North Korea’s nuclear explosion made the world find that North Korea’s development of nuclear weapons was not a “feint”, but a solid work. In fact, owning nuclear weapons is the national strategy of the first generation of North Korean leader Kim Il Sung. This article was originally published in the 6th issue of national human history in 2013. Do not reprint

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without permission. On April 15, 2012, The Taepodong intercontinental missile

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exhibited at the Centennial military parade of Kim Il Sung’s birthday. On February 12, 2013, the Chinese people were also immersed in the festive atmosphere of the Spring Festival. The North Korean defense science department successfully conducted the third underground nuclear test at the underground nuclear test site in the north of North Korea not far from the Chinese border. The news shocked the world, and North Korea’s secret nuclear strategy has once again become the focus of attention. People have questioned why North Korea insists on possessing nuclear weapons at the risk of universal condemnation? In fact, the possession of nuclear weapons has been a consistent national strategy since the founding of the DPRK.

Kim Il Sung’s nuclear dream

the idea that North Korea has nuclear weapons has a long history, and the nuclear gene has been buried since the first generation of North Korean leader Kim Il Sung. For the Japanese army, the “kokds” and the “kokds” were undoubtedly the two powerful anti Japanese bombs that forced the Japanese army to surrender in the 1940s.

after the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, Kim Il Sung, who wanted to unify Korea at one stroke, was helpless to be intervened by the United States. Although he received the full support of the Chinese people’s Volunteer Army and the help of the former Soviet Union, he finally stopped at the 38th parallel. The Chinese mainland has not used the nuclear weapons to attack the DPRK or the mainland of China. According to historical records, when Kim Il Sung learned the news, he was extremely anxious because there was no equivalent means of counteraction. North Korea is a country lacking energy. It does not produce oil and has limited coal reserves. On the contrary, it is rich in natural uranium and graphite reserves. The international situation and domestic demand have strengthened North Korea’s determination to conduct nuclear research. In 1953, when the war was just over and the domestic construction of North Korea was in vain, Kim Il Sung told the high level of North Korea that it must have nuclear weapons, so he began the exploration of nuclear development.

Huang Changye, the former Secretary of the Korean workers’ party who defected later, once told reporters: “we (North Korea) started the development of nuclear weapons very early. When Kim Il Sung inspected the underground Arsenal in 1958, he repeatedly stressed the need to be prepared for nuclear war, and has formulated the (nuclear possession) policy since then Plan. Once we have nuclear weapons, we can first suppress South Korea, and it is also a means to prevent U.S. intervention when unifying the Korean Peninsula by force. ”

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North Korea’s “father of nuclear weapons” Xu Xiangguo

under the goal of developing nuclear weapons, North Korea began to invest more resources in nuclear research.

in 1955, North Korea established the first Institute of nuclear physics in Pyongyang. When Kim Il Sung visited the Soviet Union in 1956, he specially visited the nuclear power plant on the outskirts of Moscow. According to the documentary filmed that year, Kim Il Sung was wearing a light colored suit and waved to the Soviet people who welcomed him in the lane. In the nuclear power plant, surrounded by a group of Soviet experts, he learned more about the operation of the plant. Kim Il Sung on the screen looked attentive and nodded from time to time when experts explained the model. This year, the DPRK successfully signed the agreement on the establishment of a joint Nuclear Research Institute with the Soviet Union, accepted the assistance of the Soviet Union and made peaceful use of nuclear energy. The two countries cooperated in the basic theoretical research of nuclear energy. In September 1959, North Korea and the Soviet Union concluded the agreement on helping North Korea build an atomic energy research base. The scope of cooperation stipulated in the agreement includes geological survey, assisting North Korea in building a nuclear reactor for research and training North Korean personnel. After the signing of the cooperation agreement, more than 300 North Korean students were sent to the Soviet Union to study nuclear physics. Only in Dubna, 110 kilometers north of Moscow, the Soviet Union’s largest nuclear laboratory, the Soviet Union’s Joint Nuclear Research Institute, has provided training for more than 250 North Korean nuclear researchers. Although there are technicians from other socialist countries who come here to train in this institute, North Korea is undoubtedly a member with high staff scale and learning enthusiasm.

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these students who stayed in the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s became the backbone of North Korea’s nuclear development activities, including Cui xuegen, director of the North Korean Institute of atomic energy and Minister of atomic energy industry, Ding gen, who studies nuclear reactor physics directly related to nuclear weapons, and Xu Xiangguo, the “father of nuclear weapons” of North Korea in the future.

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Xu Xiangguo is known as a “scientific genius”. He is the soul figure leading North Korea’s nuclear weapons research and development plan and the main R & D personnel of North Korea’s “taepodong-1” missile. In 1966, Xu Xiangguo studied in the Soviet Union after graduating from Kim Il Sung comprehensive university. At the age of 28, he received a doctorate in the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union once advised him to join the Soviet nationality, but Xu Xiangguo politely refused and returned to North Korea. Xu Xiangguo’s official title is chairman of the Department of physics of Kim Il Sung comprehensive university, but he also has a secret position – “extremely secret member” of the Central National Defense Committee of the Korean workers’ party.

Xu Xiangguo traveled around Russia alone when he was young. Using his interpersonal relationship when studying in the Soviet Union, he transported nuclear related equipment and parts back to North Korea to establish North Korea’s nuclear R & D facilities. Most of the time, he is engaged in research in the nuclear research facility on North Xianjing road. He enjoys special treatment and has close bodyguards. If he feels unwell, he will be sent to France for treatment.

North Korea has also set up nuclear talent training bases in Colleges and universities such as Kim Il Sung comprehensive university, jince University of technology and Pingcheng University of physics to select the best students to study nuclear related majors. Xu Xiangguo and other first-class North Korean nuclear scientists are in science and technologyIt chose to renew the treaty automatically and officially announced the abolition of the treaty in 1994. North Korea can only accept all this. With the opening-up or transformation of other socialist countries, North Korea has few allies, while the military threat of the United States is always there. Once the war starts again, North Korea, which is backward in equipment, will have no backup and no ability to resist the enemy.

inside the Korean Peninsula, the political situation and popular support are also unstable. Since the division of the Korean Peninsula in 1948, North Korea and South Korea have been in a fierce competition for the legal inheritance of the national legal system. In the early 1950s, after the Korean War, the North South competition turned into a development competition. Before 1973, North Korea gained the upper hand in terms of national comprehensive strength, but since then, South Korea has reversed sharply and the gap between the north and the South has opened rapidly, which makes North Korea have a strong sense of crisis. At this time, the people need to obtain a new inspiring force to inspire people, restore confidence and cohesion, and consolidate their loyalty and worship to leaders. To this end, North Korea put forward the political slogan of building a “strong country”, and the possession of an atomic bomb is undoubtedly the most convenient display of a “strong country”.

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accelerate the development of nuclear weapons

North Korea has built many nuclear facilities in the south of Yongbyon light water reactor and black lead reactor, the largest of which is the nuclear reprocessing center, where the fuel rods extract plutonium after the black lead reactor is used, Prepare for nuclear weapons.

after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, a large number of nuclear researchers in the former Soviet Union lost their jobs. North Korea made full use of this opportunity to hire dozens of former Soviet nuclear scientists to work in its own country through various channels. In December 1992, Viktor baranikov, Russia’s security minister, delivered a speech to the parliament, claiming that his men had prevented 64 Russian missile experts from going to the “third country”. Although he did not specify which country the “third country” was, Russian reporters finally found out that this country was North Korea.

after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the international nuclear black market was rampant. North Korea seized this opportunity to collect and buy nuclear technology everywhere. At the same time, it also disguised as a legal trading company to buy the required parts in parts. Yin haozhen, a “nuclear purchaser” seized in North Korea, once lied that it was used for the airline’s new aircraft oil tank and was actually used to manufacture enriched uranium because he purchased high-quality aluminum tubes with an inner diameter of 168 mm from Germany. These pipes were later found and executives of German companies were punished.

North Korea has also established ties with Abdul Kadir Khan, Pakistan’s “father of the nuclear bomb”. After his arrest, the man confessed that he had sold North Korea more than 20 centrifuges of P-1 and P-2 models for uranium enrichment after 1990. He also visited North Korea and North Korea’s nuclear facilities. North Korean nuclear researchers have also secretly visited Pakistan. Experts from the International Atomic Energy Agency have pointed out that the plutonium extraction technology of the Yongbyon nuclear reactor has the mark of “made in Pakistan” everywhere.

in order to force North Korea to accept nuclear inspection, US President Bush announced in September 1991 that the United States would withdraw all tactical nuclear weapons deployed in the world, including nuclear weapons deployed in South Korea. Eager to strengthen relations with the west, Russia promised western countries that if there is a military conflict between the north and the south of North Korea, Russia will never provide military arms assistance to North Korea. Russia also urges the DPRK to fulfil its obligations under the Treaty on the non proliferation of nuclear weapons. Pyongyang is very disappointed. In the eyes of the North Koreans, Russia is “dancing to the rhythm of U.S. imperialism and imposing pressure and sanctions on North Korea aimed at eliminating North Korea”.

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the first North Korean nuclear crisis

in 1992, the Korean Central Television broadcast the news of the North Korean Yongbyon nuclear industrial base and disclosed the picture inside the Nuclear Research Center for the first time, Special emphasis is placed on the peaceful use of nuclear energy industry to develop the national economy. In May of the same year, North Korea accepted the nuclear inspection of the International Atomic Energy Agency IEEA. International experts confirmed that the fuel rods that can extract plutonium had been removed from the black lead reactor. North Korea’s explanation was that only once in the past had a small amount of plutonium been extracted on an experimental basis, but IAEA experts did not believe it at all and asked for mandatory inspection of nuclear waste storage sites. This move caught North Korea a little unprepared. The North Koreans tried hard to hide the traces of the refined nuclear waste, and even tried to bury the waste and plant plants, but all the plants withered. In order to avoid US satellite reconnaissance, the North Koreans also built a stadium sized house on the waste, but the strange big house was photographed by satellites.

in March 1993, the United States and South Korea held a military exercise code named “team spirit”. Driven to the corner by nuclear inspection, North Korea withdrew from the NPT and refused all inspections. The International Atomic Energy Agency submitted the North Korean nuclear issue to the United Nations Security Council, which made a resolution threatening sanctions if North Korea did not reconsider its withdrawal. But North Korea is tougher, claiming that the United States is behind the manipulation of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

at the nuclear issue meeting between the DPRK and the ROK, the DPRK representative bluntly threatened: “we are ready for war. You should think twice. Seoul is not far from the dividing line. In case of war, it will become a sea of fire. You don’t want to live (pointing to the Korean representative opposite). In short, you should think twice.”

the South Korean representative shouted angrily, “do you want to go to war?” The North Korean representative said, “of course.”.

while stepping up the refining of plutonium, North Korea gathered troops near the 38th parallel, and the artillery was required to carry the gun rope with the bolt. In an interview with Japanese reporters, Kim Il Sung remained tough, firmly refused to enforce nuclear inspection, and stated: “we have nothing to hide. Of course, there are military secrets. No country in the world will disclose its military secrets.”

in April 1994, William Bailey, then US Secretary of defense, successively introduced the most advancedThe weapons are deployed to South Korea, and two US aircraft carriers and 33 warships are ready to attack North Korea at any time. The US military is also prepared to carry out a “surgical” attack on the North Korean Yongbyon nuclear facility. As long as the attack is successful, North Korea’s nuclear weapon development will be reversed for several years. The war seems to be imminent. South Korea predicts that large-scale civilian casualties will occur after the war, and domestic chaos will occur frequently. President Kim Yong San opposes the war, and there are voices within the United States that are unwilling to have another war with North Korea.

in order to resolve the crisis, former US President Carter entered Pyongyang as a private person on June 15, 1994 to have in-depth talks with Kim Il Sung in the hope of changing the tense situation. At this time, US President Clinton has also put the war plan and large-scale troop increase plan of the Ministry of defense in front of him. The war is ready and only waiting for Clinton to make a decision. Just as Clinton hesitated, Carter called from Pyongyang and said, “Kim Il Sung agreed to freeze nuclear weapons development”, and the Clinton administration team immediately breathed a sigh of relief.

Kim Il Sung said that as long as the US DPRK agreement was restarted, the nuclear issue could be solved, and Clinton finally accepted it.

the United States and North Korea began the third round of talks in Geneva on July 8 of the same year. On that day, Kim Il Sung suddenly died, and his son Kim Jong Il officially took over the power of the country. The whole country of North Korea is in mourning. According to Huang Changye, a former senior North Korean official, Kim Jong Il personally told him that North Korea’s nuclear weapons had actually been manufactured at this time. However, the talks between the United States and the DPRK continued. On October 21, the United States and the DPRK reached a “framework agreement”, which mainly includes: the United States will provide the DPRK with two light water nuclear power plants within 10 years, supply 500000 tons of heavy oil every year before the power plant is put into operation, and the DPRK will freeze its nuclear program. In addition, there are issues such as the normalization of us DPRK relations, the resumption of the DPRK treaty and the investigation. So far, the North Korean nuclear crisis has been resolved for the first time.

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the North Korean nuclear cause initiated by Kim Il Sung has laid a solid foundation for today’s North Korean nuclear explosion. North Korea won two nuclear power plants from the United States through diplomatic game, tasted the sweetness from crisis diplomacy for the first time, and laid the groundwork for the toughness and adventure of North Korea’s diplomacy in the future.

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