Section II Northern War

from 1700 to 1721, Russia fought with Sweden for 21 years in order to seize the sea port of the Baltic Sea, also known as the Northern War. The war ended with Russia’s acquisition of vast areas along the Baltic Sea and access to the sea. This war made Russia one of the European powers.

background

in the mid-16th century, Sweden dominated the Baltic Sea and its coastal areas, and its territorial disputes with Russia, Denmark, Poland, Brandenburg Prussia and Saxony became increasingly fierce. In order to remain invincible, Sweden strengthened its army and Navy construction before the war and formed an alliance with Britain, the Netherlands and France. Russia is a closed landlocked country. In order to seize Haikou, Russia has fought many wars with Sweden, but none of them succeeded.

statue of Peter I (bronze Knight)

at the end of the 17th century, Czar Peter I made two southern expeditions to Azov and failed to obtain the Sea outlet of the Black Sea, so he moved his target to the north again. In 1699, he signed a contract with King Frederick IV of Denmark and King Augustus II of Saxony and Poland to establish a Northern Alliance against Sweden. At that time, there were 85000 troops in the Northern Alliance countries, including 40000 in Russia, 25000 in Saxony, Poland and 20000 in Denmark. Except Denmark, Russia and Saxony, Poland had no navy; There are nearly 420000 warships in Sweden, the first in Europe. With the intensification of the contradiction between the two sides, in February 1700, Saxony troops surrounded Riga controlled by Sweden, and the Northern War broke out.

after the outbreak of the

Northern War, in March 1700, the Danish army mainly attacked the Swedish ally Holstein. Due to the different attempts of the allied countries and the extremely uncoordinated combat operations, King Charles XII of Sweden was able to take the policy of breaking each one by virtue of his military advantage. In May, Charlie XII, with the support of the British Dutch joint fleet, sent 15000 troops to land in Copenhagen, defeated Denmark and forced it to sign a contract to withdraw from the war in August of the same year.

in order to avoid two front operations, Russia signed a peace treaty with Turkey and ended the Russian Turkish war. On August 30, Russia declared war on Switzerland and surrounded Narva, the Swedish military hub on the South Bank of the Gulf of Finland, with 35000 troops. After Charlie XII learned that the SAARC army had withdrawn from Riga, he led 8000 troops to rescue Narva. On November 30, the two armies fought the battle of Narva. The Russian army was defeated miserably and retreated to Novgorod. Charlie XII sent his troops south, defeated the Saarland army near Riga in the summer of the next year, and then attacked Poland with the main force. By the summer of 1702, he occupied Warsaw, Krakow and tolen successively, and then supported the puppet leshcynski as the king of Poland. After losing the first battle of

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, Peter I of Russia vigorously developed the military industry, stepped up military reform, established a regular army and Navy, and waited for the opportunity to fight again. At the end of 1701, the Russian army used the opportunity of the main force of the Swiss Army to fight in Poland to launch another attack on the Baltic Sea coast. In the autumn of 1702, the Russian army captured Fort Notte, an important place on the Bank of Lake Ladoga, and crossed the Neva River to capture Fort niyanshan C í in May 1703. In order to further expand outward, Peter I ordered the construction of St. Petersburg and Kal á ng SCHLOTT fortresses at the Neva estuary and kotlin Island, respectively, and the establishment of the Baltic Fleet. In 1704, the Russian army launched a new offensive and captured Narva, Dorpat and ivangorod in August. In 1705, it entered Poland and Grodno on the right bank of the Nieman River in an attempt to support the Soviet army to attack the Swiss Army from east to west. In January 1706, the Swiss Army forcibly crossed the Nieman River and surrounded Grodno, forcing the Russian cavalry to retreat to Minsk. In September of the same year, Augustus II lost the war to seek peace, gave up the Polish throne and withdrew from the Northern Alliance. In the autumn of 1707, nearly 50000 Swiss troops gathered in Poland to prepare for the eastern expedition to Russia. Russian troops in Poland immediately withdrew to their homeland and turned to strategic defense.

in January 1708, the main force of the Swiss Army crossed the visva River by taking the opportunity of river ice, occupied Grodno, forcibly crossed the Berezina River in June, and annihilated a Russian army near golovchin in July. In the face of the Swiss Army’s attack, the Russian army strengthened its walls and cleared the field, lured the enemy in depth, gradually consumed and exhausted the enemy, forcing the Swiss Army to give up the plan to attack Moscow via Smolensk and enter Ukraine to wait for reinforcements, hoping to get the cooperation of the anti Russian Cossack commander mazepa. On October 9, the Russian army defeated the Swedish reinforcements led by lewenhaupt near Lesnaya, annihilated more than 9000 enemies and seized 7000 baggage vehicles. More than 6000 Swiss troops joined the main force led by Charlie XII. At the same time, the Russian army attacked batulin, the base of mazepa, and then occupied Chernigov, nieren, Kiev, perevolochnaya and Poltava, forming a siege situation against the Swiss Army from north, West and south. In the winter of 1708, the weather was extremely cold. Due to frostbite and difficult supply, the Swiss army was greatly reduced, and was forced to continue to move south the next spring. In April 1709, the Swiss Army entered and besieged Poltava, a strategic area, in an attempt to open the way to Moscow. In July, Peter I led the main force of the Russian army to rescue Poltava and was determined to fight a decisive battle with the Swiss Army. In the early morning of August 8, 42000 Russian troops fought fiercely with 32000 Swiss troops. As a result, the Swiss army was defeated, with nearly 10000 casualties and thousands of captives. On July 11, 16000 remnants of the Swiss army fell without fighting in perevolochnaya, and Charlie 12 led more than 1000 people to Turkey.

the battle of Poltava was a turning point in the Northern War. Since then, the Swiss army lost its military advantage, Denmark and Saxony re allied with Russia, Augustus II ascended the Polish throne again, and Prussia and Hanover joined the Northern Alliance one after another. In the summer of 1710, the Russian army took advantage of the victory to capture the key places along the Baltic Sea, such as Viborg, Riga, revar and essel island. In November of the same year, Turkey declared war on Russia at the instigation of Charles XII, and Peter I sent an expedition south to Turkey. In July 1711, more than 40000 Russian troops were surrounded by 170000 Turkish troops and Crimean Khanate troops on the Bank of the Prut river. Russia signed an armistice agreement with Turkey on the condition of returning the Asian speed and allowing Charlie XII to transit home. Subsequently, the Russian army resumed its attack on Sweden, focusing on Finland. From 1713 to 1714, it successively occupied helsingforth, AUB, WAZA and other places. In August 1714, the newly established Russian Baltic Fleet defeated the Swedish Navy in the battle of Cape Hanko. The Swiss army was forced to withdraw from Finland. At this time, the king of SpainThe war of succession has ended, and Western European powers, especially Britain, have stepped up their interference in Baltic affairs.

in order to consolidate the achievements and end the war as soon as possible, Russia signed the Amsterdam Treaty with France and Prussia in August 1717, which made Sweden more isolated. In May 1718, Russia and Sweden began peace talks. In December, Charles XII was shot dead on the Norwegian front line. The new queen of Sweden refused peace talks under the influence of Britain, so the war began again. In 1720, the Russian Navy defeated the Swedish fleet again near glengam Island, landed in Sweden and forced its capital Stockholm. Sweden was forced to resume peace talks with Russia, and the war ended.

ending

in September 1721, Russia and Switzerland finally signed the nishtad peace treaty. Russia acquired Livonia, Estonia, Ingria, part of Kurland and eastern Finland, withdrew from the rest of Finland, and returned the Aran Islands to Sweden. Since then, Russians have been able to enter and leave the Baltic Sea freely, and Peter I was awarded the title of “great emperor” by the Privy Council. Czarist Russia was officially called “Russian Empire”, and became one of the European powers.

influence ` evaluation

the Northern War was a scuffle between Russia and Switzerland and European countries. The war was made vivid and colorful by the two powerful military kings, King Charles XII of Sweden (in power from 1697 to 1718) and Tsar Peter the great of Russia (in power from 1682 to 1727), It occupies a prominent position in modern military history. Russia won the Northern War, successfully ended its long-term struggle for the Sea outlet of the Baltic Sea, and finally had a free access to the Sea outlet of the Baltic Sea, which was a great victory of Peter’s strategy. From then on, the hegemony of the Baltic Sea and northeast Europe gave way to Russia.

in this war, Russia’s military reform focusing on the establishment of a regular land and Navy played an important role in winning the war. Beide I transformed Russia’s foreign expansion policy from regional encroachment system to world aggression system, realized the dream of Czar Russia for one and a half centuries, and created a favorable situation for further westward and southward. Since then, Russia has embarked on the road of competing for world hegemony, which has had a far-reaching impact on the process of the world.