Lesson 8 origin and early evolution of the Arab Israeli conflict I.
historical changes of Palestine and Jews Palestine covers an area of 27000 square kilometers and is located on the East Bank of the Mediterranean Sea.
The earliest local residents were Canaanites, who moved from the Arabian Peninsula around 4000 BC.
Therefore, the Bible calls Palestine “Canaan land”.
At the end of 2000 BC, the “maritime people” known as the Philistines invaded this place, from which the name of Palestine originated.
Hebrews and Canaanites are descendants of the ancient West Asian Semites.
Around 2000 BC, nomadic Hebrews migrated from the southern Arabian Peninsula to the ur region of Mesopotamia.
After that, they moved westward to Canaan under the leadership of patriarch Abraham.
Canaan called them “Hebrews”, that is, “people who crossed the river (referring to the Euphrates)”.
It is said that Jacob, Abraham’s grandson, won by wrestling with God and was named “Israel” by God, which means “the one who wrestles with God to win”.
Therefore, the Hebrews are also called “Israel”.
From then on, they began a settled life of half farming and half grazing.
Later, there was a severe famine in Canaan, and the Hebrews moved westward into Egypt again.
Unable to bear the oppression of the Hebrews by the Egyptian rulers, the Hebrews came out of Egypt under the leadership of Moses.
During the 40 years of wandering in the wilderness of Sinai, Moses claimed that God had granted the Hebrews ten commandments, the famous “Ten Commandments of Moses”.
The Hebrews made a covenant with the Lord and accepted the latter as their only God.
Led by Joshua, the Hebrews finally returned to the “promised land” – Canaan flowing with milk and honey.
Since then, the Hebrews have experienced a long time to re conquer Canaan and completed the transition from nomadic to agricultural people, during which some local indigenous peoples have also been integrated.
At that time, the Hebrews were divided into two major tribal alliances.
Israel in the north and Judah in the south.
Saul united the two great alliances and defeated the Philistines.
After that, David made Jerusalem his capital and drove away the Philistines.
Solomon established the famous “monarch’s first house” and consolidated his standing son’s rule.
After Solomon’s death, the country was divided into two kingdoms.
The capital of Israel was Samaria, and the capital of Judah was Jerusalem.
In 722 BC, Assyria destroyed Israel and moved the king and his subjects to the two river basins.
The weak Judah was spared by paying ransom.
In 597 BC, the new Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar II captured Jerusalem and abducted all the residents of the city to Babylon, which is known as the “prisoner of Babylon”.
Judas declared subjugation, and the first great diaspora of Jews began.
During the captivity of Babylon, the Hebrews finally formed the thought of Savior.
The strength of New Babylon and its religious system left a deep impression on the nobles and priests of Judah.
The Lord they worship is no longer a national God limited to a corner, but a god of the world.
They hope for the coming of the Savior and guide the rejuvenation of the nation.
The future kingdom will be a unified kingdom of politics and religion.
In 538 BC, Cyrus, the emperor of the Persian Empire, conquered West Asia and allowed the Hebrews to return to Palestine.
They began to rebuild the temple, the “Second Temple”.
During this period, Judaism developed greatly and produced the Classic Bible (Christians call it the Old Testament).
In 332 BC, the Macedonian king’s army swept through Europe and Asia, and the Jews began to disperse for the second time, scattered throughout southern Europe, North Africa and Central Asia.
In 63 BC, the Roman Empire occupied Palestine.
The Jews launched three uprisings successively.
After the failure of the last uprising in 135 BC, more than 1 million Jews were killed and trafficked, and almost all the survivors fled their homes.
This is the third great diaspora of the Jews, and the history of the Jewish nation as the main body living in Palestine has ended.
At this time, under the influence of Greek culture, the world religion Christianity developed from Judaism, and Jerusalem, as the crucifixion of Jesus, also became the holy land of Christianity.
After the establishment of the Arab Empire in the 7th century, Palestine became a part of the Empire in 637, which began the process of Arabization and Islamization.
According to Arabs, Jerusalem is the place where the Prophet Muhammad ascended the night, so it has also become a holy land of Islam.
The Arabs built the famous Al Aqsa Mosque on the site of the destroyed Second Temple in Jerusalem, and the west wall of the mosque (known as the “crying wall” in the West) became the only site of the temple.
The Ottoman Turkish Empire, which rose in Asia Minor in the early 16th century, included Palestine as a province in its edition in 1518.
Since Palestine became a part of the Arab Empire, the Arabs who moved in continuously integrated and assimilated with the local Canaanites, Philistines and later Greeks, Romans and Turks, forming Palestinian Arabs with common beliefs, languages and cultures.
Under the rule of Muslims, Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians and other non muslims are called “Demi” (“Sutra man”).
The Dimi are protected by the authorities and have a low social status.
They must pay land tax and poll tax.
They cannot hold public office or oppose Muslims.
Demi people are also not allowed to ride horses and carry weapons, and there are special regulations on their clothes and hairstyle.
At the same time, they have complete autonomy in religious and legal affairs.
No matter compared with Roman times or Catholic Europe, the social environment of Jews in the Islamic world is quite relaxed, and their relationship with Muslims is harmonious on the whole.
Due to the great diaspora, Jews around the world have obvious differences in religion, language, culture, customs and even body characteristics.
Hebrew has become a dead language before the birth of Christianity.
In the Arab world, Jews have gradually become Arabized, which is reflected in many aspects such as language, culture and customs.
For example, some Jewish writers in Medieval Spain used the form of Arab rhythmic prose to write historical and literary works.
At the same time, there are other similarities between Jews and Arabs: in Jewish legend, Jews are the descendants of Abraham, and Arabs also follow Ibrahim (what Arabs call Abraham) and his son ismayi as their ancestors.
Arabic and Hebrew belong to the Semitic family of Asian and African languages.
The former has some borrowed words from the latter, and both are written from the right.
The religions of both nations are oneNewspapers and periodicals have been established.
However, in the first few years, the annual inflow of immigrants was only 10000, and there was actually reverse migration after 1927.
After Germany came to power in 1933, the Nazi anti Semitic policy forced a large number of Jews to leave Germany, Austria and all central European countries.
Jews had nowhere to go except Palestine.
Therefore, in the second stage, from 1933 to 1937, more than 200000 Jews moved into Palestine.
By the outbreak of the war, the Jewish community had grown to 445457, and the percentage of the total population soared from 7% in 1918 to 29.7%. From 1937 to the founding of Israel is the third stage of the development of Jewish associations.
Restricted by the British white paper of 1939, the number of Jewish immigrants decreased relatively.
During the war, Jewish societies organized Jewish brigades to participate in the war, accumulated valuable military experience and accumulated a large number of arms.
At this time, the Jewish community has developed into a mature national community.
The expansion of Jewish communities and the support policies of the colonial authorities have seriously intensified the Arab Jewish contradiction, which is the conflict of two kinds of nationalism.
In August 1929, there was a large-scale bloody conflict between Arab and Jewish sides near the wailing wall.
In 1936, the Arab High Council headed by muftiamin Hosseini was established in Jerusalem, announcing a general strike and calling for the abolition of the mandate and the realization of national independence.
From September 1937 to the spring of 1939, Palestinian Arabs launched a revolt that swept the whole of Palestine and received the support of the whole Arab world.
Facing the threat of war, Britain began to reflect on its policy of supporting Judah and restraining Afghanistan.
Since 1930, Britain has organized six investigation committees and put forward a series of suggestions.
The peel report published in 1937 put forward the partition plan of Palestine for the first time, suggesting that Palestine be divided into British mandated areas, Arab areas and Jewish areas.
The Jews reluctantly accepted it and the Arabs firmly opposed it.
At the beginning of 1939, the tripartite round table meeting of Britain, Afghanistan and Judah also ended in vain.
Therefore, Britain issued a separate white paper in May that year, restricting the entry of Jewish immigrants, and promised to establish an independent Palestinian state dominated by Arabs in 10 years.
The white paper broke the relationship between Britain and Judah.
In addition to the terrorist acts against Britain, the Zionists began to seek the help of the United States.
In May 1942, the Zionists adopted the program proposed by Ben Gurion at the Biltmore Hotel in New York, calling for the revocation of the white paper.
End the mandate.
Establish a Jewish state and Jewish army in the whole of Palestine, including outer Jordan.
Unlimited immigration and land acquisition.
In view of the fact that there are more than 5 million Jews and powerful Jewish extrajudicial groups in the country, the US government not only agrees with the Biltmore platform, but also tries to intervene in the Middle East by supporting Zionists.
The third and fourth Middle East wars and the rise of the PLO after the Second World War, many European countries were unwilling to accept Jews released from concentration camps.
The United States asked Britain to relax immigration restrictions.
The latter pursued the policy of British Arab alliance and controlling the Middle East.
Therefore, the Palestinian Jewish organization launched fanatical terrorist activities and illegal immigration activities.
In April 1947, Britain was forced to submit the question of Palestine to the United Nations after seeking a solution again without success.
On April 28, the Special General Assembly voted on resolution 181 on the partition of Palestine.
The United States, Western Europe and Latin American countries under the influence of the United States voted in favour, while the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries under its influence, which were hostile to the Arab conservative regime under the control of Britain, also voted in favour.
Therefore, the resolution was finally adopted by 33 votes in favor, 13 votes against (mainly Arab and Muslim countries) and 10 abstentions.
The resolution stipulates that Britain will end its mandate before August 1, 1948, and establish an Arab state and a Jewish state within two months thereafter.
The Arab state covers an area of 11000 square kilometers, including Galilee, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and the Arab District of Yafa city (a total of 725000 Arabs and 10000 Jews).
The Jewish state covers an area of 15850 square kilometers (498000 Jews and 407000 Arabs).
Jerusalem and its surrounding villages and towns (about 158 square kilometers) are entrusted by the United Nations as an independent body.
The resolution was clearly biased in favour of Jews.
At that time, Palestinian Jews accounted for less than 13% of the total population of the region and occupied only 6% of the land area of Palestine, while the area allocated to the Jewish state by the General Assembly resolution accounted for 58.
7% of the total area of Palestine.
In the proposed Jewish state, the Arab population is basically equal to the Jewish population, which is inappropriate.
Immediately after the adoption of the partition resolution, it was strongly opposed by Palestinian Arabs and the Arab world, and protests, demonstrations and violence swept through Palestine.
In the face of strong opposition, the United States hesitated and proposed that the United Nations implement trusteeship for Palestine.
However, the trusteeship proposal was unanimously criticized by the Soviet Union, Britain, the Arab world and Jewish communities.
Zionists are determined to use the partition plan to realize the ideal of a Jewish state.
The Jewish armed forces “hagana” recruited a large number of personnel, supplemented equipment and expanded rapidly.
Golda Meir, a Jewish politician, went to the United States to raise money.
The United States and Europe also provided cheap old arms and military equipment to Jewish communities.
In March 1948, the Zionists and Czechoslovakia signed the first arms agreement.
At the same time, Zionists stepped up immigration, and some extremist Jewish organizations created the massacre in dair Yassin village to drive away Palestinian civilians.
Jewish organizations had an advantage in guerrilla warfare between the two sides.
In December 1947, the prime ministers and foreign ministers of seven member states of the Arab League gathered in Cairo and announced their readiness to fight against the partition resolution.
After the meeting, the “Arab Tanzanian Liberation Army” composed of volunteers from Arab countries was established.
On May 14, 1948, Britain ended its mandate ahead of schedule.
That afternoon, Ben Gurion, chairman of the National Executive Committee of the Jewish community, announced the establishment of the state of Israel.
16 minutes later, the United States announced its recognition.
On the 17th, the Soviet Union also announced its recognition of Israel.
At the same time, the serious division within the Arab community prevented the establishment of the Palestinian Arab state.
On May 15, 1948, five Arab League Member States, Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon, successively sent troops to Palestine, opening the prelude to the first Middle East War, namely the Palestinian war.
The Palestinian war is divided into three stages: the first stage is from the outbreak of the war to the first truce.
As a result, the power of the two old colonial countries, Britain and France, has declined sharply.
In January 1957, Egypt abolished the 1954 Anglo Egyptian treaty and suspended Britain’s right to return to the canal.
Israel gained the freedom of navigation in the tirang Strait after the war, and the United Nations peacekeeping force established a buffer zone on the border between Egypt and Israel.
Israel’s status as a regional military power has been recognized, but its international reputation has been hit.
At the same time, the political victory improved Egypt’s position in the Arab world, and Nasser became the undisputed leader of the Arab world.
As for the Soviet Union, it also gained great prestige in the Arab world because of its “strong and decisive intervention” during the war.
Since then, the Middle East has entered an era of fierce competition between two superpowers.
After the Suez Canal War, Arab nationalism rose further.
In February 1958, Egypt and Syria merged to establish the United Arab Republic (hereinafter referred to as “Arab League”).
One month later, the Arab League and Yemen announced the establishment of the United Arab States.
In July 1958, the revolution broke out in Iraq and overthrew the British friendly Faisal Dynasty.
In order to curb the development of Soviet Union and Arab nationalism, the United States threw out “nationalism”, but the action of the United States and Britain sending troops to the Middle East failed.
At the same time, contradictions within Arab countries led to the disintegration of the Arab League in 1961 and the deterioration of relations between Egypt and other Arab countries.
After the armistice between Syria and Israel, there was a conflict on the ownership of cultivated land in the neutral zone.
Syria used artillery positions in the Golan Heights to frequently bombard targets in Israel, and there were frequent exchanges of fire on the Syrian Israeli border.
At the same time, Syria also asked Nasser to take action against Israel.
However, Egypt has a full understanding of Israel’s military strength and does not want to restart the war.
In May 1964, Nasser established a moderate Palestine Liberation Organization through the Arab League, thus controlling the whole Palestinian movement.
On the other hand, some Palestinians are increasingly dissatisfied with the inaction of Arab countries.
In 1959, Palestinian youth headed by Yasser Arafat established the “Palestinian National Liberation Movement” (Fatah) in Kuwait and fired the first shot of armed struggle in December 1964.
Since then, Fatah has continued to attack Israel from Jordan and Lebanon.
Internationally, the Soviet Union hoped that Arab countries would lose the war against Israel, thus deepening their dependence on themselves.
With the efforts of the Soviet Union, in November 1966, Syria and Egypt concluded a military agreement stipulating that once a war broke out, the two sides would establish a joint command.
At the instigation of the two countries, Fatah and the PLO strengthened their attacks on Israel, and Israel also began to retaliate.
The Israeli Arab attacks have made the situation increasingly tense.
In April 1967, there was an air battle between Syria and Israel.
In May, the Soviet Union provided Egypt with false information that Israel was preparing to attack Syria.
On May 15, Egypt decided to send more troops to Sinai and asked the UN peacekeeping force to withdraw the next day.
Nasser was dazzled by radical public opinion propaganda in the Arab world.
On the 22nd, he announced the blockade of the tirang Strait, providing Israel with a pretext for war.
On the 30th, Jordan and Egypt signed a defense treaty.
On June 1, Israel established a national unity government, and Moses Dayan of the main war faction became the Minister of defense.
On June 5, Israel dispatched more than 100 aircraft to attack air bases in Egypt, Jordan and Syria.
The “sixth five year plan” war, the third Middle East War, broke out.
The unexpected air forces of the three countries suffered heavy losses, and Israeli ground forces immediately launched a fierce attack on Sinai and the West Bank.
On the 7th, Jordan first accepted the UN ceasefire request.
On the 9th, Egypt and Syria accepted a ceasefire.
However, Israel did not agree to a ceasefire until it seized the Golan Heights and quneitra on the 10th.
The sixth five year plan war ended like lightning after six days.
Israel won a complete victory in the sixth five year plan war, captured the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights and the Sinai Peninsula, covering a total area of 81600 square kilometers, and occupied the old city of Jerusalem with great historical value.
At the same time, the war brought heavy losses of life and property to Arab countries, as well as deep psychological trauma, resulting in a large number of Palestinian refugees, and the Suez Canal was closed again.
On June 22, 1967, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 242 proposed by the United States, requiring Israel to withdraw from all the territories occupied in the sixth five year plan war and respect and recognize the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of all Arab countries in the region.
The resolution laid the foundation for the settlement of the Arab Israeli conflict.
However, Israel has no intention to implement it.
At the same time, the Arab League also adopted the “three noes” principle for Israel (no negotiation, no peace agreement and no recognition) at the subsequent Khartoum summit.
The situation in the Middle East has fallen into a dangerous stalemate after experiencing major changes.
After the war, in order to consolidate the occupation of Arab territories, lieutenant general balev, the chief of staff of the Israeli army, ordered the construction of a 160 kilometer long “balev line” in Sinai.
In the Golan Heights, a strong anti tank system has also been built.
The great victory of the sixth five year plan war made Israel arrogant and believed that Arab countries could not wage war in decades.
However, Arab countries have begun to actively prepare for war.
Egypt has received financial assistance from the Gulf States and a large amount of military assistance from the Soviet Union.
The army is equipped with more advanced aircraft, tanks and artillery than before the war.
Egypt launched a “war of attrition” against Israel in the autumn of 1968 to force the latter to withdraw from the canal or seek a political solution.
By May 1970, the war of attrition had caused great losses to both Egypt and Israel.
Nasser announced in July that he would accept the ceasefire plan proposed by the United States and end the war of attrition.
In September 1970, Nasser died of a heart attack due to overwork, and Vice President Anwar Sadat succeeded him.
Sadat is determined to fight the first World War to avenge his shame and force the United States to exert pressure on Israel to achieve peace.
He declared that 1971 was a “critical year” for Egypt to recover its lost territory by force.
However, because the Soviet Union was committed to easing tensions with the United States and hoped to maintain the situation of no war and discord in the Middle East, Egypt was unable to obtain the required advanced equipment.
In July 1972, Sadat ordered the expulsion of 19000 Soviet military and technical personnel.
Shocked, the Soviets had to provide Egypt with a large number of advanced equipment.
Egypt and Syria then implemented the plan of joint operation and determined the limited goal of recovering lost land.
Israel was unaware of the impending danger.
Although Israel had received relevant information on the eve of the outbreak of the war, it did not take corresponding measures for political reasons.
On October 6, 1973, Israel was immersed in the festive atmosphere of celebrating Jewish Yom Kippur, and the army also had a holiday.
At 2 p.m., the Egyptian army suddenly launched a fierce offensive on the East Bank of the canal, broke through the barev line in one fell swoop, and controlled the strategic depth of 10-15 kilometers on the East Bank of the canal in less than three days.
At the same time, the Syrian army also launched a fierce attack on the Golan Heights and recovered a large area of land in the heights on the 9th.
However, Egypt failed to pursue the victory at this time, which stabilized the Sinai Israeli army and concentrated its forces to counterattack against the Syrian army.
On the 14th, the two sides failed to win the battle with tanks near Mount Sinai and Mount Sinai in Egypt.
On the 16th, Sharon led an Israeli army to sneak across the Suez Canal.
After that, a large number of follow-up troops crossed the canal, cutting off the retreat of the third Egyptian Legion in the West Bank and taking the initiative on the battlefield.
On the 22nd, the United Nations Security Council adopted resolution 338 jointly proposed by the United States and the Soviet Union, requiring all parties to the conflict to immediately cease fire and implement all contents of resolution 224.
But Israel broke the armistice and completed the siege of the third army.
On the 24th, under the pressure of the United Nations, Egypt, Syria and Israel finally accepted the ceasefire, and the October war, the fourth Middle East War, came to an end.
Arab countries suffered defeat in the later stage of the war, but they still achieved major political victory.
The war broke the myth of “invincibility” of Israel and the situation of no war and discord in the Middle East, forcing the superpower to face up to the demands of Arab countries.
Another feature of the October war is the oil war.
On the day of the outbreak of the war, Syria and Lebanon closed their oil pipelines.
Subsequently, Arab oil producing countries uniformly implemented production reduction, price increase, embargo and nationalization.
The European Community and Japan were forced to issue statements one after another, claiming that Resolution 242 is the basis of peace in the Middle East and respects the legitimate rights and interests of the Palestinians, which further isolated Israel.
The October war marked the dawn of peace in the Middle East.