of the huge Pacific Fleet as an auxiliary means of the army has made the Navy a tool at the mercy of the army.
This is something that admiral Kim, commander in chief of the US fleet, and Admiral Nimitz, commander in chief of the Pacific Fleet, cannot agree with in any case.
Nimitz argued that MacArthur’s plan to attack Japan was short-sighted, consumed personnel and supplies, and would take a long time.
King believes that this is a typical MacArthur doctrine, which is intended to highlight himself.
King returned and reported to Marshall on the relationship between the various commands, especially the command issues after Nimitz’s subordinate Halsey entered the sea area under MacArthur’s jurisdiction.
This is the question of who is higher and who is lower between Nimitz and MacArthur.
Finally, the Joint Chiefs of staff made a compromise.
Halsey was guided strategically by MacArthur’s principles and tactically decided by himself.
Nimitz made a lot of efforts to make his reasonable operational plan selected by the Joint Chiefs of staff and their subcommittees.
Finally, Washington accepted Nimitz’s plan.
Although MacArthur tried hard to oppose it, he failed to persuade and block the supreme authority.
Therefore, Nimitz’s attack plan is the main line, and MacArthur continues to attack from the south.
After the disastrous defeat of the Japanese army on Guadao, it was hit hard again in the battle of Bismarck.
The war forced the Japanese base camp to shift its main attention to New Guinea and was determined to focus on the army and navy to establish a combat base in this direction.
Yamamoto Igarashiroku was ordered to use the essence of Japanese air force, that is, carrier aircraft, to assist naval shore based aircraft operations.
From April 7, 1943, Japanese aircraft attacked Guadao and targeted Solomon.
Then, the Japanese aircraft successively attacked Port Moresby and other places in New Guinea.
This continuous harassing air raid has caused certain losses to the US Army, but the losses of the Japanese army are greater than those of the US Army.
In mid April, Yamamoto decided to personally visit the Japanese base in the northern Solomon Islands to inspect the defense and boost morale.
Through intelligence information, Nimitz immediately informed general Halsey, commander of the 57th special task force, of this vital information after he learned the news, and asked him to quickly formulate an ambush plan that can keep this information confidential.
As a precaution, Nimitz specially consulted the president.
More room for activity.
” In this way, when performing the task of protecting beachhead positions, aircraft carriers should not only have close support, but also try to attack major attack targets such as Japanese fleets and bases.
Finally, the battle of Gilbert ended with the victory of the US Army, but the US side paid a heavy price.
The Navy lost one escort aircraft carrier, one aircraft carrier was seriously damaged, and several other types of ships and 90 amphibious tanks were also lost.
The U.S. military killed more than 1000 people and injured more than 2100 people on Tarawa and more than 500 people on makin island.
Just after the battle, US Secretary of the Navy Knox announced that the heavy casualties suffered by the US military in the battle of Tarawa were rare in the 168 years since the establishment of the US Marine Corps.
Nimitz decided to visit Tarawa in person to understand the specific situation of the heavy casualties in the battle.
At this time, two days after the large-scale battle, Spruance advised him to go after cleaning the battlefield.
Because there were still Japanese troops on the island, the airport could not land large aircraft, and the body had not been buried.
Nimitz didn’t listen to Spruance’s advice.
After inspecting Funafuti Island, Nimitz switched to the Marine Corps air drop fighter provided by general Hoover and set off.
Nimitz, accompanied by Spruance and general Julian Smith, inspected the battlefield full of corpses.
On the beachhead, among the damaged amphibious tanks, the bodies of marines were still in the water.
Nimitz was shocked by the cruelty in front of him.
He said softly, “this is the first time I smell death.
” On the way back to Pearl Harbor, Nimitz wrote a letter to his wife.
“I have never seen such a miserable place as Tarawa,” the letter said At the end of the gruesome inspection, Nimitz told Spruance: “the front-line commander can’t bear the responsibility for such huge losses caused by the battle.
I’m afraid the American citizens won’t understand us.
” The losses caused by the Gilbert Islands landing war really caused an uproar in American public opinion.
The Pacific Fleet Command has become the object of criticism and abuse.
The grieving and angry families of the dead even wrote directly to Nimitz to attack him.
A mother who lost her son wrote, “you killed my son on Tarawa.
” Nimitz’s subordinates are defending against injustice.
But Nimitz insisted on reading every letter and replied in person to express his condolences.
“Mothers will suffer if they lose their sons, and they should be given appropriate comfort.
As for my advance, retreat, honor and disgrace, I believe history will give fair evaluation and choice,” he said When President Roosevelt learned of the pressure Nimitz was under, he immediately called admiral Kim and said, “tell Nimitz to let go of the war and let me handle domestic affairs.
” With the intervention of the president, the storm gradually subsided.
Nimitz and others began to focus on the battle plan for the next attack on the Marshall Islands.
Nimitz had planned to land at the same time on malloerapp Atoll, watje atoll and kwajalin Atoll.
The first two atolls are the two Japanese bases closest to Pearl Harbor in the Marshall Islands.
The latter atoll is located in the center of the Marshall Islands and is the seat of the Japanese command.
In view of the painful lessons of the Tarawa battle, Spruance recommended a prudent operational plan.
He advocated that the campaign should be divided into two steps: first, attack and occupy Maloelap and watje, and then use the bomber bases on the two islands to attack kwajalin Island, the seat of the Japanese command in the center of the islands.
Both Turner and Holland Smith support this idea.
Nimitz affirmed the proposal of two-step attack and agreed to cancel the three pronged attack scheme, but he designed a different scheme, that is, bypassing watje and Maloelap islands and directly attacking kwajalin island.
After the capture of Kwajalein Island, you will be able to get two airports and a first-class anchorage.
Spruance, Turner and Smith all strongly opposed Nimitz’s opinion.
They believe that once kwajalin atoll is occupied by the U.S. military, the atoll will become the target of attack by Japanese shore based aviation troops in Maloelap, watje and other places.
Moreover, the Japanese army can also rely on these bases to destroy the communication lines between Kwajalein Island, Pearl Harbor and Gilbert.
But Nimitz insisted.
Intelligence received by the radio confirmed that Nimitz’s decision was correct.
The Japanese army is strengthening Fortifications on other islands, ignoring Kwajalein island in the center of the Marshall Islands.
Obviously, the Japanese army envisioned that one or several outlying islands would be attacked.
Seeing that Nimitz’s decision could not be changed, Spruance put forward a new proposal to occupy Majuro island in the Marshall Islands, where the Japanese defense force was weak, while occupying kwajalin island.
In this way, the fleet can be provided with a base in the operational sea area and within the scope of support for Kwajalein island.
Nimitz agreed to the proposal.
The operation plan for attacking the Marshall Islands, code named “operation flint gun”, was postponed twice, and was finally determined on January 31, 1944.
By February 7, the US military had captured more than 30 islands in the size of kwajalin Atoll.
General Turner’s joint expeditionary force won the final victory of the flintlock battle.
Long before the capture of kwajalin Island, Nimitz sent a newspaper to ask Spruance for his opinions on continuing to attack Eniwetok island.
Seeing that Turner and Holland Smith were well prepared and morale was high, Spruance telegraphed Nimitz’s order.
In order to cheer for the new round of battle, Nimitz left Pearl Harbor for Tarawa by B-24 aircraft “liberator” on the evening of February 4 to discuss the upcoming attack on Eniwetok island with Spruance, Turner and others.
As Eniwetok island is only 669 nautical miles away from Truk Island, the 58th special task force of the US military will support the offensive in two ways.
One special task force provided direct support near Eniwetok Island, and the other three special task forces went to attack Truk island.
The US military hopes that the threat to Truk island will force the Japanese joint fleet to meet it.
However, the US military failed to realize its desire to fight a decisive battle with the Japanese joint fleet as soon as possible.
Yamamoto’s successor, guhefeng, was very sensitive to the strategic intention of the US military.
When he found out that the US aircraft were reconnaissance against Truk, he urgently ordered the joint fleet to withdraw from Truk and retreat westward to Palau in the Caroline Islands.
On February 17, the US military attacked enivitoThe attraction that made Nimitz regard him as a close friend, but Nimitz respected the talent of the military leader.
In the third quarter, Japan was defeated and returned home in triumph.
While the Pacific Fleet was actively planning and practicing the Mariana battle plan, the commander of the Japanese joint fleet, Gu Hefeng, took off from Palau island by two large seaplanes with his entourage and the chief of staff when the 58th special task force attacked Palau Islands and wanted to fly to Davao, the Philippines.
Guhe and his party were hit by a storm during the flight.
Fuliufan, the chief of staff, struggled with his plane and finally made a forced landing on the sea near Cebu Island in the Philippines.
But there was no news of Guhe’s plane.
Japanese planes and ships stationed nearby searched hard and found nothing.
Guhe’s chief of staff was captured by the Philippine Anti Japanese guerrillas, and a box of top secret documents carried by him were sent to the US Army.
Among the captured documents, there is an outline called “operation Z”, which is obviously the operational plan of the Japanese Navy.
The plan was eventually sent to the Pacific Fleet headquarters in Pearl Harbor, and Leighton and his Japanese experts translated the document overnight.
The Japanese Navy regards this operation plan as an action of decisive significance to the Japanese army, and the planned operation area extends to the front line of Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands and New Guinea.
On May 5, 1944, Japan Radio announced that Sadako Toyoda was the commander of the joint fleet.
In order to save the crisis, the base camp issued a “No.
a operation” order to Toyota in an attempt to concentrate most of the troops and fight a decisive battle again to annihilate the US fleet at one fell swoop.
At this time, Pearl Harbor has learned that the “operation a” plan is only a specific replica of “operation Z”.
After reading the translation of operation Z, Nimitz ordered the documents to be sent to all captains assembled near the Mariana Islands.
The US military has always expected to engage with the Japanese aircraft carrier fleet and wipe it out completely.
This moment is finally coming.
Nimitz was excited when he learned that the Japanese fleet had aircraft carriers “Xianghe” and “Ruihe” sneaking into Pearl Harbor.
He said to General Smith, “one day, when I see the telegram sinking the two Japanese aircraft carriers on my desk, that will be the happiest day of my life.
” In June, the US military launched an attack on the Mariana Islands.
Despite the disadvantages of the U.S. military, Nimitz and the leaders of the Pacific fleet are full of confidence in the upcoming decisive battle.
A news reporter asked: “Japanese Radio announced that ‘a great naval battle is about to begin’.
What’s your opinion on this?” Nimitz replied, “I hope they are telling the truth.
I really don’t know how to lead them out to a big battle.
” At dusk on the 18th, the US fleet found the Japanese fleet 355 nautical miles southwest.
Mitchell suggested driving the fleet to the west near the Japanese fleet overnight in order to fight the Japanese ship in the early morning of the 19th.
However, after discussing with the staff for an hour, Spruance decided not to attack the Japanese fleet.
The order he issued to the troops only proposed to “capture and hold Saipan, Tinian and Guam”, without mentioning the fleet that continuously attacked the Japanese army.
Mitchell and his pilot were disappointed and thought Spruance had missed them.
Mitchell complained bitterly, “the enemy ran away.
It was once within my range.
” Pilots generally complain: “this is the result of non pilot commanding pilots.
” It was not until the end of World War II that Spruance’s tactics were completely correct.
According to the captured Japanese files, Spruance deployed the 58th special task force in the most ideal position with his luck or intuition on June 19.
The Mariana naval battle was a battle of great significance and brilliant results.
After this war, the US Navy mastered Mariana’s sea and air supremacy, which laid a good foundation for the final victory of the US Army over the Japanese army.
By mid August, the wide Mariana Islands were eventually owned by the US military.
In the battles of seipan, Tinian and Guam, the US army killed about 5000 people and wiped out nearly 6000 Japanese troops.
The US Army finally broke through the last line of defense of the Japanese army and won the logistics base, submarine base and bomber base that will bomb industrial facilities in Tokyo.
In Nimitz headquarters, on the Pacific chart, the arrow indicating the attack on Japan is crossing Iwo Jima.
Only because of the bad weather and other reasons, Nimiz had to postpone the date of attacking Iwo Jima from January 20 to February 19, 1945, and Okinawa from March 1 to April 1.
In order to make the ranks of the commanders in chief of the US theater correspond to those of the allies, the US Congress has enacted a decree that can grant new ranks to army and Navy generals as five-star generals.
On December 19, four generals and three admirals were awarded new ranks.
The president ordered Marshall, MacArthur, and Arnold to be five-star generals in the army, and Leahy, king, and Nimitz to be five-star admirals in the Navy.
Nimitz was very excited when he accepted the rank of five-star general.
The sailors who loved him specially recommended the soldiers who graduated from metal major and prepared a new collar for him.
They took off the stars on the old collar and lined up the five stars in a circle.
Nimitz could not hide his excitement.
He pretended to be dazed and joked, “it was a long time before I saw the stars.
” In order to establish a new headquarters near the theater, Nimitz decided to move his headquarters to Guam.
Moving forward could push him 1000 nautical miles towards the theater.
At this time, the establishment and number of the US military headquarters in the Pacific have greatly increased, and it is impossible for him to act freely and satisfactorily.
Nimitz preferred to have a capable staff and, as far as possible, only those recognized as relevant to operational planning and command.
He also hoped that he would take some risks in personal actions and war decisions.
Nimitz arrived at the new command in Guam on January 27, 1945, and Spruance took office in Urumqi on the same day.
On February 2, Nimitz flew from Guam headquarters to Urumqi and boarded the Fifth Fleet Flagship “Indianapolis” to discuss the upcoming battle of Iwo Jima with general Spruance.
Nimitz therefore decided to give up Taiwan, which was heavily defended by the Japanese army, and occupied Iwo Jima and Okinawa because they were very close to Japan and could be used as fighter planes and bombers directly attacking TokyoRong, Nimitz had a faint wish in his heart: the Pacific war would be ended in 1945 and Roosevelt would live to see this victory.
When Nimitz and his party flew over the Pacific Ocean, they stopped at Pearl Harbor and returned to Guam on March 15, 1945.
At this time, his attention was fully focused on the upcoming war.
When formulating the battle plan for Okinawa, Nimitz was most worried about how much harm the Japanese air force would do to the US troops before the US Army established an airport on the island.
In the northeast, Kyushu has 55 airports.
In the southwest, Taiwan has 65 airports.
Between them, there are many runways along the Ryukyu Islands, including Okinawa.
Therefore, the Japanese army may use 3000 or 4000 aircraft at home and use the deadly “kamikaze” suicide tactics to resist the US offensive forces.
In order to prevent the possible dangerous situation, Nimitz ordered the 58th special task force to launch a series of attacks on airports in Kyushu.
On March 18 and 19, the first special task force conducted many large-scale air strikes on the airport in Kyushu, the southern part of Japan and the remaining ships of the Japanese fleet parked in the inland sea of Seto.
The Japanese aircraft counterattacked and injured aircraft carriers such as enterprise and York City.
The ship was badly hit and more than 800 crew members were killed.
Nimitz also ordered a bomber formation to attack Kyushu’s aviation facilities and bases.
Nimitz also ordered the laying of mines along the Xiaguan Strait.
In the above-mentioned air strikes, although the US military lost 116 shipborne aircraft, it injured several Japanese ships and damaged various Japanese facilities and transportation hubs in Kyushu, so that the Japanese army could hardly fight back in the next three weeks.
After replenishing fuel, the 58th special task force began heavy bombing of Okinawa on March 23.
Amphibious offensive forces, including the 77th infantry division, captured the qingliangjian islands 15 nautical miles southwest of Okinawa.
This is an integral part of the whole landing operation plan.
It provides a hidden anchorage for the U.S. military.
It is a rare seaplane base and supply base.
On April 1, Easter morning, the landing army commanded by Turner began landing on the white sand beach of Okinawa.
The landing went very smoothly.
On the same day, 50000 army and Marine soldiers landed, and the vanguard troops seized two airports.
At noon on April 2, some landing troops had crossed the island and entered the east coast.
Since then, most of the troops of the 24th army detoured from the right side and pushed southward, and the first marine division of the Navy advanced to the east of the landing area.
The Japanese army has about 100000 anti landing troops on Okinawa, of which 67000 are elite troops of the Japanese army.
Why didn’t the Japanese army resist? It turned out that the tactics adopted by the island defense forces were to allow the US military to “fully land”, lure the US military to places where it could not get naval and air force fire cover and support, and then annihilate its landing forces at one fell swoop.
The bitter battle that did not appear on land began on the sea of Okinawa.
From April 6 to 7, about 700 Japanese planes took off from Kyushu and attacked the ships of the Fifth Fleet.
This is the long planned “chrysanthemum water special attack” of the Japanese army.
In the two-day Blitzkrieg, three destroyers and one landing ship were sunk, two fireboats were hit and exploded, and one Minesweeper and 12 destroyers were severely damaged.
The Japanese plane also crashed into the aircraft carrier “Hancock” and the battleship “Maryland”.
Hundreds of American sailors died and many others were severely burned.
The scene was terrible.
At this time, the Marines fighting on the peninsula in the northeast of Okinawa and the army troops in the south of Okinawa also encountered tenacious resistance from the Japanese army.
The Japanese army attacked and landed the US Army by using caves, trenches and sheltered fire points, which seriously frustrated the advance of the US Army.
Nimitz believed that the slow advance of the army caused huge losses to the naval support forces, and a large number of Navy sailors were killed by Japanese aircraft.
But he felt very embarrassed.
He couldn’t decide whether to order an investigation into the causes of the heavy losses or force himself not to interfere with the command on the battlefield.
Nimitz wrote to his wife every day about this painful mood.
One day he admitted to her that he deeply regretted every officer and soldier who died.
On the morning of April 13, the news of President Roosevelt’s death reached the Pacific Command Headquarters, which made Nimitz’s heart heavier: “for me, I deeply feel that this is my personal loss.
” In his letter to his wife, he said, “whether we like all his words, deeds and ideas – he has always advocated the establishment of a strong navy, and he has always been very kind and friendly to me.
I have just sent a message of condolence to Mrs.
Roosevelt on behalf of all officers and soldiers in the Pacific region.
” On April 16, the commander of the Marine Corps, four-star general van der grift and his two staff officers came to the Guam headquarters and requested to inspect his troops on Okinawa and personally solve the problem of serious casualties there.
Nimitz did not approve his request.
Nimitz explained that he wanted to go himself, but the fighting was fierce and dangerous, so he could not send any senior officials.
But the next day, Nimitz suddenly changed his mind and expressed his willingness to go to the Okinawa front with van der grift, which surprised van der grift.
The reason why Nimitz changed his mind may be that he had to intervene directly due to the “extraordinary situation” formed by the war situation.
The day after Nimitz arrived, he and Spruance inspected some Okinawa areas occupied by the US Army.
In view of the stagnation of ground operations, Nimitz strongly urged the marine forces to accelerate their advance in order to free the support fleet as soon as possible.
Lieutenant general Buckner claimed that this was just a ground operation.
The implication is that the battle on Okinawa is a matter for the army, and the Navy had better not intervene.
“It could really be a ground operation,” Nimitz glanced coldly at Buckner, “But I lost one and a half warships every day.
They were hit hard by kamikaze aircraft, or sank, or lost combat effectiveness.
Therefore, this front cannot be broken through in five days.
We will send other troops to break through it.
In this way, we can get out of these terrible air attacks.
” In this way, Buckner reluctantly agreed to transfer the fifth and sixth marine divisions to the southern battlefield.
Van der grift suggested a circuitous attack to open up the situation.
Still think, still in South BucknerThe best way is to blast the Japanese out of the stronghold with large-scale naval gun fire.
Nimitz promised more firepower support.
In order to take the overall situation into consideration, Nimitz endured criticism from all sides and tried his best to bridge the contradiction between the Navy and the army.
At an exceptional press conference, Nimitz did not mention the sacrifice made by the Navy, but praised the army’s extraordinary combat performance, and pointed out that the army’s tactics were correct.
If amphibious landing was launched from the flank, it would cost more and waste time.
During this time, Nimitz was in a bad mood, and his judgment and decision were doubted by his most determined supporters.
However, Nimitz insisted that the first prerequisite is to maintain harmony and consistency among the services.
On June 21, the US military announced its occupation of Okinawa.
When the artillery finally stopped and the support ships withdrew from the Okinawa coast, statistics were also made on this historic battle.
About 15000 Japanese died and 7400 were captured.
About 7600 US troops were killed and more than 30000 wounded.
26 ships were sunk and 360 were injured, mostly due to the Japanese “chrysanthemum water special attack”.
In addition, general Buckner was killed in battle, which was the highest ranking general killed in the Pacific War.
Nimitz commanded the middle route troops to advance to the Japanese mainland, paid a heavy price, and the glory in exchange is like a golden halo, bringing exciting hope and confidence.
At this time, MacArthur’s troops did not achieve the expected effect from the direction of New Guinea.
After occupying Luzon, his troops were still fighting in the southwest Pacific and could only go south to the southern Philippines and Borneo.
As a result, the internal struggle between the services began again.
MacArthur blamed Washington for binding him and the army.
What he absolutely could not tolerate was that when Nimitz’s headquarters at all levels with the Navy as the core attacked Japan, he was “on the bench” in the south.
Therefore, MacArthur put forward the idea of establishing a unified command under his command again.
But his views met with irrefutable opposition from the Navy.
On April 3, 1945, the Joint Chiefs of staff issued a compromise plan: when attacking Japan, MacArthur will command all army ground forces and aviation in the Pacific region.
Nimitz commands all the navies in the Pacific.
This plan means further splitting the joint command, which Nimitz calls “unable to work together”.
At the same time, it will be difficult for any army force to obey the command of naval generals in the future.
Nimitz’s patience has reached the limit.
He feels that he can’t give in again.
Otherwise, he will become a subordinate of MacArthur and lose his power and responsibility.
He expressed his views to MacArthur’s special envoy Sutherland in indisputable words: “I can’t promise to hand over to him the operational command of the army forces indispensable to the defense and operational plan of the Pacific sea area.
” However, Nimitz also recognized that an early end to the war is much more important than the discord between the two and the two local conflicts in the armed forces.
Based on this consideration, he decided to go to Manila to talk with MacArthur in order to reach some agreement between the two sides and end the war as soon as possible.
During the two-day meeting, the two senior generals tried their best to strive for the same goal with a rational attitude, so as to seek the basic point of the bilateral talks and finally approach Japan’s strategy from the sea, land and air.
The talks resolved some remaining problems and laid a foundation for cooperation in attacking Kyushu, Honshu and other islands of Japan.
According to the agreement reached between the two sides, in amphibious attacks, Navy generals are the main command, supplemented by army generals.
Nimitz promised to hand over the task of attacking the entire Ryukyu Islands to MacArthur and promised to provide maritime cover for the southwest Pacific forces as always.
This meeting made Nimitz realize that his desire for unified command of the army and navy is very unrealistic.
He will never mention the proposal of unified command of the armed forces across the country.
One day, a young lieutenant colonel came to the Pacific Fleet headquarters and brought a top secret document that admiral Kim had brought to Nimitz.
According to the document, the atomic bomb with an equivalent of 20000 tons of TNT has been successfully developed and will be used in the Pacific battlefield on August 1, 1945.
Nimitz was deeply surprised that a bomb could destroy a city and kill all or almost all its residents.
At this time, the “Olympic Action” plan and “crown action” plan in July have been approved by the successor President Truman and implemented in August.
Nimitz continued to carry out attacks on Japan, and submarines and aircraft carrying mines pushed back Japan’s offensive on the islands.
On May 8, 1945, Germany announced its surrender, which marked the final failure of the European Axis powers.
At the same time, Nietzsche’s stubborn support in the Pacific has been too late and will not have a direct impact on the European resistance.
He can force the Allied forces to surrender before the bombing.
At the end of June, Nimitz flew to San Francisco for the last meeting with Admiral Kim in the war years.
The meeting lasted only one day, because the two senior generals were fully convinced that neither “Olympic Action” nor “crown action” would be implemented.
The deciphered Japan Telecom shows that Japan is trying to reach out for peace through the Soviet government.
Therefore, Nimitz and Spruance began to shift their focus from formulating the “Olympic Action” plan to preparing for Japan’s possible surrender.
The establishment of a civil government, the handling of war criminals and experts in post-war reconstruction have become the topics of discussion at the staff headquarters of the Pacific Fleet.
Naval Weapons experts brought a documentary film of the first atomic bomb that exploded in alamogodo, New Mexico.
Nimitz believes that the use of atomic bombs violates the humanitarian spirit and moral norms and is not a legitimate means of war.
However, he also agreed with Leighton, an expert on Japan, that the Japanese bushido spirit is difficult to destroy by conventional means.
As commander in chief of the US military, Nimitz must also consider another practical problem, that is, he does not want to sacrifice more Americans.
On July 26, the governments of the United States, Britain and China issued the “Potsdam Declaration””The Japanese army must surrender unconditionally”.
Except for its four islands, Japan should withdraw from all the territories it occupies, otherwise it will only “destroy itself”.
At this time, the U.S. cruiser “Indianapolis” had transported subcritical uranium 235 and the components of two atomic bombs to Tinian island in the Mariana Islands.
The Japanese government did not respond to the provisions listed in the Potsdam announcement.
In the early morning of August 6, a bomber carrying the first atomic bomb took off from Tinian island.
At 8:15 sharp, the God of death landed over Hiroshima.
In less than 15 minutes, the white smoke and cloud plunged the whole city into a terrible fire.
At 9:20, the US air force sent a clear message to Tinian island from over Japan 1500 nautical miles away: “the mission has been successfully completed!” General Farrell, who was in charge of the “atomic bomb program”, quickly reported the situation to Nimitz, and another General Grievous, who was specifically responsible for the program, transmitted it to President Truman, who was returning from the Potsdam Conference.
The allies also issued the ultimatum agreed at the Potsdam Conference to Japan, reaffirmed the spirit of the Potsdam Conference, and demanded that Japan give up all territorial ownership and let the Allies occupy Japan’s mainland until a peaceful and responsible Japanese government is established.
The whole world is waiting to see.
Nimitz was surprised by the stubborn attitude of the Japanese government.
At the moment, the Japanese also know that they have no chance of winning and should respond wisely.
However, the Japanese government continued to remain silent.
On August 8, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan and sent troops to Northeast China.
In the early morning of August 9, another plane carrying an atomic bomb took off from Tinian island.
At 1100 hours, the atomic bomb destroyed the city of Nagasaki in Kyushu.
This is probably the last loud noise near the end of the war.
The flames of war are about to dissipate, and the defenders and fighters of peace will begin to win the honor they deserve.
On August 10, the British royal family decided to award general Nimitz the “Knight of bath Grand Cross”, and the ceremony was held on the battleship Duke of York, the flagship of British admiral Bruce Fraser.
A purple ribbon hung from Nimitz’s shoulder to his chest.
In the early morning of the 11th, Nimitz received a telegram from General Kim announcing that Japan had stopped resistance.
For Nimitz, the news realized his longing for a new tomorrow.
This is also the wish of many warriors who have made noble sacrifices.
In Nimitz’s view, victory has long been expected.
This day is just coming as scheduled, as if it proves Nimitz’s firm belief and accurate judgment again.
Nimitz got up and ordered the implementation of new tactics.
He sent a signal to the pilots on Air Patrol: “find out and shoot down all sneakers – try not to retaliate.
” When the sound of celebrating the victory surged over the United States, President Truman announced on the radio that he had entrusted General MacArthur as the supreme commander of the Allied forces.
He was responsible for arranging and presiding over the Japanese surrender ceremony and signing the peace document.
Nimitz felt angry.
He thought it was a great injustice to the Navy.
In all the battles in the Pacific Ocean, the navy has taken the heavy responsibility and risked life and death.
At the moment of victory, an army general is allowed to play the leading role and reap the fruits.
This appointment shows that the eyes of the world will once again focus on MacArthur.
It seems that his troops defeated Japan mainly.
Nimitz reported the situation to Admiral Kim and expressed his strong dissatisfaction.
Jin Li immediately proposed to the president that if an army general presided over the peace agreement, the ceremony should be held on a naval ship rather than on land.
Secretary of the Navy Forrester also won an agreement from the Secretary of state that if MacArthur signed the surrender on behalf of the allies, Nimitz would sign on behalf of the United States.
On the 29th, Nimitz also arrived in Tokyo Bay by seaplane and raised the flag on the “South Dakota”.
At 8:00 on September 2, Nimitz and his party arrived at the signing place in a special boat.
The ship whistled loudly and the loudspeaker sounded “Admiral March”.
After a while, MacArthur and his staff arrived.
MacArthur and Nimitz shook hands to celebrate this unforgettable moment.
After the military priest prayed, the band played the American National Anthem.
MacArthur and Nimitz went up to the open deck, followed by Halsey.
MacArthur stood behind the table and delivered an unforgettable peace speech.
Then he asked representatives of the Japanese government to come forward and sign.
When MacArthur signed the surrender of Japan on behalf of the allies, general Jonathan Wainwright of the US Army and Lieutenant Colonel Arthur Percival of the British Army stood behind him.
They were both former prisoners of war and had just arrived by plane from the Japanese prisoner of war camp.
Admiral Chester Nimitz, five-star, then came forward and signed on behalf of the United States of America.
General MacArthur, general Halsey and Major General Sherman stood behind him.
A few days later, Nimitz boarded a plane and flew back to Pearl Harbor and then to San Francisco.
This is a time of national celebration and a time to welcome heroes back to their hometown.
Secretary of the Navy Forrester believes that the commander in chief of the US military in the Pacific, like Army leaders, has made special contributions to victory and should enjoy the same treatment.
He is going to hold a ribbon throwing welcome for Nimitz in early October.
Nimitz has never been a person who pursues fame and wealth.
At first, he opposed this painstaking arrangement.
However, he must face the fact that he is the representative of the national Navy, and the Navy and Marines have made outstanding contributions in the Pacific War.
It can be said that the Navy really won the victory of the Pacific War, which should be made known to the people.
What he will accept will be the honor of the whole navy, and he has no right or reason to refuse it.
In fact, the Navy cannot be ignored.
Invitations from the people to invite Nimitz to participate in the celebration flew from everywhere like snowflakes.
Those cities with Nimitz’s growth footprints and achievements can’t forget what the outstanding figure of the navy has paid for them.
The municipal authorities and ordinary people in San Francisco, New York, Dallas, Austin, kerville and Fredericksburg, Texas extended a warm welcome to Nimitz with irresistible hospitality.
With the efforts of Forrester, Washington officials decided to designate October 5 as “Nimitz day” and organize 3.