The birth of civilization in history, the birthplace of civilization is always closely related to rivers.
The Euphrates and Tigris rivers, like two vines of life, meander through the desolate and arid desert areas, giving birth to the oldest civilization in human history – “Mesopotamian” civilization, which is commonly known as “Babylonian civilization”.
Babylonian civilization is the general name of a series of urban civilizations in the two river basins from 6000 to 500 BC.
It is the earliest known civilization in the world and the cradle of world civilization.
On both banks of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, cities with similar or different styles are dotted with stars on the Mesopotamian plain.
On this historical stage, the Sumerians and the later Semitic invaders acted as the protagonists of creating civilization in turn, and played a brilliant movement of Mesopotamian civilization together.
Ancient civilization sites with rolling yellow sand 1 “Heaven” Mesopotamia “Mesopotamia” in ancient Greek means “middle” or “between the two.
” Mesopotamia “means” River “, and” Mesopotamia “is” the place between the two rivers “in ancient Greek.
These two rivers are the famous Euphrates and Tigris rivers, which are located in today’s Iraq.
They originate from the Armenian plateau in the east of Asia Minor (in Turkey), slowly pass through the southern plain, converge about 190 kilometers away from the sea entrance, and flow into the Persian Gulf.
The huge amount of sediment brought by the two rivers has been silting up in the downstream, forming a vast plain, turning a dry and barren area into the only fertile soil and fertile field in West Asia.
Ancient Greece called it “Mesopotamia”, the Chinese used to call it “two river basin”, and some Western geographers called it “Babylonia”.
In the writings of ancient Jews and Greeks, Mesopotamia is a paradise that people yearn for, and the legend of the garden of Eden in the Bible is here.
In the Bible, it is said that God created the world on the first day.
It was a boundless and desolate land, the vast ocean was dark, and only gods were running on the water.
So God created light, separated light from darkness, and called light “day” and darkness “night”.
The next day, God created the dome and separated the water above and below the dome.
He called the dome “sky”.
On the third day, God gathered the water in one place, and God said, “give birth to many and fill the earth.
” A place to bring the earth out of the water.
He called the earth “Earth” and the water gathered together “sea”.
On this day, he also created all kinds of plants, some growing grain, some full of fruit.
On the fourth day, God created the sun, moon and stars.
He ordered the sun to rule the day and the moon to rule the night, setting dates, solar terms and religious festivals.
On the fifth day, God created all kinds of aquatic animals and birds.
He wished all animals to multiply and fill the sea and sky.
On the sixth day, God created man in his own image.
He wants human beings to rule fish, birds and all animals, bless human beings to have many children, spread all over the earth, govern the earth, and promise to create sufficient food for human beings and all kinds of animals.
On the seventh day, God rested after he finished his work of creating the world.
So he made the seventh day a Sabbath.
The first man created by clay is said to be Adam.
Adam means man or man in Hebrew.
God blew air into the nostrils of clay man Adam, and he became a spiritual living man.
Then God built a garden in Eden in the East, which is the garden of Eden, also known as paradise, heaven or heaven.
God placed Adam here.
The garden is full of all kinds of pleasing trees.
The fruits on the trees are sweet and delicious all the year round.
There is a big river in Eden, which irrigates the garden.
After flowing through Eden, the river is divided into four tributaries: the first is the bison River, which surrounds haviladi, where there are the best gold, rare spices and precious red agate.
The second is the Gihon River, which surrounds the ancient land.
The third is the river hidekiel, which flows through the east of Assyria.
The fourth is the Bora river.
This is the beautiful Mesopotamia depicted in the Bible.
Mesopotamian civilization has been glowing with irresistible mysterious charm in the Middle East for thousands of years.
It is the birthplace of ancient civilization.
From 5000 BC to 300 BC, Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Persians and other nationalities rose successively in this area, forming a great integration of various cultures.
It is a melting pot of ancient human culture.
For thousands of years, it has continuously integrated and melted the excellent cultures of various nationalities, and then spread to distant regions of Europe, Asia and Africa.
Because it is difficult to distinguish the long integrated civilizations in detail, scholars simply use “Mesopotamian civilization” to roughly call the complex civilization here.
The two rivers of Babylonian civilization are also known as the most prominent achievements of Babylonian civilization.
The passing years have buried all the evidence of the existence of this civilization with the yellow sand in the sky.
People who have searched for decades can’t find any clues.
Therefore, people can only sigh that this civilization has gone with the wind.
However, with the great progress of archaeological work in the past two centuries, the ancient city walls have been seen again, and the dead civilization has miraculously resurrected.
History took a nap here.2. Looking for the tree of wisdom of Peking University in the garden of Eden – the tree of Cervantes, the tree of wisdom.
It is one of the two magical trees in the garden of Eden.
It is said that Adam and Eve were punished to leave the garden of Eden after stealing the forbidden fruit on the wisdom tree.
Human civilization began from this, but no one knows what the wisdom tree is.
For thousands of years, people have always wanted to solve the mystery of the garden of Eden and find its exact location.
Eden means “plain” or “Grassland” in ancient Sumerian.
In the Chinese translation of the Bible, the hidekiel river is the Tigris River in the English translation of the Bible, and the Euphrates River is the Euphrates River.
This implies that the garden of Eden may be in the center of ancient Sumerian civilization, namely the alluvial plain of the two river basins.
However, it is not easy to determine where the garden of Eden is equivalent to today, because it is still difficult to determine the corresponding positions of the bison River, Gihon River, havilah and ancient land mentioned in the Bible.
Some scholars believe that the garden of Eden isIn the kingdom of gulagash, because there is indeed a piece of land called gueden.
Ancient Eden is a land with abundant water and grass irrigated by rivers and canals.
Ragash fought with his old enemy Wenma for more than 200 years for this territory.
Unfortunately, in addition to the Tigris River in the north and the Euphrates River in the south, Lagash can’t find the place equivalent to haviladi, Guti, bison River and Gihon river.
Moreover, Eden is not a proper noun.
It has appeared in many ancient documents.
However, it should not be wrong for us to identify it in the center of Sumerian civilization and the area where the river networks of the two river basins intersect.
“Who doesn’t say my hometown is good”, so are the Sumerians.
They also call their hometown paradise or paradise, and regard other places as wild places, which they despise at all.
The creator of civilization 1 The archaeological excavation of Sumerian mystery has proved that the earliest founders of civilization in the two river basins were Sumerians.
They pioneered the writing system, religion and law, established developed agriculture and a clay plate engraved with cuneiform, inserted in the same clay seal engraved with cuneiform, which recorded a case about the division of property.
The commercial economy has brought Mesopotamia into the era of civilization.
There is no doubt that the Sumerians laid the foundation of the civilization of the two river basins and shaped the unique style of the two river basins.
Around 4000 BC, Sumerians established city-state states such as ur, elidu, rajash and Uruk in the south of the two river basins, creating the earliest urban civilization.
They established city states, set up temples, invented cuneiform characters, created strange myths and magnificent epics, invented the method of calculating weight and length, invented the lunar calendar, made the world’s earliest cars and ships, and built the world’s earliest arch buildings, Their handicrafts still exude brilliance until now.
In his famous book “history starts from Sumeria”, American scholar S. n. Kramer listed the 27 “firsts” created by the Sumerian nation in the history of the world, The 27 “firsts” are like this: the simple and lovely bronze statue of the lion body was excavated from the ruins of the millennium, showing people the height of civilization created by an ancient nation.
(1) The earliest school.
(2) the earliest example of flattery.
(3) the earliest cases of juvenile delinquency.
(4) the earliest “nerve warfare”.
(5) the earliest bicameral Parliament.
(6) the earliest historian.
(7) the earliest tax reduction event.
(8) the earliest “Moses” code.
(9) the earliest case law.
(10) the earliest Pharmacopoeia.
(11) the earliest lunar calendar.
(12) the earliest experiment of shade tree planting.
(13) the earliest cosmology and cosmology.
(14) the earliest ethical standards.
(15) the earliest “job”.
(16) the earliest maxims and proverbs.
(17) the earliest animal fable.
(18) the earliest literary debate.
(19) the earliest events similar to those in the Bible.
(20) the earliest “Noah”.
(21) the earliest resurrection story.
(22) the earliest “St.
(23) the earliest literary transplantation.
(24) the earliest heroic age of mankind.
(25) the earliest love song.
(26) the earliest library catalogue.
(27) the earliest golden age of mankind.
Professor Kramer used the most modern vocabulary to express the civilization created by the Sumerians.
After reading his works, we will feel that this is not an unfounded compliment.
So how was Sumerian culture discovered? At first, sur was only an academic hypothesis.
The discovery of the existence of these older nations is one of the most brilliant achievements in the history of kaozhan studies.
The ancient statue of King rajash, discovered by Ernst scharze, is now hidden in the Louvre in Paris.
It was this statue that enabled archaeologists to find traces of Sumerians.
In the 1880s, archaeologist Ernst sharcze first discovered the presumed Sumerian remains in the two river basins.
Some fragments of stone carvings at that time were proved to have been made between 4000 and 3000 BC, which is a culture older than Egyptian culture.
Later, the epic Gilgamesh deciphered by Smith provided evidence of the existence of an older culture.
The descendants of the family that escaped the flood may be Sumerians.
During the first and second world wars, the archaeology of Mesopotamia entered a climax.
The most exciting achievement was the successful excavation of Sumerian cities in southern Mesopotamia.
Among them, the archaeological excavation of British archaeologist Leonard Woolley from 1922 to 1934 really opened the mystery of Sumerian culture to the world and confirmed the existence of a civilization older than Egyptian civilization.
Woolley’s most valuable discovery in the ruins of the ancient city of Sumer was when he found the mausoleum of the king of ur.
He found 16 “royal tombs” belonging to ur among hundreds of small tombs.
The luxurious funerary objects and many martyrs in the royal tombs shocked the world.
Woolley also found many artifacts in the tomb of Queen schuber Yad, including gold vessels and models of two ships, one copper and the other silver, each 0.
6 meters long.
The most valuable is the headdress of Queen Shubo Yade.
On a wig, there are three garlands made of lapis lazuli and agate.
The lowest garland is hung with a gold ring, the middle one is hung with gold beech leaves, and the top one is decorated with upright golden willow leaves and golden flowers.
A five tooth comb dotted with gold flowers and Lapis Lazuli is inserted in the middle of the wig.
Spiral gold wires adorn the wearer’s temples, and heavy half moon gold earrings hang from the Queen’s earlobes.
Woolley shaped the Queen’s head according to the skull of a contemporary woman.
Wearing the headdress, she caused a worldwide sensation in the British Museum.
The silver ship model unearthed from the mausoleum of King ur finally, through the textual research on the alluvium of the ur site, on the basis of consulting the genealogical table of Sumerian kings and studying the archaeological achievements of Mesopotamia in the past, Woolley made an important conclusion: Sumerians were the earliest creators of civilization in the two river basins.
Their land was once flooded, and this is the epic of GilgameshCome on, rajash, get strong.
The inscription of King ulnash of rajash (about the middle of the 26th century BC) said: “the ships of durm (i.e. Bahrain in the Persian Gulf) brought him wood as tribute from abroad.
” This shows that he has controlled areas outside the Persian Gulf.
During his reign, anatum, the grandson of urnash, conquered many city states.
His title was “Nam Lugar”, that is, the overlord of Sumerian states.
By the end of the early Dynasty, two major military alliances had been formed in the southern two river basins.
The Southern Alliance (except rajash) took ur and Uruk as overlords, and the Northern Alliance took Kish as overlord.
The formation of the two major military alliances marked the transition from an independent small state to a regional unified kingdom, reflecting that the unification of the two river basins in the south is the trend of historical development.
In the process of city-state hegemony war, the class contradictions within the city-state are very acute.
The long war caused a large number of citizens to go bankrupt and lose their land, and the population also lost sharply.
It is estimated that rajash had only 3600 citizens during the reign of King ntimena of rajash.
At the same time, the kingship was expanding in the war, and the contradiction between the king and the nobles represented by priests was also very acute.
In the city state of rajash, the late king ennana Shemen of the wurnanchu Dynasty was overthrown by the high priest ennetarji (about the first half of the 24th century BC) after only four years in power.
However, after nenetarji and his son Lugar anda (about 2384-2378 BC) came to power, they obviously betrayed the interests of priests and nobles and became an arbitrary monarch.
According to the inscription on the reform of urukakina, Lugar anda embezzled the temple property.
Levy tribute on high priests.
Strengthen the supervision and exploitation of temple workers.
The broad masses of civilians have also been subjected to arbitrary collection and extortion by officials.
The atrocities of Lugar anda exacerbated the social contradictions within the city-state of rajash.
In this situation, urukagina (about 2378-2371 BC), who was born in aristocracy, overthrew Lugar anda and came to power.
A series of reforms were carried out during the reign of karrouchi.
The purpose of urukagina reform is to ease the contradictions within the city-state and strengthen the function of the city-state power to exercise dictatorship over slaves.
He took some measures in favor of civilians, but most of them did not touch the political and economic status of slave owners and nobles.
For example, he prohibited nobles from buying civilian houses and livestock at low prices.
In fact, he still allowed mergers.
The most fundamental land problem of civilians has not been solved.
On the other hand, urukakina abolished the heavy taxes levied on priests and set new quotas for rations and expenses to priests, especially returning the temple property to the temple, which strengthened the power of priests and nobles and weakened the kingship.
This shows that the reform has the side of compromising to the nobles headed by priests and safeguarding their interests.
Of course, some measures taken by urukakina, such as reducing the burden on civilians and building water conservancy, have also played a positive role in promoting the development of social production, which is worthy of recognition.
After only eight years in power, UMA King Lugar zajisi led his army to invade rajash and brutally loot the city.
The reform in urukakina was a complete failure.
Lugar zaghi defeated some other city states and had a great potential to unify Sumeria.
However, during his reign (about 2371-2347 BC), Akkad in the North rose, defeated Lugar zagisi and unified the two river basins in the south.4. The Semites on the stage of history.
In the history of Mesopotamian civilization, the akkads occupy a very important position.
They unified the two river basins and created the Semitic people.
They became the founding king of the main Semitic people in the two river basins and the founder of the Akkad Kingdom Sargon I.
Judging from this bronze statue, he looks dignified and noble.
Guide the history of the nation.
At the beginning of the 30th century BC, a desert nomadic tribe speaking Semitic language came to the north of the two rivers basin.
They established a country in Akkad.
These people were later called “akkads”.
The akkads are tall, dark skinned, with a long nose and a black beard, and are very brave and good at fighting.
Around 2371 BC, under the leadership of Sargon I (2371-2316 BC), the akkads entered the Sumerian uluk Kingdom, unified the two river basins and established the Sargon empire.
Their arrival ended the history of Sumerian activities on the historical stage, made the Semites become the leading nation in the two river basins and continue to create the history of Mesopotamian civilization.
Sargon I, the founder of the Semitic nation and the founder of the Akkad Kingdom, is not only the first outstanding leader in the history of the Semitic nation, but also a great figure in the history of Mesopotamia.
There is also a tortuous and moving legend about Sargon’s life experience.
The story takes place in Kish on the Euphrates River in the 24th century BC.
One day, when the bearer of Kish palace was carrying water by the river, he found a reed basket coated with asphalt floating in the river, which contained an abandoned baby boy.
The bearer took pity on the boy, picked him up from the basket and adopted him.
And who could have thought that this once abandoned baby who could be buried underwater at any time would become the great King we remember – Sargon.
It is said that he was originally born in agilinani on the Euphrates River.
His mother was a high priest, but his father didn’t know who he was.
At that time, the Kingdom stipulated that the priestess was not allowed to conceive and have children, so after Sargon’s mother secretly gave birth to him, she had to put him in a reed basket and send him to the Euphrates River to drift and pray for help from heaven.
Sargon grew up quietly in the water bearer’s house and became a royal gardener at the recommendation of his adoptive father.
Later, Sargon was appreciated by King ursababa and became a close Minister of the king.
His position was cup holder.
The cup holder was a senior official at that time, responsible for the king’s daily diet and the handling of court events.
One night, he had a dream that he replaced king ursababa and ascended the throne with the help of the God of love, ina.
The next day, Sargon described last night’s dream in detail to ursababa.
Ursababa was terrified.
He was afraid that this was the revelation of God to Sargon.
He was unwilling to give up the throne to an irrelevant person and was unwilling to give up the supreme power of the country.
In order to dispel concerns and keep his throne, ursababa tried every means to get rid of Sargon.
It is said that in the help of the God of love, ananaWith his help, Sargon resolved the impending disasters one by one on several occasions.
Finally, King ursababa, who failed in all kinds of tricks, set up a trap of killing with a knife.
He asked Sargon to send a letter to King Lugar zaghisi of Uruk, and the content of the letter just implied that Lugar zaghisi would kill the messenger immediately after seeing the letter.
Under the protection of yinana, Sargon, who survived the disaster, escaped from the plot again.
Later, ursababa surrendered to Lugar zaghi in a battle.
The king’s traitorous act aroused the anger of the people all over the country, and the people all over the country rose up and attacked it.
Sargon seized this rare opportunity, overthrew the king with the support of the people, and finally ascended the throne of King Kish.
After Sargon, a soldier of the kingdom of Akkad, came to power, he immediately began his military career of conquering the East and the West.
In the north, he conquered the subartu in the north of the two river basin, and also marched into the Taurus Mountains of Asia Minor and the eastern coast of the Mediterranean.
In the south, sur’er was subdued and Lagash was conquered, which almost destroyed Sumerian cities.
In the East, expedition to eland and capture Susa and other cities.
After years of fighting in the north and south, Sargon finally unified the two river basins, established a centralized Akkad Kingdom, and claimed to be “the king of the four directions in the world”.
From then on, the situation of endless scuffles among States and people’s livelihood was ended, and the world was unified.
The way of life of the Akkad nomadic tribe changed greatly in the process of fighting and establishing the country with Sargon.
These nomads who used to have no fixed place gradually gave up their original way of life and settled down in other places.
They abandoned their tents, built brick houses and began farming and commercial activities.
They learned and developed cuneiform from Sumerians, using Sumerian calendars, weights and measures, digital systems and administrative methods.
As a result, the akkads gradually forgot their nomadic life in the desert and their martial arts on horseback.
They were gradually assimilated by the conquered with advanced culture and finally conquered by the conquered culturally.
The akkads were also gradually integrated with the Sumerians.
As a result, the akads gradually lost their fighting spirit in the process of comfortable urbanization, and the country began to decline.
In 2191 BC, they were destroyed by another Semitic nomad Kuti.
Since then, the Sumerians have regained their power and regained control of southern Mesopotamia.
Ur King ur Namu unified the southern two river basins in 2113 BC and established ur’s Third Dynasty.
Wurnamu is also famous for promulgating the first code in world history, the code of wurnamu.
However, this is only the short and final glory of Sumerians.
In 2007 BC, the last Sumerian state was destroyed by the elans from the East.
Since then, the Sumerians have withdrawn from the stage of civilization history.
The Semites completely replaced them.
They inherited the achievements of Sumerian civilization, established two Babylonian Empires and Assyrian empires, and pushed the Mesopotamian civilization to the peak step by step.
Until it was conquered by Persia, the Semitic people had been active on the historical stage of Mesopotamia as protagonists.
The repeated rise of hegemony 1 After the fall of the Third Dynasty of ur, the ruler of the kingdom of Babylon in Cuba, the elans soon returned to the eastern mountains, but the invading Amorites settled in the two river basins.
The Amorites speak Sammy, which is similar to the Akkadian language.
When they first arrived, they were still at the end of primitive society.
This head with royal headdress, carefully curled beard and staring outward was considered to be the great king of Babylon, Hammurabi.
However, they soon accepted the Sumerian Akkad culture and entered the class society.
During this period, some Amori countries emerged in the two river basins, such as Larsa in Sumer region, isin in Akkad region, Mali in the middle reaches of Euphrates River to the north of isin, eshnuna in the Diyala River Basin in the middle reaches of Tigris River, and so on.
These countries launched a long-term scuffle for the domination of the two river basins.
Finally, the Babylonian Kingdom, also known as the first dynasty of Babylon, unified the two river basins.
In 1894 BC, sume Abu, the leader of the Amorites (1894-1881 BC), established an important Kingdom, historically known as the Babylonian Kingdom, or the first dynasty of Babylon (1894-1595 BC).
The rise of Cuba’s Mesopotamian civilization marks the second important stage.
The Babylonians inherited and developed the civilization achievements of Sumerians and akkads, and brought the Mesopotamian civilization to the peak.
Babylon is located in the center of civilization in the two river basins.
It is the closest place between the Euphrates River and the Tigris River.
At first, it was just an unknown small city in the Euphrates River.
It was not very strong in the early days of the founding of the people’s Republic of China.
Later, it became stronger due to the emergence of an outstanding politician, Hammurabi, the sixth king of Babylon.
Hammurabi (1792-1750 BC) is the most famous King of Babylon.
Hammurabi spent the first 30 years of his reign peacefully after he ascended the throne.
In these 30 years, he did not spend too much of his kingdom’s power on war, but more on the construction of temples, defense walls and irrigation canals.
However, the separation of the states in the Mesopotamian plain and years of war made the king of Babylon see the necessity of reunification 30 years later.
The golden dagger of ancient Babylon.
Around 1765 BC, Hammurabi finally launched an attack on other kings of the same era.
He adopted a more flexible foreign policy.
First, he allied with Larsa to destroy isin.
Then he united with Mali to conquer Larsa.
Then he turned the gun and forced Mali to bow down.
Hammurabi defeated his enemies and close neighbors one by one.
By the time he laid down his sword in 1775 BC, the two river basins had basically achieved unprecedented unity and created a great slavery empire from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean.
Hammurabi called himself “the king of power, the king of Babylon and the king of the world”.
After the Hammurabi period, the kingdom of Babylon declined from prosperity to decline.
It was captured by a Hittite army around 1595 BC.
The Hittites are a mysterious people.
There are several references to the Hittites in the Old Testament, but that’s all.
They have left no other traces in history.
The Hittites loved to fight.
They extended their territory to most of Central Anatolia (now eastern Turkey), leavingMan’s unique conqueror culture makes him destined not to become a ruler admired by thousands of people, because he left too much blood on his way of conquest.
Statue of nasilpa II the Assyrian Empire was the most powerful period in Assyrian history in the era of nasilpa II.
It dominated from the middle of the 8th century BC to 621 BC, more than a century away from Asia.
From the reign of Assyrian nasipar II (883-859 BC), Assyria began its foreign conquest.
As a conqueror, the cruelty of nayphal II has also reached an alarming level.
In one inscription, he said proudly: “among the prisoners I captured, some were paid to fire, and some I let them go.
Some of them had their hands cut off, and some had their noses, ears or fingers cut off.
I also dug out the eyes of many soldiers.
I burned all the young men and women among them.
” In another destroyed city, some people refused to surrender, so the Assyrian king taught them a lesson.
He ordered people to stack the corpses on the battlefield at the gates of two cities and declared: “if the nobles want to rebel, I will peel their skin as much as I have, and then spread the skin on this pile.
” In 877 BC, nasilpa of Assyria led an expedition, crossed the Euphrates River from karzimesh, crossed the Antioch plain, crossed the orantis River and reached the foot of Mount Lebanon.
At this time, Assyrian nasilpa proudly announced that he had set foot on the land of the Mediterranean: “I wash my weapons with sea water and sacrifice sheep to the God of the one.
” The Assyrian Kingdom returned triumphantly again.
Tigra palasa III Tigra palasa III reigned from 745 to 727 BC.
During his reign, he defeated uratu, the strong enemy of Assyria, conquered the whole Syrian region and annexed Babylon.
His expansion established the hegemony of Assyria in West Asia.
Historians believe that it was he who transformed the powerful Assyrian kingdom into a prosperous Assyrian Empire.
In this sense, he was actually the real founder of the Assyrian Empire.
In the inscription of a stone tablet, Tigra palasa III also recorded in the voice of a conqueror: I led a warrior to go on an expedition to juheim.
Sink into the city and get treasures.
There are countless.
Those who dare to resist, I will burn their city to ashes.
In the era of Sargon II, Sargon II (reigned from 722 to 705 BC) was originally a junior officer who was promoted due to his outstanding military achievements.
He usurped the throne by using his rapidly rising power.
Later generations called the restoration of Sargon II’s Palace “Assyrian”.
During his reign, he defeated Israel and Egypt and suppressed the uprisings in Syria and Phoenicia supported by Egypt.
Sargon II was the most famous conqueror of the Assyrian Empire.
In his later “expedition”, he recorded his brilliant deeds of eliminating his powerful enemy ulatu.
In 714 BC, Sargon II personally led a large army to attack uratu, the most powerful enemy in Assyria.
The army was invincible, like entering a deserted territory, King ulatu was defeated and committed suicide.
The king of Assyria describes the dust raised by his huge army marching, like a dark cloud on the horizon, blocking out the sky and the sun.
The morale of his army was high, like a roaring lion and a mighty herd of beasts.
His army killed the enemy bravely, like locusts devouring crops, clean and complete.
However, the combatants could not escape the fate of dying in battle.
In 705 BC, Sargon was killed in the war of expedition to Iran.
Unfortunately, durshalukin became an ominous place.
Before it was fully completed, people abandoned this once glorious city.
There was a riot in babiron, which had been brewing some unrest.
Sennacheri, the heir of Sargon II, took a rather cruel way to suppress the riot.
After the Babylonian rebellion was settled, Sennacherib turned his attention to the west, and then Syria, the Jewish state Israel and the Jewish state suffered the same catastrophe.
Wherever the violent Assyrians went, the cities fell one after another.
The conquest of the Assyrian Empire reached its climax during the reign of the Assyrian king sinaherib (705-681 BC).
According to historical records, his brilliant achievements include 89 towns and 820 villages, capturing 7200 horses, 111000 donkeys, 80000 cattle, 800000 sheep and 208000 captives.
In order to commemorate his military victory, cinnacherib built a gorgeous new capital city Nineveh on the upper reaches of the Tigris River, where he devoted himself to building a “unparalleled” palace as a “monument” to his brilliant achievements.
Nineveh’s city wall is 7.
5 miles long.
There are many spectacular temples and royal palaces with at least 71 rooms in the city.
The palace of sinakhrib was built in the west of the city, covering an area of 25 acres.
A tributary of the Tigris River flows near the palace.
The palace is built on an artificial platform.
The palace wall is made of marble, and the exterior is decorated with exquisite reliefs.
Lebanon cedar used to build palaces is the most precious timber in ancient West Asia.
The palace buildings of Assyria are tall, magnificent and magnificent, far beyond the king’s palace of Babylon.
Every detail of the palace’s design and decoration illustrates the greatness of sinakiri, the vastness of its ruling territory and its solid power.
The decline of Assyria during the reign of ISAR Hadong, king of Assyria (680-669 BC), he continued to conquer East and West, and established an Assyrian empire spanning West Asia and North Africa, covering almost the whole civilized world.
After him, the Assyrian Empire gradually declined.
In 612 BC, the newly rising new Babylonian Kingdom and the Medes on the Iranian plateau jointly captured Nineveh, the capital of Assyria.
In 605 BC, the Assyrian Empire, which dominated the history of Mesopotamia for a time, perished.
Historians have put forward various explanations for the dramatic demise of the huge Assyrian Empire.
It is said that during the reign of baniba, the last king of Assyria, various signs have been shown.
The king of Assyria had a strange disease.
He could not survive or die.
Every day he prayed to God, “God, have mercy on me, a sinner, and let me see the sun again!” But God had no mercy on him, and soon he died.
It is said that the death of Ashur baniba heralded the collapse of the Assyrian Empire.
The ivory carvings unearthed from the Royal Palace of baniba, king of Assyria, in fact, the demise of Assyria has a certain historical inevitability.
It can be said that this is the tragedy of Assyrian militarism.
First of all, Assyria is a huge empire established by force and military conquest.
Many areas are out of reach and cannot exercise effective rule.
Its empire state buildingThe foundation of is extremely unstable.
Secondly, the brutal rule of Assyrians will inevitably arouse the strong resistance of the people in the conquered areas, thus endangering the imperial rule.
In addition, the intrigue and power struggle within the Assyrian royal family was also an important factor in the collapse of the Empire.
The reliefs in baniba’s palace.
The enemies of Assyria were his victims when Assyria was strong, but now they are right about the destruction of Assyria.
Undoubtedly, they agree with the Hebrew prophets: “this is a city that has always lived in joy and gloom.
It says in its heart, I am the only one, and there is nothing else except me.
How desolate it is now, and it has become a place for wild animals to lie down.
Everyone who passes by must shake his hand and laugh at it.”.3. The rise of the new Babylonian Empire the Chaldeans played the third and last movement in the history of Mesopotamian civilization.
At the end of the 7th century BC, another Semitic people from the western desert moved to Babylon.
They are the Chaldeans.
In 626 BC, their leader popalasar established himself as king in Babylon and established the new Babylonian Dynasty, which interpreted the last glory of Mesopotamian civilization.
From 605 BC to 539 BC, the city’s short-term prosperity was less than 70 years.
For more than half of this period, Babylon was ruled by the powerful Nebuchadnezzar II.
He made an ambitious construction plan and built his capital into Babylon, the blessed capital of the gods.
Nebuchadnezzar II in the second half of the 7th century BC, the Assyrian Empire declined rapidly due to civil strife and foreign invasion.
The Chaldeans living in the south of Babylon, under the leadership of the leader napoparashar, united with the Medes in the north, captured Nineveh, the capital of Assyria, and destroyed Assyria in 612 BC.
Napoparashar became the first king of the new Babylonian kingdom.
In August 605 BC, the old king napoparashar died and Nebuchadnezzar (605-555 BC) ascended the throne.
Nebuchadnezzar was the greatest emperor of the new Babylonian Kingdom and one of the most outstanding figures in the history of Mesopotamia.
His fame can be compared with that of Hammurabi in the kingdom of Babylon in Cuba, and his deeds are also recorded in the Bible.
During the more than 40 years of Nebuchadnezzar’s rule, his ruling power was thousands of miles and awed everywhere.
His army captured Phoenician commercial port, defeated Egypt, looted Jerusalem, reduced thousands of Jews to “prisoners of Babylon”, and expanded Babylon’s power to the coast of the Mediterranean.
During his reign, Babylon’s military, political and cultural development reached its peak.
What made Nebuchadnezzar famous in the world was his achievements in urban construction: he concentrated the human, material and financial resources of the whole country to rebuild the city of Babylon destroyed by the war.
The Marduk temple and the famous Ishtar Gate were rebuilt.
The built Babylonian hanging garden was listed as one of the seven wonders of the world by the Greeks.
The roaring lion pattern on both sides of the dianyi Avenue.
The dianyi avenue of Babylon is known as the “street that the enemy can never pass through”.
During the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, Mesopotamian wenmingda reached an unprecedented peak.
Shortly after his death, the glorious movement of Mesopotamian civilization gradually came to an end and lost its leading position in the world.
King Solomon, the ruler of the heyday of the Jewish Kingdom, and the visiting queen of Sheba, the prisoner of Babylon.
In 601 BC, Jehoiakim, the Jewish king who had been subject to Nebuchadnezzar for three years, broke away from Babylon and threw himself into the “embrace” of Egypt.
Nebuchadnezzar was furious when he heard the news of the Jewish king’s rebellion and vowed to level Jerusalem.
At the end of 598 BC, Jehoiakim died and his son Jehoiachin ascended the throne.
Nebuchadnezzar believed that the time had come to attack the Jewish Kingdom and personally led a large army to Jerusalem.
After more than two months of siege, driven by the pro Babylonian faction in Judea, the Jewish king took all his ministers out of the city and surrendered.
Nebuchadnezzar deposed Jehoiachin, made Jehoiachin’s uncle King of Judea, renamed him Zedekiah, and asked him to swear allegiance to the new kingdom of Babylon and not to rebel.
Then he ordered that most members of the Jewish royal family and Jewish craftsmen be escorted to Babylon.
Before leaving, he ordered his subordinates to loot the temple in Jerusalem.
In 588 BC, Egypt launched a new attack on Palestine.
Zedekiah, the Jewish king, and other small states in the region that were subject to New Babylon, rose up in response to the Egyptians.
The prophet Jeremiah and some pro Babylonian Jewish ministers disagreed with Zedekiah’s approach to Egypt and advised him not to oppose Nebuchadnezzar.
However, this time, the Jewish forces against the New Babylon clearly gained the upper hand.
Soon, Nebuchadnezzar, who was furious, led the Babylonian army to launch a second siege of Jewish residential areas in Jerusalem.
The siege lasted 18 months.
Despite the desperate resistance of the people of the Jewish Kingdom, Jerusalem was finally captured in 586 BC due to famine and internal division.
Nebuchadnezzar hated the capricious Jewish king so much that he ordered to kill his sons in front of Zedekiah, the Jewish king, and then gouge out Zedekiah’s eyes.
The whole city of Jerusalem was looted, the walls were demolished, temples, palaces and many houses were burned, and Jerusalem became a sea of blood and fire.
Finally, Nebuchadnezzar ordered the king and other captured dignitaries and people to be exiled to Babylon.
This is the famous “prisoner of Babylon” in history.
The relief fragments of soldiers have become a painful memory that Jews will never forget.
At that time, among the Jewish refugees, there was a lament of the captives in Babylon, which expressed the painful mood of the destruction of the Jewish family and made people cry: we sat down by the river in Babylon and cried at the thought of Zion.
We hung the harp on the willow there, because those who plundered us wanted us to sing, those who robbed us wanted us to have fun, saying, “sing us a song of Zion.
” How can we sing the song of the Lord in the Gentiles? .
the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem is due to the fall of civilization 1 Marduk’s prediction: in 555 BC, Nebuchadnezzar suddenly died violently, and the kingship passed to his son-in-law naponido.
It is said that at the beginning of naponido’s reign, the priest MarDuke once dreamed of him and ordered him to rebuild the moon.
This long horned snake dragon is the God of Babylon, the symbol of Marduk.
Xin is a neglected temple in Haran.
Naponido said he could not do it because the former Syrian city of Haran was still controlled by the MIDI people and could not be repaired.
Marduk revealed to him that the Medes would no longer be a threat to naponido in the near future.
Marduk declared: “they, their land and the king who supported them will disappear and cease to exist.
In three years, I will ask Cyrus to expel them.
” Cyrus was the prince of Persia.
In 550 BC, he joined a group of disgruntled soldiers to overthrow and replace his grandfather astiagus, king of MIDI.
This provided an opportunity for naponicus to conquer Haran, and Cyrus also became the king of Medes and Persia.
However, this was only the first step for him to accumulate strength and establish the largest kingdom in the ancient world.
Marduk apparently forgot to warn naponido that Cyrus would become the ultimate controller of the Middle East.
Delighted with the victory of the king of Persia, the king of Babylon began to rebuild his temple in Haran.
The temple of Haran has been deserted for more than 50 years.
Nabonydou’s purpose was to collect money from the king’s guard of Cyrus, which caused resistance in Babylon and other cities.
The king’s response to the city-state crisis is very puzzling.
According to the records of the Royal History of Babylon, he handed over Babylon to his son Bertha and marched into the Arab desert, where he spent ten years.2. Capture Babylon in 539 BC, Cyrus ordered an attack on the capital city of Babylon, the capital of the new king of Babylon.
When the king of Babylon naponido heard the news of Cyrus’s attack, he laughed and said, “let him cry under the city of Babylon.
Maybe he can cry down the wall.
” Because the city of Babylon is extremely strong, there is a wide moat outside the city.
The city wall is made of large bricks made of earth taken out during the excavation of the moat, and asphalt is coated between the bricks.
The wide and thick city wall is square, and all the city gates and gate posts are made of bronze.
However, Cyrus led a large army to the city of Babylon and did not attack the city immediately.
Instead, he used the army controlled by the Babylonian nobles who opposed the king in the city to open the city gate and occupy the city of Babylon without a shot.
After entering Babylon, the most prosperous city in the world at that time, Cyrus decided to move the capital of the Persian Empire to Babylon and declared himself “the king of the four directions of the universe”.
With the arrival of the Persians, the ancient two river basins were all incorporated into the territory of the Persian Empire, and the process of Mesopotamian civilization 3500 drew a stop and withdrew from the stage of history.