India is an ancient oriental civilization with a long history.

As a historical geographical name, India has different meanings from the current India, that is, the Republic of India.

In history, since the Peacock Dynasty, India’s more powerful ruling dynasties, whether Hindu or Muslim, have mostly expanded their territory in their heyday, expanding their territory to the vast areas of Afghanistan and Balochistan.

The British colonists were forced to withdraw from Afghanistan in the northwest, but expanded to Myanmar in the northeast.

In 1937, Myanmar separated from British India and became British Myanmar until it gained independence after the Second World War.

In 1947, the United Kingdom announced the “Mongolia plan”, implemented the partition of India and Pakistan, and established two autonomous territories of India and Pakistan respectively.

India retained the main areas of the former British India and Indian state, and was declared the Republic of India in 1950.

In 1971, East Bangladesh separated from Pakistan and became a new independent country – Bangladesh.

The political territory of the changing subcontinent has come to an end for the time being.

India is located in the south of Asia.

It is a large peninsula.

It is adjacent to the Arabian Sea in the west, the bay of Bengal in the East and the Indian Ocean in the south.

It occupies a very important geographical position.

It has Pakistan in the northwest, Bangladesh, China and Myanmar in the northeast, and China, Nepal, Bhutan and other countries in the north.

Its external image is an irregular quadrilateral, 2900 kilometers wide from east to west and 3200 kilometers long from north to south.

Its total area is about 2.

95 million square kilometers.

According to its size, it ranks seventh in the world after the Soviet Union, China, the United States, Canada, Brazil and Australia.

India’s geographical location naturally separates it from the outside world: in the north lies the towering Himalayas, which starts from the Pamir Plateau in the West and ends at the China Myanmar border in the East, with a total length of about 2500 kilometers.

Here, the mountains overlap, the mountains are steep, and the snow on the mountains does not melt all year round, which is an extremely insurmountable natural barrier.

The border between India and Myanmar in the northeast is the Naga mountains, where the mountains are steep, the jungle is dense, the forest is poisoned, snakes and beasts come out and go out, and the heat miasma hurts people, setting many difficulties and dangers for the journey.

In the northwest is the Thar desert and Indus River Basin, which is connected with the Karakoram mountains and arawali mountains.

Only some passes of Hindu Kush mountain, which borders Pakistan and Afghanistan, are connected with the outside world.

Although the mountain passes here are rugged, narrow and inconvenient for travel, it is the only important channel for land transportation between the subcontinent and the outside world after all.

The East, West and South are surrounded by the sea.

Under the condition of underdeveloped ancient navigation technology, it is by no means a smooth road.

It is the mountains and oceans that make India a geographically independent unit.

Within the Indian mainland, according to its surface structure, it can be divided into three parts: the northern high mountain area, including the great Himalayan belt, the lesser Himalayan belt and the siwalik belt.

The Central River plain area mainly includes the Ganges River, Jumna River, goguera River Basin and Ganges delta.

The Southern Plateau area can be divided into two parts, one is the Sino Indian plateau and the other is the Deccan Plateau, between which is the wendia mountains and the nabada river.

The southern tip of the peninsula is unique in history, and the great empire in the North has been unable to control the whole region.

Moreover, the terrain in the interior of India is also very complex.

In addition to the obstruction of mountains, there are highlands and lowlands, rivers and lakes, deserts and swamps, jungles and grasslands, which cause many difficulties in transportation.

Coupled with the lack of roads and backward means of transport, it is muddy and difficult to travel during the rainy season.

This makes India geographically divided into many independent small units.

The influence of such geographical factors on the historical process of India is multifaceted.

(1) occlusion and unbalanced development as mentioned above, the winding mountains and deep oceans separate the subcontinent from the outside world and make India geographically self-contained.

The complexity of the internal geographical composition of the peninsula has divided India itself into many small “unified countries”.

In addition, India has a mild climate, abundant rainfall and abundant products.

Although the people maintain a low standard of living, because the general demand is small and easy to meet, it further deepens the social occlusion and stagnation.

With the passage of time and the development of productive forces, the discrete regional small units formed due to the difference of geographical conditions show the imbalance of their economic level.

For example, in plain and valley areas, due to their fertile soil and sufficient rainfall, they are suitable for farming, and developed agricultural economy has sprung up in these areas.

Plateau, mountainous or desert areas, due to poor soil, drought and water shortage, are not suitable for farming, so they can only engage in other occupations to make a living.

Their economy is very backward, and the society is in a more primitive state.

In modern times, in coastal ports or thoroughfares, a prosperous industrial and commercial economy was developed and a luxurious urban life was lived.

However, in the deep mountains and valleys or dense forests, people are still engaged in backward animal husbandry or agricultural farming and live a primitive and simple life.

As for the existence and development of rural communes, it is also closely related to natural conditions.

The complex terrain, the barrier of mountains and rivers, the lack of roads and the difficulty of travel are undoubtedly the reasons for the closure and isolation of the village community.

The changeable climate, drought or rainstorm will lead to crop failure.

When it is serious, it will lead to famine, epidemic disease and famine victims everywhere, which has dealt a heavy blow to many village communities and even killed the villagers, and the village has become a wasteland.

Although rural communes with the same structure will reappear after a certain period of time after each disaster, social development has been affected.

(2) the geographical units formed by the differences between decentralization and political disunity and geographical conditions are often administrative units in essence.

Because they have different economic interests and different cultural qualities, they have different political consciousness and goals.

Generally speaking, there are always obvious differences between North India and South India.

In short, whether North India or South India itself, there are many large and small political entities.

In history, they fought endlessly, annexed each other, governed their own affairs and dominated a corner.

People only have the concept of Kingdom, region or even smaller administrative unit.

In some kingdoms or regions that have never had the great d-fault of “India”, both people and rulers are indifferent to the rise and fall of the Empire and stay out of the matter.

Some princes and nobles have always maintained a centrifugal tendency and broke away from the disintegrating society at the chanceThe central empire was divided, independent and reigned independently.

Moreover, the vast territory and the obstacles of mountains and rivers have added to the difficulties of the imperial central power in realizing political unity.

The central power of the ruling dynasty whose power focus is partial to the North fought for unity.

Whether it is the southern expedition or the eastern expedition, it should not only send a large army to travel long distances, but also raise a large amount of supplies and ensure that they are transported to the front continuously.

This is often impossible.

Even if the force works temporarily and the reunification is forced, it will be a big problem whether it is heavily guarded or the implementation of administrative management.

Once the troops are withdrawn, the local rebellion will rise again, and the central government will be far away from the accident area, beyond the reach of the whip and helpless.

When the local forces were in power and the power had been consolidated, the repressive division sent by the central authorities came late and was defeated.

The result is only to promote local division in vain.

(3) the importance of geographical location and the invasion of foreigners.

India is located in the traffic hub of the East and West, and the geographical location is very important.

In ancient times, it occupied the middle of the birthplaces of eastern and Western civilizations.

In modern times, it was an important stop for the west to explore the so-called new route.

The topography of India has prepared the necessary conditions for foreigners to open the door of India: several mountain passes in the Hindu Kush mountain in the northwest, such as Khyber, Bolun and mula mountain passes, have provided channels for foreigners who invaded the subcontinent by land.

The vast ocean facilitated the navigation of the boats and gunboats of the western colonists.

Rich resources, economic prosperity, high-quality products, gold, silver and jewelry are coveted by foreign invaders.

Internal turmoil and disputes give foreign invaders a good opportunity to win.

So in history, groups of foreigners flocked to share the inexhaustible wealth of this land.

In addition to the primitive Aryans, there are Persians, Greeks, Daxia, Sabbath and Cypriots, Huns, Turks, Mongols and Mughals, all of whom go deep into India through the Indus River from the mouth of the mountain in the northwest.

The Thar desert between the Indus and Ganges is very disadvantageous to Indian defense, because it makes it impossible for India to mobilize all human and material resources in the north to fully resist foreign aggression.

Most of these tribes, tribes or nationalities invading the subcontinent established their own ruling dynasties in India, except for the harassment of some predators.

Their dynasties, regardless of the size of their territory and the length of their reign, are all Indian dynasties.

Their people are assimilated by the higher civilization of India, or have been integrated into Indian society although they retain their original religious and cultural characteristics.

In short, all ethnic groups entering the subcontinent have become an important part of Indian society and played their respective roles in the process of India’s historical development.

There are also invaders from the sea.

Arabs have long paid attention to some rich ports in West India and sent an army to attack Tana near Mumbai in the 7th century.

However, at this time, they mainly came to India as businessmen.

When the Portuguese came to India in the 15th and 16th centuries, the situation was very different because they had obvious aggressive ambitions.

Then came the Dutch, the French and the British.

The British ruled India for nearly two centuries, but they never became a member of Indian society, which is completely different from the previous invaders.

The long-term separatist regime and the war between large and small kingdoms are an important feature of all Indian political history.

It has been nearly 3700 years since the recorded history of India began with the Aryans entering the main and sub continents in 1700 BC.

After thousands of years of struggle and integration, Aryan tribes formed a political situation of competing for supremacy in the 6th century B.C. after that, only the two males of morgatha and jusara stood side by side.

When morgatha annexed jusara, the hegemony of this period ended temporarily.

At about the same time, the northwest of the subcontinent was occupied by the Persians.

After their power declined, there was a large-scale invasion by the Greeks in the 4th century BC.

In 324 BC, the peacock empire was founded in the struggle against foreign aggression.

It may be the first relatively powerful unified country in India, although the territory under its direct rule was still very limited at that time.

The dynasty flourished for about a century, and the death of Ashoka (232 BC) marked the disintegration of the Empire.

Since then, more foreign invaders have invaded, and the bustling northwest of the subcontinent has fallen into war again.

India in the Middle Ages was also unified several times in history.

The Gupta Dynasty, founded in 320, was the first political unity achieved in this period.

It flourished for about a century.

The death of King Chaori (413) heralded the beginning of the collapse of the Empire.

At the beginning of the 7th century, there was a jieri Dynasty, which did not exist for a long time, and its territory could not be compared with the first two dynasties.

For more than 500 years after its demise, the subcontinent has never formed even a relative political unity.

The establishment of the Delhi Sultanate in the early 13th century (1206) reunited India, even though its Sudan was a foreign invader who believed in Islam.

Although the Sultanate of Delhi was succeeded by Five Dynasties, which lasted for more than 300 years, it began to disintegrate by the end of the rule of the Third Dynasty, the tugluk Dynasty (1413), and its prosperity was only two centuries.

Then there were wars, massacres and looting.

There were numerous dynasties and disputes.

The creation of the Mughal Empire in the early 16th century (1526) ended the chaos at that time, while the death of Aurangzeb (1707) began a new round of turmoil.

Its prosperous period, like the previous dynasty, is about two centuries.

The struggle at this time was different from that in the past, because the western colonists stepped into the subcontinent and participated in the competition, becoming a new and dangerous aggressor of the subcontinent.

Modern India lasted about two centuries.

In 1757, the British colonists defeated nawab in Bangladesh and embarked on the road of seizing power.

It took a whole century for the British to drive away other Western powers, successively defeated local feudal rulers, suppressed people’s resistance and uprising, and finally established the rule of the British king.

India was reunited, although it had become a colony and was enslaved by a foreign nation far away from the subcontinent and irrelevant to India’s historical and cultural traditions.

The British colonial regime, which began when the British king ruled India in 1859, died in less than a hundred years.

This brief outline of India’s political history is enough to illustrate India’s political unityThe Bureau has given British Indian mixed race people separate representation to protect their rights and interests.

Therefore, their social status and energy cannot be simply measured by their number.

It is precisely because of India’s repeated invasion and mixed blood that India has many and extremely complex races, nationalities, religions and languages, forming a diversified “complex” society rarely seen in the world.

Another prominent feature of Indian society is the slow historical development.

Indian society is conservative and backward.

India’s slow historical development is similar to that of China.

However, Indian society seems to be more conservative and inert than Chinese society.

In addition to the above factors such as India’s geographical environment, continuous foreign invasion and long-term division, it is mainly due to the following two reasons: first, the village community system formed in India since ancient times constitutes the basis of Indian slave and feudal society.

These idyllic rural communes have always confined people’s minds to a very narrow range, become a tool for taming superstition and a slave to traditional rules, and do not show any greatness and any historical initiative.

The self-interest of the uncivilized people in these communes focused all their attention on a pitifully small land and quietly watched the collapse of the whole empire.

As long as an aggressor was willing to take care of them, they would become helpless floating prisoners of the aggressor.

This kind of social foundation not only opens the door for the frequent invasion of foreigners, but also seriously shackles the development of Indian society.

A British official report once described the Indian village community system as follows: “Since ancient times, the residents of this country have lived under this simple form of autonomy.

The boundaries of village communities have rarely changed.

Although the village communities themselves are sometimes seriously damaged by war, famine or disease, and even become desolate, the name of the same village community, the same border, the same interests, and even the same family have lasted for a century For another century.

The inhabitants are indifferent to the collapse and division of the kingdoms.

As long as their village is intact, they don’t care which country or monarch rules the village, because their internal economic life remains unchanged.

” Second, Indian religion and caste system have become a powerful spiritual force hindering the development of Indian society.

India is a typical religious country.

Almost no country in the world can compare with India in paying attention to religion and caste system.

Without religion and caste system, there is no history and society of India.

Indian religion has a long history, a wide variety and fanatical activities.

It is known as the “religious Museum”.

As an ideology, Indian religion originates from and serves the backward productivity and production relations.

Although religion has played an important progressive role in Indian history and formed an indispensable part of ancient Indian culture.

However, India’s negative role in social development cannot be denied.

After the emergence of Hinduism and Buddhism, Indian religions, especially Hinduism and Buddhism, have been closely combined with the village community system, making its originally closed economic foundation and superstructure more conservative and backward.

In this conservative and backward society, people can only be the taming tools and slaves of religious superstition.

People can not become the master of the environment and nature, but can only succumb to the environment and nature.

Advanced productive forces and advanced science and technology are often regarded as heresy, and there is nothing we can do in front of it.

As an important part of religion, the caste system has greatly limited people’s intelligence due to the fixation of occupations and the stereotyping of people’s destiny.

It stifles people’s creativity and tramples on people’s dignity and power.

If China’s culture is based on the teachings and thoughts of Confucius and Mencius, then India’s culture is based on the teachings of Hinduism.

Although the two cultures belong to the eastern type, Indian culture seems to be more conservative and magical than Chinese culture, which hinders the progress of society.

Marx gave an incisive description of the conservative role of Indian religion and caste system: “We should not forget that this dignified, stagnant and restless life, this negative way of life, on the other hand, has produced wild, blind and indulgent destructive forces, and even turned the massacre into a religious ceremony in Hindustan.

We should not forget that these small communes bear the marks of caste division and slavery.

they make people yield In the environment, rather than promoting people as the master of the environment.

They have turned the social situation of automatic development into an invariable fate predetermined by nature, resulting in the barbaric quick faith of worshipping nature.

People who are the masters of nature worship the monkey Hanuman and the cow sabala piously.

From this fact, we can see how this superstition tramples on people.

” The invasion of British colonialists made Indian society leave the normal development track and become a colonial and semi feudal society.

It did not begin to develop in the direction of capitalism until India achieved independence.

British colonialism played two opposite and complementary roles in the development of Indian society.

On the one hand, the invasion of colonialism dealt a decisive blow to the Indian village community system and completely disintegrated and even eliminated the village community system, which was praised by Marx as “the largest and, to be honest, the only social revolution in Asia”.

No matter how much crime the British committed, it was, after all, an unconscious tool of history in creating this revolution.

At the same time, British colonialism also brought some factors of the new capitalist mode of production to India and promoted the development of urban and rural capitalist factors.

This is what people call Britain’s dual historical mission in India: “one is the destructive mission, that is, to eliminate the old Asian society.

the other is the constructive mission, that is, to lay the material foundation for the western society in Asia.

” However, no matter what kind of mission, it should be regarded as an objective “promoting” role.

On the other hand, the invasion of colonialism has brought endless disasters to Indian society, which has greatly hindered the development of Indian society.

In the Indian society under British occupation, the whole nation completely lost its freedom, sovereignty and independence, was completely in the slave status of obeying the colonial authorities, and all power was almost completely manipulated in the hands of the colonists.