In the Enlightenment era, Europeans’ discussion on ancient Chinese history can be divided into two scenes.
One is the description of ancient Chinese history by Jesuits in China.
Their description runs through specific intentions and adopts specific narrative methods, which is one of the results of their response to the problems of missionary areas in China.
The second is the discussion of European local intellectuals.
Their discussion is based on the Chinese knowledge provided by the Jesuits, but the purpose and direction of the discussion are significantly different from those of the Jesuits, belonging to the problems and consciousness of European society at that time.
In terms of nature, the discussions in these two scenarios are different and independent.
But they also have obvious relevance, not only because the Jesuits publicized the ancient Chinese history and discussed the ancient Chinese history in Europe, but also because the ancient Chinese history described by the Jesuits is the direct cause of the debate in Europe, and the Jesuits’ remarks have become the most important argument for European intellectuals.
Moreover, the Jesuits, after all, have similar cultural awareness and ideas with the Europeans of the same era, and their understanding and consideration of ancient Chinese history is similar to that of their European compatriots.
Therefore, since the end of the 17th century, the Jesuits in China have continued to maintain the image of ancient Chinese history by focusing on the overall interests of the missionary area, and directly participated in the debate in the European environment, Make the two scenarios have some overlapping relationship in addition to the causal relationship.
In view of this, this book needs to describe the origin and characteristics of the two discussion scenes respectively.
One is the material basis of the later debate, and the other is the soil for the occurrence and development of the debate.
On this basis, we can describe the situation of the later debate.
The debate is the intersection of the previous two relatively independent scenes, and it is also the inevitable confluence and collision after they develop to a certain extent.
Accordingly, the third part of this book introduces how the Jesuits portray ancient Chinese history, the knowledge and ideological background of Europe, and the debate on ancient Chinese history.
Of course, the main role of Jesuits in China is still to provide materials.
When they participate in the debate in Europe, they are quite passive.
Those Europeans who have never been to China decide the development and outcome of the debate.
In the 16th century, Europeans entered China by sea, which was the background of cultural contact and collision between China and Europe in the next 200 years.
The religious reform in the 16th century led to the establishment of the Jesuit Church, which is the premise for Jesuits to become the main medium of Chinese and Western culture in the past 200 years.
Jesuits sailed from the east to the East, and Chinese culture went west through the wind and waves.
A unique cultural communication bridge was built between the coming and going, which constituted the starting point of all the narratives in this book.
Section I European overseas expansion the arrival of Europeans on the Chinese coastline is a brilliant achievement of the European overseas expansion movement led by the Portuguese since the 14th century.
Since the 14th century, the direct goal of maritime exploration is to find the East, and serving God and seeking gold are the strongest motivation to promote them to find the East.
Economic, political and religious interests were intertwined at the beginning of overseas exploration.
With the progress of technical conditions, the dream of navigation came true.
These complex relationships also spread everywhere with the rise and fall of sails, which became the driving force and support for Jesuits to drive Asia and China under their command, and also formed a certain statute and influence on the characteristics of later Jesuits’ activities.
Sailing is the result of economic motivation.
Among the many reasons leading to the commercial revolution in Europe in the early 14th century, two points are directly related to the maritime expansion we are concerned about, namely, the sharp increase in demand for products from the Far East and the monopoly of Italian cities in Mediterranean trade.
These two points clearly constitute a contradiction in the European market.
For European countries tempted by the profits of Oriental Trade and Oriental consumer goods, the Mediterranean trade in the whole Europe is monopolized by Italians, which is really envied and hated by other countries.
Portugal and Spain took the lead in setting sail in order to find a way to the East that is not controlled by the Italians, so as to occupy a place in the Oriental Trade and reduce the high burden of buying fabrics and spices.
By the middle of the 14th century, the situation had changed slightly.
At this time, opening up new channels with the production centers of precious metals and tropical products was no longer just the needs of individual European countries, but an important trade issue for the whole of Europe.
The Islamic world, which expanded rapidly into Central Asia, blocked the roads often used by businessmen and missionaries in Egypt, Asia Minor and the Caspian Sea, while the Ottoman regime was close to the Dardanelle Strait.
At the same time, Muslims occupied a large part of the Spanish Peninsula, seriously hindering any expansion activities trying to go beyond the geographical scope of Europe.
All this has become a threat to panic Europeans, and directly led to the contraction and interruption of the old East-West land trade.
However, Europe’s dependence and desire for Eastern trade did not decline, but yearned for it because of its desire.
Therefore, opening up new channels has become a top priority for Europe.
Crossing Africa to the Indian Ocean by water or land is considered to be the best choice for developing trade.
The geographical location of Portugal and Spain gives them natural advantages to act as the vanguard of the discovery mission.
Spiritual motivation is also indispensable for people in the Christian world to go on a long voyage.
Europe has an expeditionary tradition since its inception.
Universalism, enthusiasm for changing heresy and bellicose spirit permeate Christianity and are also the natural driving force of expansion.
The frequent invasion of Europe by the East in the early stage also contributed to the belligerence of the strong Christian world.
The legend that a priest John ruled a Christian land in the Far East spread among the medieval people, which encouraged Europeans to jointly attack Islamists with the priest John in the East.
Overseas expansion is a continuation of this tradition in a sense.
One of the important reasons why overseas exploration began with the Portuguese on the Iberian Peninsula is that Islam is a traditional and eternal enemy in the eyes of the Iberian people.
Most parts of the peninsula were under Muslim rule, and Christians fought long and hard to recover their land until the 15th century, Muslims who control the coast of North Africa still make it difficult for Iberians on the other side to sleep and eat, so someone concluded: “other Europeans participate in the Crusade on a temporary pleasure, while pious and patriotic Iberians believe that the struggle against Islam is an unshakable and necessary responsibility – a combination of religious obligations and patriotic needs”.
In addition, in the late Middle Ages, a new spiritual tendency that can be collectively referred to as “mysticism of discovery” appeared, which is enough to inspire people to face the turbulent Atlantic OceanAnd the unknown world beyond the ocean.
These new spiritual orientations include: religion should respect people and nature, enthusiastically strive for new believers among pagans, and love travel.
This new spirit benefits not only the art of the Christian world represented by the Renaissance, but also the geographical science closely related to the conquest of the ocean.
It is the technological progress represented by navigation technology that makes navigation activities finally put into practice.
To realize the ambition of expanding and unifying all mankind, the key is to solve a series of technical problems in navigation, such as the construction of ships, the study of ocean and physical conditions, the positioning technology of ships, the understanding of the earth’s volume, and the technology of accurately calibrating the newly discovered land on the map.
Until the end of the 14th century, only a small number of elites recognized the idea that the earth was round and the idea that there was an opposite metatarsal point of the earth.
However, by the middle of the 15th century, many people had the idea of cross ocean navigation and were convinced that it could be realized from more than one point in the West.
The four almanacs popular in Portugal in the first half of the 14th century played a great role in the formation of Portuguese navigation science, such as the rules for calculating the position of stars and the urban coordinate table, the definitions of hours, ecliptic, longitude and latitude, the rules for calculating irregular religious festivals and understanding the new moon method, which were later integrated into navigation works.
In the 13th-14th century, the Portuguese combined the knowledge of navigation science and astronomy, making the compass and astrolabe once active in the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean together an important reliance for Atlantic navigators.
The expensive astrolabe was soon replaced by the quadrant with simple structure and low cost, such as the sextant.
The Portuguese were able to use the horizon latitude to navigate and develop a set of principles for accurately measuring the latitude.
Coupled with the study of ocean dynamics, the navigator was able to determine the appropriate route and draw navigation charts and maps.
Ships are also important.
In the 14th century, the Portuguese transformed the triangular sail rigging of the Arabs to make a three masted sailboat.
Its basic feature is light and exquisite, which is suitable for sailing against the wind.
After its birth, it has been used as a special ship for coastal exploration for a long time.
With the help of three masted sailboats, Portugal and Spain successively completed the feats of sailing around the world by bypassing the Gulf of Guinea, exploring the coast of Brazil, turning the Cape of good hope, crossing the Atlantic Ocean and crossing the Strait of Magellan.
When long-distance sailing is no longer a dream and the technology of sailing is becoming more and more skilled, first of all, it will naturally have incalculable consequences in terms of economy.
The Mediterranean trade limited to a narrow scope has expanded into a worldwide cause, the business volume and types of consumer goods in the European market have increased significantly, and the precious metals from other continents have also greatly enriched the European Treasury.
In addition, it has important political consequences.
Overseas voyages have brought wealth and prestige to the Portuguese, and the church, which has lost its appeal, has seen the hope of maintaining and even expanding its ruling power by providing political support to secular monarchs.
The expansion of the Turkish Empire in Europe in the mid-15th century makes this need of the church more and more urgent.
On the other hand, from 1452 to 1455, Portuguese ships to and from Guinea were repeatedly attacked by mainly Spanish, reminding the Portuguese to seek effective protection measures.
Therefore, Portugal and the church hit it off and cooperated in the cause of overseas discovery, and the right to protect overseas education came into being.
“The right to protect the church” is a preferential privilege in the Catholic missionary cause.
In the early stage of development, the church gave believers various privileges in return for calling them to help build various religious facilities, but this privilege had declined in Europe in the late Middle Ages.
The “right to protect education” revived overseas with Portugal’s maritime exploration can be said to be synonymous with the division of the world by European countries, and has long been a symbol of equal sharing between Portugal and Spain.
The establishment of overseas religious protection right should first be attributed to the unity understanding of European countries based on religious spirit, “When Europe began to expand, the European countries tacitly adopted a convenient principle among themselves, that is, the Christian state had the right to occupy the land of barbarians and pagans without taking into account the indigenous peoples concerned.
Another principle recognized at least by Portugal and Spain was that the pope had the right to allocate any area not owned by Christian rulers Worldly exclusive rights “.
The church issued a series of edicts in the mid-15th century, giving Portugal the right to conquer without restriction.
At the end of the 15th century, Spain intervened in the cause of overseas discovery and adopted the strategy of wooing the Roman Church.
The Pope issued many royal decrees expressing concessions to Spain.
Since then, Portugal and Spain fell into a long-term dispute over the right to protect the church.
Finally, on June 7, 1494, they signed the Treaty of toldesilas, which stipulated that a straight line from the south pole to the north pole should be drawn at 370 lig in the west of Cape vade islands by longitude or other means.
Everything found and to be found to the east of the line belongs to Portugal, The west of the line belongs to Spain, so their respective overseas spheres of influence are preliminarily determined.
When the treaty was signed, Spain firmly believed that Columbus arrived in real India, so it once thought it had the upper hand.
Portugal knows that bypassing Africa is the right way to India through many years of voyage, but it intends to keep it secret.
From 1497 to 1499, Vasco da Gama bypassed the Cape of good hope and arrived in India via the Indian ocean route.
Therefore, Portugal implemented its Oriental Policy under the protection of the previous papal Edict and the treaty, and the deceived king of Spain could only swallow it.
However, Magellan’s expeditionary force bypassed the South American route from the Pacific Ocean to the Moluccas in Indonesia in 1521, which brightened the eyes of Spain and renewed the dispute between Portugal and Spain over the Treaty of toldesilas.
From 1521 to 1529, the monarchs of the two countries held arduous negotiations to determine the boundary of their respective colonial rule in the Pacific, agreed to form a semicircular boundary on the Pacific with the projection of the anti meridian assumed by the meridian in the Treaty of toldesilas, and Spain was finally forced to agree to include the Maluku islands into the sphere of influence of Portugal, Through the Treaty of Zaragoza concluded in 1529.
Since then, the privileges granted by the Pope to the two countries have been clarified and implemented through these two treaties, and the pattern of dividing the world between Portugal and Spain has been established and effectively lasted for more than 100 years.
Since then, all exchanges between China and the EU have been gradually carried out in the pattern of protecting the right of religion between Portugal and Spain.
After dagama’s successful arrival in India, the Portuguese immediately set outBuild your own Oriental colonial empire.
In March 1505, Portugal sent the first governor to India.
The establishment of a base in Macao in 1557 was the end of a series of Portuguese occupation and establishment in the Far East.
These 50 years were the expansion period of Portugal’s eastern empire.
The Portuguese rule in the East can be divided into several forms according to different institutions: 1) the real colonies with absolute sovereignty, including the Portuguese, are only Goa, Mozambique, Malacca and DIU.
2) Sovereignty belongs to the local indigenous kings, who are allies or tribute people of the Portuguese king.
The Portuguese build fortresses, set up Portuguese settlements, set up ordinary commercial stations, or set up ordinary executive offices in these places, which is the case in most areas from the Persian Gulf to the coast of India.
3) It is completely subordinate to the will of the rulers of the local country, and the sovereignty is completely independent of the colonies outside the Portuguese monarchy.
For example, there are only executive offices or commercial firms in Southeast Asia and the front line from Ningbo to Macao in China.
Obviously, the diversity of ruling forms and the high dispersion of ruling areas have brought difficulties to the governor’s exercise of power.
The central government of Portugal really does not have enough power to control this colonial empire covering more than half of the earth.
In fact, only a few islands and coastal strongholds with important strategic position constitute Portugal’s Asian empire.
Although the Portuguese control the merchant shipping routes across half the world by virtue of them, they are unable to go inland for more stable development.
In fact, since the 1550s, the governor’s jurisdiction has rarely extended beyond the Hindustan coast of Goa.
In addition, the Portuguese never achieved the goal of complete monopoly on foreign routes.
Throughout the 16th century, Arabs and Venetians always successfully competed with the Portuguese, and it was even more difficult to stop the influx of other European countries in the 17th century.
The Spanish paid more attention to the American continent than to Asia.
One of the reasons was that the right to protect the church isolated them from the Indian Ocean and Asia, and their own force was not enough to break through the Portuguese defense line in Asia.
They had tried to invade Asia from the Americas through the Pacific several times, but were defeated by the Portuguese stationed there.
Another reason is that the value of silver obtained by Spaniards in America is comparable to that of oriental spices, so they temporarily restrain their desire for Asia.
But after all, the Spaniards never forget about Asia.
Finally, they established a stronghold on Cebu Island in the south of the central Philippines in 1565, captured Manila, the first town of Luzon in 1571, and immediately began to colonize Manila.
They also began to implement the idea of trading in all directions with Manila as a stronghold.
The Philippine islands became the only stronghold of Spain in Asia in the 16th-18th century.
Portugal’s geographical discovery and conquest at the end of the Middle Ages had a great impact on the expansion of Christianity to the world, and also accelerated the transfer of the center of Western civilization from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic.
Spain, France, Britain and the Netherlands woke up after Portugal.
When Portugal has been struggling to maintain its eastern empire, and Spain has not had time to use the Philippines to expand its ambitions in Asia, more modern northwest European countries such as the Netherlands, France and Britain have poured into their territories sheltered by the right to preach.
The Dutch built Batavia on Java island in Indonesia in 1619, marking a new era for European operations in the Far East controlled by the “East India Company”.
The strong competitiveness and influence of these northwest European countries quickly overtook the aging Portugal and Spain, but the colonial empire of Portugal and Spain did not collapse.
The power of “religious protection right” can still be seen from the activities of missionaries, and the activities of Jesuits in the Far East are particularly closely related to Portugal.
Jesuits have long been loyal to the religious rights of Portugal, entered the Portuguese colonial territory with the route of Portuguese merchant ships, and then came to China.
It was only at the end of the 17th century that Louis XIV made great efforts to obtain new Protestant rights for France and sent Jesuits subordinate to French Protestant rights to Asia and China, which disturbed the close relationship between Jesuits and Portugal and exposed the national and national disputes among Jesuits.
In the second section, the Jesuit started from scratch.
The Jesuits are the protagonists in the Sino Western exchanges between the late Ming Dynasty and the pre Qing Dynasty, and they are also an important role in the story described in this book.
The overseas penetration ability of the Jesuit Church was second to none among the European Catholic religious orders in early modern times.
Its rise and expansion communicated with the geographical expansion of Iberian countries and the changes of the Catholic Church in the late Middle Ages.
They once took advantage of the potential of Portuguese colonists to take root and grow in America and India, and then entered China, which could not be done by the colonists. I. Basic Characteristics: religious revival is an important change in Europe in the 15th-16th century, which is accompanied by geographical discoveries, including the Protestant revolution in northern Europe and the reform of the Catholic Church in southern Europe.
The reform of the Catholic Church stimulated by the Protestant revolution is directly related to the rise of the Jesuit Church.
From 1545 to 1563, the Catholic Church held the Council of Trent to correct the corrupt practices of the church and strengthen the centralized rule of the Pope.
To a certain extent, it abandoned dogma and made innovations.
One of the important measures is to adjust the obligations of the religious order to revitalize it and encourage the establishment of a new order.
The goal of the hermits in the Middle Ages was to break away from the world, while the reformed monasteries tended to fulfill their religious obligations in the secular world.
The highest goal of the newly born monasteries was to seek a religious way of life that integrates meditation life and secular active life.
As a result, the orders were enthusiastic about various charities, invested heavily in education, and actively carried out missionary work among European Protestants and overseas pagans.
Among the many monasteries that emerged after 1500 to live this new form of religious life, the most famous and with the largest number of members are the capuchins, the society of Jesus and the Ursulines.
The Jesuit is particularly eye-catching.
In the cause of education in Europe, it is separated from the Ursulines engaged in girls’ Education, Among the overseas missionary undertakings we are concerned about, its achievements once stood out in the world.
Ignatius Loyola, the founder of the Jesuit Church, gathered six like-minded people in Paris in 1534, established the will and goal of group life, and established the two basic purposes of the later Jesuit Church – the seaBecoming the strongest pillar of the monarchs and subjecting them to the Pope is the tried and tested strategy of the Jesuits.
Second, the revival of flexible missionary religion and geographical expansion jointly led to the prosperity of the missionary movement, and the missionary activities were carried out entirely by the Roman Catholic Church for almost 200 years.
First of all, the secular monarchs who have long supported missionary work are ardent Catholics, such as the kings of Spain and Portugal and Louis XIV of France.
It is also because the Catholic Church has a large, enthusiastic and experienced missionary agency.
First, there are many members of the Mendicants with the primary goal of the missionary district – the Franciscan order, the augustian order and the Dominican order, and then the vibrant Jesuit Church.
From the very beginning, Jesuits have different innovative consciousness from other monasteries in missionary issues.
The activities of Catholic missionaries always followed the discovery and settlement of Portugal and Spain.
With the passage of the colonial routes of the two countries, missionaries were also scattered in Ethiopia, the Indian Coast, Canadian forests, the Mississippi Valley, the West Indies, the South American continent and the Far East.
The first missionaries in America were Franciscans who came in 1500.
Since then, the missionary forces dominated by Franciscans have flourished in Western America with the special support of the Spanish government.
Portugal occupied Goa in 1510, and Franciscans came to India to preach in 1517.
Since 1525, they have followed the Portuguese spice route eastward into the Indonesian islands to open up a missionary area.
The Philippine Islands are the scope of Spain’s ecclesiastical power.
Manila became an archdiocese in 1595, and several other monasteries except the Jesuit have a place here.
In the second half of the 16th century, Franciscans and Dominicans from Manila tried to infiltrate Southeast Asian countries such as Myanmar, Cambodia and Siam several times, but they were not ideal.
Jesuit is a rising star.
Due to its strong alliance with the Portuguese royal family, its overseas missionary work has shifted with Portugal’s attention.
Portugal did not establish a governor in Brazil, which was included in its scope of religious protection, until 1549.
In the same year, Jesuits came to Brazil with the governor.
The Portuguese set foot in Africa at the beginning of the era of discovery, but their interest in it was after East India and Brazil.
Similarly, Jesuits were not stationed in Congo until the middle of the 17th century.
In Asia, Jesuits followed the Portuguese footsteps and advanced along the line of India, Malaysia, Japan and Macao.
Jesuits didn’t pay much attention to Southeast Asia until the 16th century, which is also related to the fact that the Portuguese had no stronghold in this area at that time.
Missionaries followed the colonists, which brought convenience for them to enter a certain area, but also made it difficult to further consolidate the missionary work.
In the 15th century, the foundation of Portugal’s religious right was the combination of missionary and colonial imperialism, which was a special and dangerous type of Europeanism, which became the general rule of overseas missionary districts in the 16th century.
However, as a missionary method, Europeanism can only succeed where there are specific conditions, that is, where European political forces establish a dominant position and can mobilize all the forces it can control to support cultural infiltration.
If these conditions are not met, the system will fail.
For example, Europeanism encountered a high-level and rich culture in India.
At the end of the 16th century, some missionaries began to realize the mistakes of Europeanism, first of all the emerging Jesuits.
The Jesuit Church has some conditions suitable for innovation.
The first is that the congregation is young and adventurous.
In addition, Saint Ignatius Loyola laid down the spirit of not being afraid to be the first to open the atmosphere for the Jesuit Church.
The constitution he formulated did not provide rigid missionary methods for his future followers.
Instead, he firmly opposed members’ adherence to a special habit and stipulated that Jesuits should learn the language of the country in which they lived.
The spirit of Loyola has important guiding significance for the later adaptation of Jesuits.
On May 6, 1542, Francisco Xavier arrived in Goa, changed the forced naturalization mode led by the military conquest of the colonists, and advocated persuasion and peaceful missionary work through education.
Sabillo also took the lead in recognizing the diversity of Indian residents in language, culture, customs and religious beliefs, and insisted on using different means for different groups based on patient education.
Sabillo’s peaceful missionary method had been observed by the Jesuits in India and achieved good results until 1556, but his patient education strategy was not immediately accepted due to the strong influence of Portugal and the differences of opinions among members.
Anton de quadros, who led the Jesuit missionary region of India from 1559 to 1569, made great achievements in standardizing the missionary region of India by imitating the European management model of the Jesuit Church.
However, at the beginning of his term of office, he supported the Portuguese practice of requiring naturalized persons to “Portuguese” in line with the mandatory collective naturalization policy implemented by the Indian governor in Goa and its surrounding areas, The result was an increase in the number of naturalists in the mission area, but it could not be consolidated.
In 1575, Alessandro Valignano came to India to lead the missionary area.
By 1606, he died in Macao.
In these 32 years, he was famous for actively advocating to adapt to the advanced culture of Asia.
The Christian missionaries in Macao and Macao, who are responsible for the spread of the gospel in Macao, are the primary targets of the local Christian missionaries.
Like Shakespeare, he recognized the diversity of residents across Asia, but he insisted more clearly than Shakespeare that Jesuits should study local languages as their primary task.
Fan Li’an and sabillo also believe that the future of the missionary area lies in Japan and China rather than India.
Therefore, they pay great attention to the culture of the Far East, regard language learning as the best way to win the elites of Japan and China, advocate the training of local clergy in Japan and China, and take the lead in implementing the “adaptation” policy in Japan, And when living in Macao, consider infiltrating China by adapting Christians to China.
Michele pompilius Ruggieri and Matteo Ricci began to study Chinese hard when they were in Macao, and took this opportunity to finally enter China.
This was in accordance with the instructions of fan Li’an.
Therefore, it can be said that fan Li’an is the real founder of the adaptation policy and in a sense.