on the authenticity of Western history the West questioned China’s dating project of Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties. According to the general definition of faith history, when did the faith history of the west begin? Entangled in this problem, mainly for our non history major Xiaobai, there is such a misunderstanding: it is reasonable to think that ancient Greece, like ancient China, has very perfect historical records! Can you please help me answer my personal question, that is, when did the recognized historical documents (written records, non myths and legends, similar to historical records) in ancient Greece start?
Li Xueqin mentioned the problem of the dating project of Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties and the source of eastern and Western faith in history in the lecture notes of historical records and the chronicles of the five emperors. Although this gentleman has been questioned (mainly in the political movement for his mentor Chen Mengjia’s attitude, but it is at that time after all), he is still at a considerable level academically (at least more qualified than me to answer this question), and he is also an important participant in the project. Let’s take a look at his statement.
is quoted from Li Xueqin’s lecture notes on historical records and the chronicles of the five emperors. Beijing Sanlian, 2012
lecture notes are compiled according to Li Xueqin’s lecture recording at the “first core course workshop of general education for cultural quality” at the China Culture Forum in July 2007.
here he first divided history into three stages, namely prehistory, protohistory and history. The prehistoric period basically depends on archaeological discoveries. The original historical period pays equal attention to documentary records and archaeology, and there are more documentary records in historical periods (mutual confirmation, high reliability). The more forward, the greater the proportion of archaeology, and the later, the greater the proportion of literature records. The narrow sense of
should refer to the third stage.
Mr. Li’s division of China’s Pre-Qin history:
1. Before the Yellow Emperor, there were basically myths and legends, and there were few documents, which can be said to be “prehistoric period”.
2. It has been recorded since the period of the five emperors. It can be said that it is between “prehistoric” and “original history”.
3. Since the Xia Dynasty, there have been many documents. The Xia, Shang and Western Zhou dynasties should be called “protohistory”, that is, the “original historical period”.
4. It is generally believed that history is “historical period” after the spring and Autumn period.
so Mr. Li’s division of China’s narrow faith history is from the spring and Autumn period, which should be more reliable. When exactly did “SPE” and “spkds” begin in China? Now there are many studies in this area. We have a “dating project of Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties”, which is a large-scale scientific and technological research project combining natural science and Humanities and social sciences. We have formulated the chronology of Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties, which can be said to be the most scientifically based chronology so far. Of course, it is not the last. History is continuous and can be pushed forward year by year, not only year by year, but even month by month and day by day. The history of China can be pushed back to 841 BC. After that, there is no doubt because it is very accurate. 841 BC was the first year of the Republic in the late Western Zhou Dynasty. In the late Western Zhou Dynasty, King li of Zhou was fatuous and cruel and oppressed the people. Later, the people rose up against him and drove him away. After the expulsion, the country had no king and no more king. Some ministers were in power together, which was called “Republic”. Today we say “Republic” by borrowing this term. The first year of the Republic is the first year of the “historical records · chronology of the twelve princes”. Although he has seen many chronological materials, he believes that they are contradictory, so he did not use them. Before the “chronology of the twelve princes”, it was only compiled into the “chronology of three generations”. Some people may think: do you vent the anger of the Chinese people by saying so? Not so. Whether Greece, Rome or ancient Egypt, let alone the two river basins, most of their chronologies are accurate to the seventh and eighth centuries BC, which is similar to ours. The calculation of
chronology is relatively reliable, because it should accommodate all recorded events without conflict, which is the so-called “calendar” of history. You can’t let one month appear in Xianyang and Mount Tai at the same time. The year 841 BC is very important in Chinese history. It can also be said that the chronology of Chinese history depends entirely on Sima Qian’s historical records. You can say that the vivid stories in historical records are unreliable, but the chronology is reliable. If you doubt this, China has no faith history.
China has a 5000 year history of civilization, which is very long. However, I’m afraid many people have no idea how ancient Chinese history is and where it is in human history. We can make a specific comparison. In the ancient history of the world, chronology is the most studied, and the more accurate is the chronology of ancient Egypt. Ancient Egypt, like China, is one of the four ancient civilizations. How was its chronology established? It is based on an ancient book. The author is a monk (or priest) in ancient Egypt. Ancient monks and priests are often scholars. The priest is a good scholar, named Manetho. Manetto was born in the 2nd century BC and wrote a history of Egypt, probably a little earlier than Sima Qian. When he lived, the city library, one of the seven wonders of the world, still existed. What Matteo didn’t see after he moved to the library, so most of what he didn’t see in the library.
although Manetto’s history of Egypt has been lost, many of its contents have been preserved through citations from other books. From this, we know how he divided the whole history of ancient Egypt. Manetto divided the history of ancient Egypt into three periods and thirty-one dynasties. The three periods refer to the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom and the new kingdom（NewKingdom）。
are similar to the historical records of China, and the historical chronology of ancient Egypt is also based on an ancient book. It is also mentioned here that after the burning of the Alexandria library, the source of documents and materials is “lost collection”. In other words, when the library was still there, we would extract, quote and copy some of the documents in our notebooks. The library burned down, but we still copied it, but it was incomplete. So some philologists found the part copied from the original book from various books and reorganized it into the original book. It may not be complete, but at least it’s strong. In addition, the more classic books, the more people copy wonderful fragments, the more complete they will be. It is a feat comparable to archaeological discovery to find the lost books.
in China, the “Five Emperors era” was about 3000 BC to 2070 BC. According to the agreement of “social science” from 1046 BC to 1600 BC, we combined the “social science” with the Western Zhou Dynasty from 1046 BC to 2071 BC. This division is not necessarily accurate, but it is a better chronology that we can list at present.
let’s take a look at the chronology of Egypt (the figures I give are based on the latest chronology, from the history of ancient Egypt published by Oxford University in 1994, and also refer to the amendment of an Egyptian scholar in 2001): the pre Kingdom period of ancient Egypt (from the first dynasty to the second Dynasty) is from 3150 BC to 2700 BC; The ancient kingdom period (the Third Dynasty to the tenth Dynasty) was from 2700 BC to 2040 BC; The Middle Kingdom period (11th to 17th dynasties) was 2040 to 1552 BC; The first period of the New Kingdom (18th to 20th dynasties) was from 1552 to 1069 BC. After the 20th Dynasty, Egypt entered a period of being weakened and ruled.
in terms of time range, the pre Kingdom period of ancient Egypt and the ancient kingdom period are very close to the five emperors period of China. Only the beginning of the first dynasty of ancient Egypt is 150 years earlier than us, but this figure is not necessarily accurate, so it can be said that the two are similar. You should know that the ancient kingdom of Egypt was still the era of copper and stone, not the bronze age. The Middle Kingdom period of ancient Egypt, if calculated according to 2040 BC, is only 30 years away from the beginning of 2070 BC; The two ended in 1552 BC and 1600 BC, only 48 years away, too close. Therefore, our Xia Dynasty is basically equivalent to the Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt, which is the beginning of the bronze age. Our is a period of prosperity. Although it has a history of 800 years, it split after the spring and Autumn period, and the Shang Dynasty has always been a unified country. Some ancients said that the Shang Dynasty has a history of nearly 600 years. According to the chronology of the “dating project of Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties”, the beginning and end years of our Shang Dynasty and the first period of the most prosperous New Kingdom period in ancient Egypt are also very close.
here, Mr. Li also uses a method of cross civilization comparison, that is, assuming that the development level of ancient Egyptians and ancient Chinese is similar (of course, there are many primitive nationalities today). Ancient Egypt has entered the bronze age, and the Chinese should almost be the bronze age. This is a macro guess under the lack of data, and it also has a certain reason.
and some people put forward the problem of not having the Xia Dynasty. After all, to prove the existence of the Xia Dynasty, as long as there is something dug out, it is much more troublesome to prove that it does not exist. The so-called “words are easy, words are not difficult”. Without the Xia Dynasty, the high civilization of the Shang Dynasty (there are cultural relics in the Shang Dynasty to prove) could not suddenly appear, and its origin also needs to be explained.