There is a Western proverb: “Rome was not built in a day.
” That’s true.
The Roman city, known as the “eternal city” in history, of course could not be built in a day, and the strength of the Roman Empire, which dominated the ancient Western world, could not be achieved overnight.
Rome has experienced a long historical process from a tiny place on the Tiber River in central Italy to a world empire spanning Europe, Asia and Africa.
Looking at the development of ancient Roman history, it can be roughly divided into the following stages: the first stage: the reign era, which began with the legendary construction of Rome and ended in 509 BC, which was also the transition period of Rome from the primitive clan society to the state.
The “King” here is actually a tribal leader, equivalent to Yao, Shun and Yu in ancient China.
He was elected and was not a real king at first.
According to tradition, the reign era of Rome experienced seven kings, namely Romulus, NUMA pompiliu, Tulu hostiliu, anku marcius, old tacit, SEVI turiu and little tacic, of which the latter three kings were idarian.
It is said that the rule of the last king of the Roman monarchy, little turkwen, was extremely cruel, which aroused the dissatisfaction of the people and was expelled.
Later, in order to prevent the reappearance of a king who harmed the people like little tuckwen, the Romans decided to no longer establish a king, but to elect two consuls to govern the country every year.
Therefore, Rome entered a new historical period, namely the Republic period.
The second stage: the Republic period, from 509 BC to 30 BC.
During this period, the Romans formed a political system known as “the best regime in the world” by ancient historians through the struggle between civilians and nobles.
Externally, the whole Italian peninsula except the Po River Basin in the North was unified through a series of wars such as the vimo War (war against the idaria), the zamonai war and the pirus war.
Through a series of military actions such as the Punic War, the Macedonian War, the Syrian war and the use of troops in Spain, they conquered Carthage, Macedonia, the Greek peninsula and most parts of Spain one by one.
At this time, Syria has not been completely annexed, but it has not been completely annexed by Rome.
The former powerful Eastern Mediterranean world now has only one Ptolemaic Egypt.
As a world hegemon, Rome’s general outline has been initially formed so far.
Rome’s large-scale external expansion has caused great changes within society, especially the creation of some military giants with heavy troops.
First, they colluded with each other to implement joint dictatorship.
Then they fought hard for their personal independence, resulting in the “first three alliances” of Pompeii, Crassus and Caesar, as well as the competition between Pompeii and Caesar.
With Anthony, leibida and Octavian’s “rear three alliance”, and the final contest between Anthony and Octavian.
It was in the struggle between these giants that the Roman republic came to its own end.
The third stage: the era of the Roman Empire, from 30 BC to the demise of the Western Roman Empire in 476 ad.
After Octavian defeated Anthony and established his exclusive status in the Roman world, he did not claim to be alone and regarded himself as an “emperor”, but claimed to restore the “Republic”.
He was only the “first citizen” of the Republic, that is, the “head of state”.
During this period, the original republican system was indeed retained, but it was only superficial, because the actual power was completely controlled by Octavian himself.
Therefore, the so-called head of state politics is just the monarchy in the cloak of Republic.
Octavian actually officially established the Roman Empire.
Octavian, Caesar’s nephew, was adopted by Caesar as an adopted son, designated him as the heir, and decided to pass on the 34’s estate to him.
When Caesar was killed, the consul of Rome was Anthony.
He was Caesar’s confidant and claimed to be Caesar’s successor.
When Octavian returned to Rome from abroad, Anthony treated Octavian with contempt.
In this regard, Octavian felt that he had to rely on strength and wisdom to compete for power with Anthony.
After Caesar’s death, the supporters of Caesar and the senators in Rome wanted to consolidate their power by Caesar’s death.
Octavian decided to participate in the contest.
His mother and friends are worried about him, so he is only a 19-year-old child at this time.
How can he compete with those political veterans? But Octavian is confident because he knows how to deal with political forces.
In these respects, he even surpassed Caesar.
His appearance was first welcomed by Caesar veterans and ordinary people, which he expected.
He said that his security shield and sharp weapons were the name of his adoptive father Caesar.
Because of this name, groups of citizens and soldiers gathered around him all over Italy.
They regarded Octavian as a new leader who inherited Caesar’s career and fought against the nobility.
Later, Octavian quickly established his own army with the support of these people.
Octavian courted Cicero, the “father of the motherland” of the Senate, called him “father”, humbly asked him for advice, but confused the supreme leader of the Senate.
He declared Octavian a “soldier to defend the motherland” and supported him in recruiting troops.
In 43 BC, when Antony was out, Octavian led his troops into Rome and threatened the Senate to appoint him consul.
The Senate was trying to use Octavian to control Anthony, so Octavian and Anthony were close.
At that time, there was a real power figure named leibida, who was once the commander of Caesar’s cavalry.
Many provinces in Western Rome took refuge in him.
Octavian, Anthony and leibida all have a lot of power, but no one can establish a dictatorship alone.
In order to contain and make use of each other, the three formed a political alliance of “the last three” in 43 BC and ruled together.
The three agreed that within five years, the three would collectively enjoy unlimited power and three branches: Anthony occupied Gaul, Octavian controlled afriga, Sardinia and Sicily, and rebida owned Spain.
Subsequently, the three men united to march towards Rome, forcing the citizens’ assembly to approve the resolution.
After the “last three” were in power, they terrorized RomeRule, announce the public enemy to the aristocracy (there are the murderer of Caesar and the private enemy of the three giants on the list of public enemies, the first of which is Cicero), search and kill wantonly, distribute the confiscated property and land to the soldiers, and reward the slaves in the political enemy’s house to report.
In the white terror, 300 elders and 2000 knights were executed.
Cicero was the first of them to die.
This staunch Republican, the most outstanding orator in Rome, devoted all his life to defending the Republic, and finally became a martyr of the system.
Because Cicero had the deepest resentment with Anthony, Anthony was very happy after Cicero’s death.
He cut off Cicero’s head and hands and hung them in front of the civic assembly podium, where Cicero used to make speeches.
In 42 BC, after the alliance of the “rear three” eliminated their common enemy, the Senate aristocracy, the three giants fought, and Octavian gradually deprived leibida of military power.
The big three have become a situation in which the two giants stand side by side.
Since then, Anthony became governor of the eastern provinces of Rome.
When he arrived in Egypt, he was conquered by the gorgeous queen of Egypt.
They fell in love and gave birth to a pair of lovely twins.
In order to please the queen, Anthony regarded the queen as the “king of kings” and gave the Oriental provinces under his jurisdiction to the Queen’s children.
Antony’s act of undermining the territorial integrity of Rome aroused strong dissatisfaction among the Romans.
Seeing that the time had come, Octavian launched a coup, led a large number of armed attendants to the Senate, expelled 400 senators who supported Anthony, and forced the virgin worshipped the temple to hand over Anthony’s will in violation of ancient customs.
Originally, Anthony said in his will that he would be buried in the city and approved the gift to the queen of Egypt.
When Octavian announced the will, the people were very angry.
The citizens’ assembly announced to deprive Anthony of his power and declared war on Anthony and the queen of Egypt.
Octavian finally found a chance to declare war on Anthony on behalf of the people.
In September 31 BC, the fleet of the Roman Crusade army and the fleet of Antony and the queen of Egypt fought on the sea in Northwest Greece.
The two sides were evenly matched and the battle was even.
But at the height of the battle, the queen suddenly withdrew from the battle and fled back to Egypt.
Anthony had no intention of fighting again, and abandoned his army to follow Egypt.
Octavian won the war almost without fighting.
The next summer, Octavian marched into Egypt.
Anthony proposed to duel with Octavian when the defeat was determined, but Octavian refused.
Anthony had no choice but to commit suicide, and the queen of Egypt committed suicide in the palace.
After her death, the last eastern country in the Mediterranean was also incorporated into the territory of Rome.
Since the expansion of Rome, its territory has reached its limit.
When Octavian returned to Rome, he had become as great a figure as Caesar, and Rome, long mired in civil war and division, was reunited.
Since Octavian, Rome has maintained peace for more than 200 years.
Octavian was resourceful and cautious, fearing to fall back into Caesar’s mistakes, and tried to cover up his regime with a legal coat, so he still retained the shell of the Republic in the national system.
But at the same time, he pretended to bow to the demands of the Senate and the people and accepted power completely contrary to the Republic.
He not only accepted the sacred and solemn title of Augustus, but also called the state system he founded the head of state system.
He called himself the head of state, that is, the first person and the first citizen of the country.
The word “Fuhrer” has been used in the world since then.
Octavian was only 36 years old at that time.