John Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (1759 ~ 1805) was deeply influenced by the thoughts of and Kant and wrote many influential aesthetic works.

His discussions on sublime are concentrated in two papers, on sublime (I) (1793) and on sublime (II) (1796).

As he said, these theories are carried out on the basis of Kant’s theory and further develop Kant’s sublime thought.

In Schiller’s humanistic aesthetics, the attention to man and the discussion of the integrity of man’s soul always run through his theory, American scholar l? P? Wiesel pointed out that Schiller’s concept of human nature is very similar to Kant’s concept of human nature.

Schiller’s discussion on game impulse fully shows us the integrity of the mind.

Kant’s exposition on the integrity of human mind has been comprehensively inherited and developed by Schiller.

In order to solve the problem of “what is man”, Kant takes the requirement of human integrity as the basic starting point.

In order to reveal the complete human mind, Kant introduces the judgment of reflection, which defines art as a free game.

Following his thinking, Schiller connected the severed human nature with the impulse of game, so as to meet the requirements of the integrity of human soul.

The reason why he calls the game impulse a living image includes the requirement of the integrity of the soul.

This living image, on the one hand, points to the formal impulse, that is, the ability of rationality, on the other hand, it is also related to the content of the formal impulse, that is, life perception.

These two aspects constitute the reflective person and the perceptive person.

Schiller tries to combine the perception of the object and the thinking of the object, and unify the two in the living aesthetic image formed by the game impulse.

Life and form are also completely unified here.

Like l? P? Wiesel pointed out that form is not something outside life, but the core of life.

It is the objectified form of life activities.

On the contrary, life is not outside the form, it constitutes the content affected by the form, so it is an indirect understanding of the form.

In aesthetic experience, man’s inner God – man’s freedom or formative power is regarded as the form of experience object.

When life and form are an empirical necessity and therefore a priori basis, the mind generally experiences the living image.

This is the unity of life as perception and the form of reflection in the living image, and it is also the embodiment of the integrity of the soul.

It is in this opposition and transcendence that the mind enters the openness of existence and embarks on the road of existence.

Schiller’s game impulse is also the poetic state of the mind.

This poetic state is not only life, but also reflection.

It has both the perception of life immersed in it and rational formal reflection.

Therefore, it is not pure instinct or rational thinking, but beyond the realm of integration and materialization.

If Schiller’s analysis of beauty is more inclined to the life side of the soul, although he always believes that the living image is the unity of life and form.

Then, in the noble analysis, he focuses more on the unity and transcendence between life and moral will.

One type of sublime: the sublime of theory and the sublime of practice.

Like the analysis of beauty, Schiller himself pointed out that his sublime theory is also the exertion of Kant’s thought.

However, on the basis of inheriting Kant’s thought, Schiller also made a great transcendence of Kant’s Sublime Theory.

If Kant introduced sublime to improve the theoretical system, Schiller consciously linked sublime with human freedom and transcendence, and emphasized the opposition between man and nature and the sense of sublime The limited and unlimited transcendence reflects the characteristics of human beings.

Kant’s Sublime Theory holds that in the transition from nature to man and from limited to unlimited, the sense of sublime and moral sentiment are only reflected in a symbolic relationship, while Schiller directly sees the realization of human moral dignity and human freedom in this transcendence.

In the sublime transcendence, Kant, based on the position of rationalism, emphasizes the infinity of rationality, and the retreat of imagination in the face of rationality, resulting in transcendence in an instant.

Schiller directly regards the existence of human sensibility as the basis of sublimity.

If there is still some emphasis on the infinity of rationality in Kant’s investigation, Schiller pays more attention to the transcendence of man as a perceptual being.

Man is both perceptual and rational, which is manifested in the coincidence and integration of the two in the sense of sublimity.

Like Kant, Schiller first sees the limitation of human being as a perceptual existence and the inseparable dependence between human and nature.

But at the same time, he also realized that the essence of human being is to surpass this limitation and dependence a priori, and to constantly tend to infinity and eternity with the help of his own rational and moral power.

It is in this confrontation and conflict pointing to infinity that the mind realizes its continuous transcendence and points to existence.

Schiller’s discussion of sublimity also starts from here.

As he said: “When there is the appearance of the object, our sensibility is sensitive to our own limitations, but our rational nature feels its superiority and freedom to get rid of any restrictions.

At this time, we call the object noble.

therefore, in front of this object, we are at a disadvantage in terms of body, but in terms of spirit, that is, through ideas, we are higher than it.

” That is to say, as the perceptual essence, we are not independent, but as the rational essence, we are free.

Like Kant, Schiller also believes that sublimity arises from the tension between man’s dependence as a natural perceptual existence and the independence of freedom as a rational existence.

In this confrontation and transcendence, sublimity arises.

Simply subject to the finite or absolute rational infinity will not produce sublimity.

The real sublimity lies in the endless transcendence produced in the opposition and conflict between the two.

However, different from Kant, Schiller takes the existence of sensibility as the starting point and destination of exploring sublimity, while Kant takes the free will under the principle of rationality as the center and conclusion of the problem.

It is on this point that Schiller gave play to Kant’s theory of sublime, which also made sublime more towards human existence.