The path taken by

in the process of civilization in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River is the transformation from tribal society – Chiefdom Society – to national society – a secondary civilized society with tribal society as the mainstream. The civilization process in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River started in the Daxi Culture period, and entered the secondary civilization society in the Xia and Shang Dynasties. This long process can be divided into five stages. The first stage of

,

,

,

: the beginning of social complexity in the period of Daxi Culture – the disintegration of tribal society. The analysis of the settlement form of

,

,

and

Daxi Culture shows that the most basic cell of the social organization of Daxi Culture is the nuclear family. The family is a relatively independent production unit, with certain family private property and personal private property. The archaeological data of Guanmiao mountain F22 [2] in Zhijiang, Hubei and zhujiatai F5 [3] in Jiangling are evidence. The social organization above the family is the family. Usually two or more families form a settlement. The management power of the settlement is about controlled by the patriarch, and the scope of power does not extend beyond the settlement. The differentiation between the rich and the poor has changed from within the early family to between the late families, but the firm relationship between property and power has not been established. Zhongbao Island [4] in Yichang, Hubei Province and Honghuatao [5] in Yidu, Hubei Province highlight the function of stone tool processing, Yangjiawan painted pottery and carved symbols [6] in Yichang publicize religious color, and the Beiqiu site [7] in Liuguan, Futian, Jianli, Hubei Province shows the trend of specialization of Daxi cultural settlement function, and even the early city site of Daxi Culture has appeared in Chengtou mountain, Li County, Hunan Province [8], However, as far as the whole settlement form system is concerned, there is no settlement hierarchy, and the focus of settlement function is not the mechanism of forming settlement hierarchy. There have been at least two functional divisions in the settlement, but they do not have the functional significance of hierarchical difference. The tombs of

,

,

and

Daxi Culture reflect that in the late Daxi Culture, the inheritance system of private property has emerged and the differentiation between the rich and the poor has emerged, but the social hierarchy and its symbols have not yet been formed. Jade can be inherited as private property, but not as a symbol of social class.

,

,

,

in the field of cognition, Daxi Culture has not completely gone out of the garden of the primitive religious stage of “animism”. However, there are large altars in Chengtou mountain, Li County, dedicated to sacrificing the great gods closely related to rice farming, while the residence site is mixed with scattered offerings to ordinary gods. The symbols engraved on pottery may also be used as a divine emblem system to communicate with ordinary gods, It marks the differentiation of divine hierarchy and paves the way for the unity of religion and the creation of ideology for social stratification.

,

,

,

generally speaking, Daxi Culture is at the end of tribal society, and the equal tribal society tends to disintegrate. The second stage: the acceleration of social complexity in the period of Qujialing culture – Chiefdom society

,

,

and

. Through the analysis of settlement form, it can be seen that the social structure of Qujialing culture is composed of three hierarchical organizations: cultural area center, local center and ordinary village community. The ancient city of Shijiahe in Tianmen, Hubei Province is a central settlement at the level of a cultural district. The city sites of menban Bay in Yingcheng, Hubei Province, taojia lake, majiahuan in Jingmen, Yinxiang city in Jiangling, Jiming city of public security, Zoumaling in Shishou, Chengtoushan in Lixian County, Hunan Province, Jijiao City, etc. belong to various local centers. There are also a certain number of ordinary settlements around the local centers. Paternal monogamy nuclear family is the most basic social cell. However, expanding the role of family in social and political life is the most basic of

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

and

. Although the social development of the whole cultural area is uneven, in the vast cultural center areas, there are power institutions and nobles that surpass ordinary settlements and even local central settlements. The nobles lived in the religious center settlement, relying on the monopoly of theocracy, infiltrated the management power into the design, construction and operation of the whole flood control system – urban residence and weir residence (such as Qujialing site), infiltrated the organization and management of professional textile and stone manufacturing production, and brought the mainstream of Qujialing culture into hierarchy The Chiefdom society, a centralized and complex society, takes advantage of its own land, enjoys high-grade houses, exquisite appliances and polygamy, and everywhere shows their privilege of “self-respect”. The analysis of tombs shows that the differentiation and hierarchy of the rich and the poor began to appear in the village and family, the establishment of husband’s power and patriarchy, and the inequality of political rights between men and women.

,

,

and

the significant development of Qujialing culture in the cognitive field is manifested in the unity of belief system, clarifying the level of gods, monopolizing the sacrificial right of senior gods, and creating the ideology of hierarchical society. The religion of Qujialing culture has made significant development and has gone out of the world of “all souls theory”, which is more unified, hierarchical, standardized or ritual than Daxi Culture. The cosmology of Qujialing culture basically continues the system of Daxi Culture Gaitian theory, which can still be classified as “witch cosmology” [9]. Introduce the concept of Yang bird through sun god media. The earthenware barrel unearthed from the dengjiawan altar in the northwest corner of Shijiahe ancient city is a religious worship object during the Qujialing culture period. Mr. Zhang wangao analyzed and considered it as the “owner” in the article “Research on the remains of the original social sacrifice of dengjiawan in Tianmen [10]. Therefore, it can be inferred that dengjiawan in the northwest corner of Shijiahe ancient city is the altar of earth gods and social gods, marking the establishment of earth gods and social gods of Qujialing culture. The foundation laying ceremony of ordinary houses shows that the land gods of civilians still exist, but the level is lower than the land gods sacrificed on the Social altar of dengjiawan. At the end of 1993, a number of artifacts pits in the late Qujialing culture were excavated at the Zhongbao Island site in Yichang. 23 artifacts pits were cleared within an area of 80 square meters and arranged orderly [11], which should be the river water sacrifice in the gorge area.

,

,

,

Qujialing culture has changed from the tribal society of Daxi Culture to the Chiefdom society. Not only a series of reforms in the religious field should provide the service of organizational means for the hierarchical society, but also the ideological field must be transformed into the ideological system of hierarchical social service. The new ideology of “respect and inferiority” of Qujialing culture has penetrated into all aspects of society in the form of “ritual system”. The branched clan system is the mechanism to realize this major transformation. The essence of the branched clan system has two points: one is the monopoly of the right to worship ancestors, and the other is the strict definition of the inheritance system, which are interdependent. “And the H-shaped symbol, the symbol of harvest God, the symbol of harvest God, and the sickle symbol, all of which are 4 kinds.

class III soldier God emblem stone hammer symbol, Tomahawk shaped symbol, first silkworm spinning wheel symbol, although the level is slightly lower than the first two, they are temporarily classified into this grade and are not divided into three grades.

,

,

and

class IV: the palace symbol of the earth God emblem behind the palace, the spitting symbol of the wild landlord God emblem, the stove shape symbol of the kitchen god emblem, the Yang bird symbol of the walking God emblem, and the ◇ symbol. There are 5 kinds.

,

,

and

the v-th, etc. there are three kinds of high handle cup symbols, medium shape symbols and altar convex symbols.

VI and other random hundred God emblems, such as sky covering symbol, horn tail symbol, pattern symbol

, three characters and Jin shape symbol, all of which are 5 kinds. On the other hand, the hierarchical system in use led to the situation that the upper class monopolized the religious use right of the divine emblem, which became one of the means and appearance of the centralization of Shijiahe Chiefdom. Only a small number of zongzi or chiefs of settlements with sufficient level have the right to use the ceramic symbols and divine emblems, which is the fundamental reason why the distribution of ceramic symbols and divine emblems in Shijiahe culture is extremely uneven.

,

,

,

compared with the hierarchical “inferiority” ideology of Qujialing cultural society, the hierarchical inferiority ideology of Shijiahe culture has made new development. On the one hand, the centralizing ideology is formed into orthodox thought through etiquette, and the ritual system of the hierarchical ideology of the branched clan system is more standardized. On the other hand, the ideology of rewarding military merit began to work imperceptibly to win social status, and the ideology of fighting for status stimulated by the opportunity of war also began to have an effect. The fourth stage: the collapse of Chiefdom society and the germination of early national society in the period of Xiaojia roof culture. Although the archaeological data of the settlement form of

,

,

and

Xiaojia roof culture (formerly known as the late Shijiahe Culture) are far from abundant, it can vaguely reflect that the society is undergoing a great transformation from Chiefdom society to early national society. The branched clan system quickly withdrew from the historical stage of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and the new standard of dividing society by class was implemented as a new social ruling order with the emergence of upstarts. The analysis of the urn coffin burial on the roof of the Xiao family shows that collecting wealth is the most effective way to power at this time, rather than relying on the kinship ladder linking the chief family to obtain power and status. This has led to a great change in the form of Xiaojia roof cultural settlement, that is, the abolition of the settlement hierarchy. The cultural center and local center or local settlement are no longer simply and arbitrarily controlled in the kinship (at least in the concept) settlement hierarchy system, but woven into an upper and lower network of central and local administrative nature, Driven by the common interests of the ruling class, the central and local nobles jointly maintain the ruling order of the society. Shijiahe settlement group, the Xiaojia roof cultural center, ruled over local centers such as Jiangling zaolingang cemetery [17] or local settlements such as Wangjia roof site [18], basically abandoned the centripetal settlement hierarchy based on the branched clan system in the Chiefdom society, and relied more on class struggle, The ruling class, which is internally divided into grades, is taken as the guiding principle to guide the objectives of all levels of society, so as to achieve the orderly operation of the whole society in the new system. The difference between the cultural center and the local center is more symbolic, and the division between the ruling class and the poor class is the most substantive watershed of social differentiation.

,

,

and

in terms of religious belief, the roof culture of the Xiao family inherited the sacrifice of heaven and country of Shijiahe culture. The worship of God lacks material evidence. It seems that God ended with the collapse of Shijiahe Chiefdom, and the God of heaven is still the only supreme God. The writing system of pottery symbols and divine emblems as primitive symbols was also abolished. The use of jade and the worship of gods in jade have become a new fashion. Under the influence of religious beliefs in the Central Plains, Yazhang stone ritual vessels appeared in Xiaojia roof culture (Wangjia roof site), suggesting the emergence of a new sacrifice of

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

. In short, the roof culture of the Xiao family has less inheritance and more changes to the Shijiahe culture in terms of religious belief. This is because the religious belief system of Shijiahe culture with the worship of the above emperors as the core was powerless in the face of various major crises, resulting in the collapse of belief, which broke the backbone of Shijiahe Chiefdom and led to its collapse. As a follow-up to Shijiahe culture, Xiaojia roof culture cannot fully inherit the despised religious belief system of Shijiahe culture, and relies more on itself to start a new stove and rebuild its own religious belief system. In the jade use system of the roof culture of the Xiao family, the jade used for worshipping heaven is the highest, mainly jade Bi and the statues of Zhuanxu (human face), Zhu Rong (cicada), long and Feng. The upper class of the ruling class is represented by the roof W6 of the Xiao family, and jade ritual vessels are also the main components. Zhuanxu, Zhu Rong, Chiyou, Ju Long and animal stilts (eagle and deer) are the main components, and jade handle shaped vessels, jade D arrows and military Fuhu are the symbols of power. The lower nobility of the ruling class mainly used jade decorations, and there was only one kind of jade ritual ware. The decorations included small tools (making Zhang and tile) and jade ornaments. Shi Yazhang and other ritual vessels are related to military guards. Whether they can be used as a yardstick of social hierarchy remains to be confirmed by more data.

,

,

and

Xiaojia roof culture. With the transformation of society from the Chiefdom to the early state, the ideology has also undergone significant changes, which is highlighted in the social stratum division, the emergence of new hierarchical order and new contents and forms of religious worship. Society is divided into ruling class and common class according to the fundamental difference between wealth and power. The hierarchical differences within the ruling class are mainly based on wealth and power. Wealth is the main way to power, rather than relying on the patriarchal inheritance system to transmit privileges. Moreover, jade is also regarded as a unified materialized symbol of wealth similar to monetary symbols, and has become the primary yardstick for dividing classes and internal classes. As a result, the consciousness of pursuing sudden wealth and power and being ruthless for wealth is widely popular among the ruling class, accelerating the polarization between the rich and the poor and aggravating the internal contradictions of society. Strong ideological about class, territory and warModernization and renewal serve the transformation of Xiaojia roof culture to an early country. The fifth stage: the secondary civilization society

,

,

and

in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River during the Xia and Shang Dynasties. The political control of the Xia and early Shang dynasties over the Yangtze River Basin was limited along the North Bank of the Yangtze River. To the south of the Yangtze River is a country or tribe directly controlled by the Xia and Shang Dynasties. In the late Shang Dynasty, the political territory of the Shang Dynasty withdrew from the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, maintained only economic and trade exchanges with local culture, and had little political exchanges. From Erlitou culture period to Erligang culture period, Sanxingdui culture was dominated by the politics of the ancient Shu Dynasty, and began to develop independently in the late Shang Dynasty. During the Xia and Shang Dynasties, only two cultural societies in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River entered the national society. One is the Panlong city type of Erligang culture in Northeast Hubei, which was transformed into the frontier vassal state of the Shang Dynasty as the country of Xia remnant of Erlitou culture. It is a semi independent country. The other is the middle-level culture of Zaoshi in Western Hunan. Under the strong influence of Shang civilization, it has become an independent country that is not directly controlled by the Shang Dynasty and belongs to a secondary civilization.

Lujiahe culture occupies the gorge area and Jingjiang area. Although Lujiahe type and Jingnan Temple type were once subordinate to Sanxingdui

and incorporated into their national social system by transforming ancient Shu and Erligang culture into Shang Dynasty, They were under the political rule of the ancient Shu state and the Shang Dynasty respectively, and even accepted the appointment of official positions and the granting of clan surnames. However, the social form of this culture did not make a substantive leap and still stagnated in the state of tribal society. When the political forces of the ancient Shu and Shang Dynasties withdrew from the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and Lujiahe culture developed independently, its social state was still in tribal society and did not enter its own national social form. In short, Lujiahe culture was in a secondary civilization state in the period of Erlitou Xia culture and Erligang culture in the early Shang Dynasty, and it was unstable and passive. In the late Shang Dynasty, although the Zhouliang Yuqiao culture in Jianghan Plain and the feijiahe culture in Northeast Hunan were included in the large system of bronze sacrificial vessels in the south, these bronze sacrificial vessels were only used for random sacrifices in mountains, forests and rivers, and did not play an important role in social stratification, class differentiation, hierarchical constraints and the formulation of ritual system. Therefore, the society of these two cultures still remained in the stage of tribal society, It is a tribe not directly ruled by the Shang Dynasty. The local Baiyue tribe in the middle and lower reaches of Xiangjiang River and the middle reaches of Zishui River obtained the bronze ware of the Shang Dynasty through trade with the officials and businessmen of the Shang Dynasty, which was used as wealth retention, inheritance and blessing. In the late Shang Dynasty, it did not play a significant role in promoting the local Baiyue culture society to the national social progress. Therefore, the society of Baiyue culture was also in the state of tribal society, Similarly, it was not directly ruled by the Shang Dynasty.

a large number of bronze heavy objects were unearthed in the sacrificial area of Hunan sheshui River Basin, which may be a place for sacrificing the earth God in a developed culture in the Yangtze River Basin. I personally speculate that this culture is likely to be related to Wucheng culture, which can reflect that Wucheng culture has already entered the era of national society and bronze civilization.

the social analysis of the culture in the Xia and Shang Dynasties in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River fully shows that the relationship between the culture as a national frontier and its political nature and social form is complex. We must make an in-depth and specific analysis in order to clarify the true face of these societies.

several characteristics of the civilization process in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River

looking at the civilization process in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, we can deeply realize the following characteristics of the civilization process in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River.

1. The interaction between man and earth has played an important role in the process of civilization in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River.

rice farming is the basis for the survival and prosperity of prehistoric cultural society in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and the flood control system is the driving force of social complexity. Qujialing culture has developed and improved the moat and city building technology system in Liyang plain in order to fight against the multi flood environment, and expanded the delimitation of weir settlement form in the water flowing mountain area from the plain and the supporting natural flood diversion area in the urban settlement form in the plain area. The respected elders in the large settlements all over the world took on the responsibilities of arbitration, coordination and organization beyond the settlements, and gradually evolved into social public power. When they have the power to organize and direct the labor of other settlements to build

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

and

to build large public buildings such as walls or embankments of their central settlements, their leadership status and power will be officially established. At the same time, the settlement hierarchy will be established based on the ties of blood relatives and the benefits of “big water entering the fort”, In order to coordinate the relations at all levels of society, this is the new Chiefdom social order. The society in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River began to complicate and tend to be centripetal. Shijiahe Chiefdom society went further and further on the road of violating sustainable development, causing ecological crisis, leading to the full outbreak of social crisis and belief crisis. It is a foregone conclusion that it is terminally ill. Finally, under the combined attack of external flood and Xia Yu in the Central Plains, it completely collapsed and ruined the original process of civilization. 2. Religion dominates social life.

in the prehistoric stage, religion was the primary means to maintain the complex society in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. The branch clan system was increasingly developed and deepened, and the religious relics were prominent and prosperous. From the altar of Chengtoushan in the early Daxi Culture, to the Social altar of dengjiawan in the Qujialing culture period, to the valley altar of dengjiawan in the Shijiahe culture period, and finally to the luojiabailing Temple of heaven in the xiaojiawuji culture period [19], all of them are shrouded in a thick religious fog. Some statues, such as pottery barrel shaped vessels, four ear vessels of Qujialing culture, ceramic animal sacrifices and jade statues of Shijiahe culture and Xiaojia roof culture, are concentrated in Shijiahe, the center of the cultural area, and scattered in some local central settlements, indicating that the main link between the center of the cultural area and local centers is religion.

3. The first two points are doomed that the middle reaches of the Yangtze River cannot enter the primary civilization society by itself, but enter the secondary civilization society driven by the surrounding advanced civilization society.

prehistoric culture in the middle reaches of the Yangtze RiverThe prosperity and development of are at the expense of the consumption of unique natural resources. Therefore, when the prehistoric stage of the civilization process goes further and further along the road contrary to sustainable development, the relationship between man and earth becomes more and more serious. Before the prehistoric society in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River steps into the threshold of civilization, it has exhausted the natural resource base needed to support a strong civilized society. The crisis of man earth relationship finally broke out, and it is inevitable to destroy the spontaneous process of civilization [20].

the nerve center of prehistoric society in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River is primitive religion. Religion is the shackle that shackles people’s spirit in the form of spiritual pillar, so as to regulate and restrict people’s behavior, so as to achieve the purpose of rule. However, religion is illusory after all. When using the “supernatural force” that does not exist in fact to resist the “super crisis” of objective reality, the practical value of religion is vulnerable. This will easily lead to the disintegration of the original religious belief system and corresponding values. Comparing the religious system of Shijiahe culture with that of Xiaojia roof culture, it is not difficult to find that the religious system of Shijiahe culture basically collapsed in the end, and the social framework of Shijiahe culture based on the religious system also collapsed like a cramped skeleton. In this regard, in the process of civilization in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, the fire at the front of the car is basically extinguished, and only the residue of xiaxingdian slag remains – Xiaojia roof culture. However, the roof culture of Xiao family has been supported by various combustion supporting materials and environmental conditions from the inside and outside, and finally lost the opportunity to start a prairie fire. Therefore, Xiaojia roof culture is a key turning point in the process of primary civilization in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. 4. The cultural landscape of the secondary civilized society in the Xia and Shang Dynasties in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River is fragmented and complex, and the grass-roots organizations take the tribal society as the mainstream. They are mainly brought into the national framework of the surrounding civilized society through the administrative subordinate relationship between the local and the central government, and become secondary civilizations. On this point, there has been a simple discussion in the previous article, which will not be repeated here.

we have some very rough outline understanding of the process, stage and characteristics of the civilization process in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. In the future, in-depth and detailed analysis and research work has a heavy and long way to go, which requires the joint efforts of our colleagues in the archaeological community. Once we have a clear understanding of the civilization process in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, it will play an important role in promoting the study of the origin of Chinese civilization. Note:

[1] Li boqian: the process of civilization in the Yangtze River Basin, archaeology and cultural relics, issue 4, 1997.

[2] Hubei team, Institute of archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences: “the second excavation of guanmiaoshan site in Zhijiang, Hubei”, archaeology, 1983, issue 1, page 23.

[3] Hubei Institute of cultural relics and archaeology, etc.: excavation of zhujiatai site in Jiangling, Hubei Province in 1991, Journal of archaeology, No. 4, 1996, pp. 447-448

[4] Lu Depei: talking about the characteristics and technology of stone tools at daodaxi cultural site in Zhongbao, Proceedings of Hubei Archaeological Society (I), editorial department of Journal of Wuhan University, 1987, pp. 21-25.

[5] Honghuatao archaeological excavation team: brief report on the excavation of Honghuatao site, prehistoric research, 1990-1991 (Series), pp. 309-317.

[6] Yichang Regional Museum: Neolithic site of Yangjiawan, Yichang, Jianghan archaeology, issue 4, 1984.

[7] Jingzhou Regional Museum: briefing on the trial excavation of Neolithic sites in Liuguan and Futian, Jianli County, Jianghan archaeology, issue 4, 1984.

[8] Hunan Institute of cultural relics and Archaeology: brief report on the excavation of the ancient city site of Chengtoushan in Li county from 1997 to 1998, cultural relics, issue 6, 1999, pages 4-17.

[9] Zhang Guangzhi: Collected Papers on Chinese archaeology, Sanlian bookstore, 1999 edition, page 391.

[10] Zhang wangao: Research on the remains of the original social sacrifice in dengjiawan, Tianmen, Jingchu literature and history, 1996, issue 1, pp. 44-45.

[11] ludpe: discovery of primitive social group artifacts pit on Zhongbao Island, Yichang, Hubei Province, Jianghan archaeology, issue 4, 1994.

[12] Shijiahe archaeological team (Jingzhou Museum): “roof of Xiao family”, cultural relics press, 1999. The roof ridge information of Xiao family in this paper is printed from the report.

[13] Department of archaeology, Department of history, Wuhan University: West Garden and miaotaizi, Wuhan University Press, 1993.

[14] Institute of archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences: qinglongquan and the great temple, Science Press, 1991 26nb

sp; [15] Hunan Provincial Museum: Neolithic site of zhuanchenggang in Anxiang, Journal of archaeology, issue 4, 1983.

[16] Shihe archaeological team: brief report on the 1987 excavation of Shihe site group in Hubei, “cultural relics”, issue 8, 1990.

[17] Jingzhou Museum: jujube forest hill and heap gold platform, Science Press, 1999.

[18] Jingzhou Museum: Investigation on the site of Wangjia house in Guanyin, Jingzhou, Hubei Province, cultural relics, issue 1, 1999.

[19] Hubei Institute of cultural relics and archaeology, etc.: Neolithic site in luojiabailing, Shijiahe, Hubei Province, Journal of archaeology, issue 2, 1994. “The rise of the Central Plains” and “the rise of the Central Plains” and “spkds” in 1999. Pages 35-40. The second stage: the acceleration of social complexity in the period of Qujialing Culture — the Chiefdom society

,

,

and

can be analyzed through the settlement formIt can be seen that the social structure of Qujialing culture consists of three hierarchical organizations: cultural area center, local center and ordinary village community. The ancient city of Shijiahe in Tianmen, Hubei Province is a central settlement at the level of a cultural district. The city sites of menban Bay in Yingcheng, Hubei Province, taojia lake, majiahuan in Jingmen, Yinxiang city in Jiangling, Jiming city of public security, Zoumaling in Shishou, Chengtoushan in Lixian County, Hunan Province, Jijiao City, etc. belong to various local centers. There are also a certain number of ordinary settlements around the local centers. Paternal monogamy nuclear family is the most basic social cell, but expanding the role of family in social and political life is the most basic. Although the social development of the whole cultural area is uneven, in the vast cultural center areas, there are power institutions and nobles that surpass ordinary settlements and even local central settlements. The nobles lived in the religious center settlement, relying on the monopoly of theocracy, infiltrated the management power into the design, construction and operation of the whole flood control system – urban residence and weir residence (such as Qujialing site), infiltrated the organization and management of professional textile and stone manufacturing production, and brought the mainstream of Qujialing culture into hierarchy The Chiefdom society, a centralized and complex society, takes advantage of its own land, enjoys high-grade houses, exquisite appliances and polygamy, and everywhere shows their privilege of “self-respect”. The analysis of

,

,

and

tombs shows that the differentiation and hierarchy between the rich and the poor begin to appear in the village and family, the establishment of husband’s power and patriarchy, and the inequality of political rights between men and women.

,

,

and

the significant development of Qujialing culture in the cognitive field is manifested in the unity of belief system, clarifying the level of gods, monopolizing the sacrificial right of senior gods, and creating the ideology of hierarchical society. The religion of Qujialing culture has made significant development and has gone out of the world of “all souls theory”, which is more unified, hierarchical, standardized or ritual than Daxi Culture. The cosmology of Qujialing culture basically continues the system of Daxi Culture Gaitian theory, which can still be classified as “witch cosmology” [9]. Introduce the concept of Yang bird through sun god media. The earthenware barrel unearthed at the dengjiawan altar in the northwest corner of Shijiahe ancient city is a religious worship object of Qu

during the Jialing culture period. Zhang wangao was analyzed and considered as the “owner” in the article “Research on the remains of primitive social sacrifice in dengjiawan, Tianmen” [10]. Therefore, it can be inferred that dengjiawan in the northwest corner of Shijiahe ancient city is the altar of earth gods and social gods, marking the establishment of earth gods and social gods of Qujialing culture. The foundation laying ceremony of ordinary houses shows that the land gods of civilians still exist, but the level is lower than the land gods sacrificed on the Social altar of dengjiawan. At the end of 1993, a number of artifacts pits in the late Qujialing culture were excavated at the Zhongbao Island site in Yichang. 23 artifacts pits were cleared within an area of 80 square meters and arranged orderly [11], which should be the river water sacrifice in the gorge area. Qujialing culture has changed from the tribal society of Daxi Culture to the Chiefdom society. Not only a series of reforms in the religious field should provide the service of organizational means for the hierarchical society, but also the ideological field must be transformed into the ideological system of hierarchical social service. The new ideology of “respect and inferiority” of Qujialing culture has penetrated into all aspects of society in the form of “ritual system”. The branched clan system is the mechanism to realize this major transformation. The essence of the branched clan system has two points: one is the monopoly of the right to worship ancestors, and the other is the strict definition of the inheritance system, which are interdependent.