North Vietnam attacked the US warship
– in 1964, the United States invaded Vietnam
. On November 26, 1963, John, the US president of Vietnam policy, was assassinated and died, insisting that the United States should strongly support South Vietnam Vice President Lyndon Johnson to become the 36th president of the United States. As soon as he took office, he approved the formulation of a plan to support South Vietnam and called for its rapid completion and implementation. On January 16, 1964, he officially approved the plan, namely “34a action plan”. Since February, the plan has been implemented together with the patrol plan of “de solo”, which aims to exert pressure on North Vietnam by showing off force. On June 1, 1964, the US government held the 10th Honolulu conference and determined the plan of “gradually expanding” the Vietnam War. However, the voice of anti war in the United States is rising day by day. How can we persuade people to support this plan? Johnson thought hard. Just then, something happened in the Beibu Gulf (also known as Tokyo Bay) of North Vietnam.
Johnson signed an order to expand the Vietnam War
on July 30, 1964, several South Vietnamese patrol boats implementing the “34a action plan” carried out amphibious attacks on North Vietnam’s Mei island and new island in the Beibu Gulf under the command of the new US military commander in Saigon, General William Westmoreland. At the same time, the US destroyer McDowell sailed northward into the Beibu Gulf at a distance of 120 ~ 130 nautical miles to collect North Vietnam warning radar and coastal defense intelligence for the commandos. At about 3 p.m. on August 2, the mcdowers was 23 nautical miles off the coast and continued to sail to the high seas. At 3:40, the McDowell made an emergency report: our ship was exchanging fire with three torpedo speedboats from North Vietnam. Our ship suffered no loss and no casualties. According to the information disclosed by North Vietnam afterwards, North Vietnam believed that the ship was a frigate escorting the commandos of South Vietnam.
President Johnson immediately held a meeting with his senior advisers. The advisers believed that this was most likely an action ordered by a local commander in North Vietnam, so the president decided not to retaliate. On August 3, the United States sent a stern protest note to Hanoi and ordered the dispatch of additional destroyers “Turner joy” to support the “mcdowers”, and the two ships returned to the Beibu Gulf. At the same time, the aircraft carrier constellation, which was visiting Hong Kong at that time, was ordered to quickly rendezvous with the Ticonderoga. But told the American public that American ships were peacefully sailing in the Beibu Gulf, but they were attacked by the North Vietnamese garrison. In his speech, Johnson made no mention of the provocations of the 34a action plan and the McDowell.
the protagonist of a virtual event “mcdowers
that night,” de solo “patrol operation resumed, and South Vietnam conducted two” 34a “sneak attacks. Because the two destroyers were notified in advance, they avoided the “34a” attack force and were not attacked.
in the early morning of August 4, “McDowell” sent another telegram: the attack from some unidentified ships seems imminent. Its intelligence came from the top secret report of the national security agency, which claimed that it had intercepted the order of North Vietnam. An hour later, the McDowell reported that it had established radar contact with three unidentified ships. After hearing the news, the nearby aircraft carrier “Ticonderoga” immediately sent fighters to reinforce it. For the next few hours, the Beibu Gulf was in chaos under the cover of dark clouds and darkness. McDowell and Joey reported that they had been attacked by more than 30 torpedoes and even reported seeing the lights in the back cabin of the enemy ship.
due to the tense situation, defense secretary McNamara met with the Joint Chiefs of staff to discuss countermeasures. The meeting considered that if the report is true, it is absolutely necessary to fight back against the second attack. McNamara learned from a telephone conversation with Admiral sharp, commander of the 7th Pacific fleet that due to the chaotic situation at that time, it was not known whether there was a North Vietnam attack on the US destroyer.
McNamara asked for verification. Finally, general sharp determined that there had been an attack. Then the National Security Council met at the White House. Members of the National Security Council agreed to take action, and the president authorized the use of U.S. naval aviation to bomb North Vietnam. The Joint Chiefs of staff began to draw up a list of 94 air raid targets from the end of May, and selected Hongji, Yi’an, Tsinghua and Guangxi torpedo bases in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, as well as an oil depot near Rong City as the targets of bombing.
at 6:40 p.m. on August 4, President Johnson met with 16 leaders of both parties in Congress and briefed them on the incident in the Beibu Gulf that day and the US counterattack plan. He told them that he intended to submit a resolution to Congress asking Congress to support the United States in taking occupation action in South Vietnam when necessary. Johnson’s resolution was discussed at the Honolulu strategic meeting held from June 1 to 2.
at 11:36 p.m., President Johnson sat in front of the television station and told the American people that we decided to bomb North Vietnam because North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked American warships for no reason, but this response was “limited and appropriate” and “we do not want to expand the war”. At this time, 64 bombers flew over the target and bombed four torpedo bases and an oil depot selected by the Joint Chiefs of staff for the first time.
on August 6, the US Senate and house of Representatives passed Johnson’s resolution. In fact, this resolution has become a declaration of war that is not a declaration of war. This is the Beibu Gulf resolution. The public large-scale bombing of North Vietnam and the adoption of the Beibu Gulf resolution show that the United States has crossed a key threshold for the escalation of the war. Since then, the United States has expanded the war from Vietnam to the north and embarked on the road of direct aggression against Vietnam.
on August 5, 1964, on the pretext that its warships were attacked on the high seas, the United States sent planes to bomb the ports in northern Vietnam. In February 1965, the United States began a large-scale bombing of the north. In March, the US ground forces landed in Fangang and began to undertake major combat tasks directly in the south. US forces invading Vietnam