In October 1922, Mussolini organized 100000 people to march to Rome, and the fakda cabinet was forced to resign.
The king granted Mussolini the seat of head of government.
Mussolini established the fascist regime in Italy.
At this time, he had just “got rid of poverty and become rich” and became the leader of the large German Nazi party.
15 years later, Germany, Italy and Japan signed the anti communist international agreement, and the “Berlin Rome Tokyo” aggression group began to take shape.
This ambitious group, seemingly harmonious, actually has many unstable factors.
In 15 years, Mussolini didn’t seem to make much progress, but Hitler turned Germany into a huge war machine, and Mussolini became a clumsy little brother in front of him.
Hitler did not inform his ally Mussolini in advance when he made an aggressive decision.
Instead, he sent a telegram hypocritically after the action began or had ended, explaining that the situation was so urgent that it was too late to inform Italy, which just showed Hitler’s lack of basic trust in Italy.
On the other hand, Italy is extremely reluctant to cooperate with Japan.
For Mussolini, all he needs is the support of Germany, not Japan.
Mussolini once told his colleagues that he wanted a two-state alliance, not an alliance, because “such a two-state alliance is enough to offset the joint strength of Britain and France”.
On the contrary, as a dangerous ally, Japan will certainly push the powerful United States into the arms of the Anglo French Alliance, because Japan had an inevitable conflict of interest with the United States in the Pacific.
This is very dangerous for the German Italian alliance.
Later facts proved that Mussolini had foresight in his judgment of Japan.
At the same time, Italians also doubt whether the “cold and dull” Japanese can cooperate with the “strong Italian fascists and German Nazis” and whether it is necessary to involve themselves so deeply in the fierce political turmoil in Europe – a political situation that can change the current situation with only one phone call.
Based on mutual distrust and loose alliance, Germany and Italy did not have much war cooperation in the early stage of World War II.
On September 1, 1939, the German army attacked Poland.
The Italian cabinet passed a motion affirming that Italy is in a “non belligerent state” and stressing that Italy “will never take military action first”.
Italy originally thought that Hitler would avoid fighting a full-scale war before the end of 1942.
When this fantasy was shattered by the news of Germany’s entry into Eastern Europe, Mussolini gently evaded Hitler after two weeks of careful consideration that Italy was not ready to go to war.
In the face of Italy’s retreat, Hitler was helpless.
In fact, Mussolini has been in extreme contradiction about whether to join Hitler’s adventure.
Although being one of the axis powers, Italy’s economy and military are in a weak position among European powers, and its army is even less prepared in the face of war.
Two things are enough to prove the potential danger of the Italian army.
One is that the Italian Army exposed serious weaknesses during the expedition to Albania.
Another thing was Mussolini’s accidental discovery that the number of aircraft that the air force reported could be put into combat was seriously exaggerated.
Moreover, Mussolini, a fascist dictator, regarded public opinion as very important.
At that time, the Italian people were more and more frightened about the war.
Mussolini was afraid that the discontent of the people would threaten the stability of the fascist regime in Italy.
Italy’s has made the Anglo French Alliance see the hope of winning it over.
In other words, if Italy cannot be brought into the Anglo French camp, at least it should be lured to true neutrality.
The allies took various ways to please Italy.
The British and French governments publicly expressed their appreciation for Mussolini’s efforts for peace.
They suggested that Italy could choose a role to become a “great and friendly country” and a member of the Council of Europe.
In short, it could play any role it was happy to play.
The allies also induced economically and even cancelled the measures that had been imposed in North Africa to restrict Italy.
On the other hand, Hitler was eager to tie Italy to the chariot of the axis powers.
Although Hitler understood that Italy could not cope with a long-term war, if it intervened in the war, Germany might consume more resources to take care of the “child”.
However, Germany has a strong need for Italy.
For example, as far as the navy is concerned, Germany provoked a war before its shipbuilding plan was completed, while the Italian Navy has many submarines, which will be particularly useful for Germany’s overall strategy.
Therefore, Hitler repeatedly expressed Germany’s “friendly feelings” towards Italy in public.
In a letter to Mussolini, Hitler said in a lover’s tone: fate will finally unite our two countries.
I want to thank you for your support in the past and beg for your continued support in the future.
In fact, Hitler never adopted Mussolini’s suggestion in the actual military action.
Sandwiched among the powerful countries, Italy has been quietly observing the situation.
It neither blindly supports Hitler nor takes the initiative to show goodwill to Britain and France.
Hitler has been looking for opportunities to win over Italy.
On March 1, 1940, the situation changed.
Britain announced to cut off the coal transportation from Germany to Italy by sea, which was a heavy blow to the Italian economy.
Hitler took the opportunity to send the German foreign minister to Rome to tell Mussolini: “the head of state is extremely indignant at the recent British blockade of German coal transportation to Italy by sea.
” The German foreign minister asked Mussolini, “how much coal do you need?” Mussolini replied, “500000 to 700000 tons per month.
” The German Foreign Minister readily promised: “Germany is now ready to supply 1 million tons a month and provide most of the cars for coal transportation.
” In the face of Germany’s generosity, Mussolini was not excited enough to send troops to help Hitler fight.
He calmly told the German foreign minister that the participation in the war “needs to be considered very carefully, because Italy should not participate in the war until all preparations are ready, so as not to increase the burden on his partners”.