After the Allied landing operations in North Africa, the Allied General Command moved to Algiers.

According to the scheduled plan, the landing forces continued to attack Tunisia from west to East, and together with the British 8th group army originally stationed in North Africa, surrounded and annihilated the German and Italian troops on the Tunisian battlefield.

However, the bad news of the US military’s defeat came from the Tunisian battlefield: the second army of fredendor was hit hard by the German and Italian army under commander Rommel and suffered heavy losses.

Erwin Rommel, born in 1891, was a professional soldier.

He participated in the first World War, made meritorious service and won the highest medal of the Prussian army.

He was a member of the private guard after the war.

After the outbreak of the Second World War, he personally participated in and directed many major battles, invaded Western Europe and moved to North Africa, making great contributions to Nazi Germany.

He has a special sensitivity to war, brave and tenacious, resourceful.

He can stop when he wins.

He is full of tenacity in adversity.

His tactics are changeable and mysterious.

He often makes his opponents unpredictable and have to.

His tactical style is fully reflected in the desert war in North Africa, so he enjoys the reputation of “Desert Fox”.

Rommel had already figured out the strategic intention of the allies, so he seized the opportunity when the Allies had a precarious foothold in Tunisia and launched the “battle of kasserin pass” and launched two raids on the US Army: the first was on January 30, 1943, and the battle site was in Fayed.

The second was on February 14, mainly attacking the kasserin pass.

The battle was a serious setback for the U.S. military.

Rommel drove them from the East dossel pass to the West dossel pass and dealt a heavy blow to the 1st Armored Division of Orlando ward.

Since then, Rommel continued to expand the war results and re established the Alliance Army in spita pass and other places.

In this battle, the US military alone suffered more than 3000 casualties, 3700 captured and 200 tanks lost.

This is the second disastrous defeat of the US military on the battlefield in North Africa.

It shocked the whole world, caused an uproar of public opinion, and made many people doubt the combat capability of the US military.

To this end, the commander of the allied ground forces and the British general suggested to Eisenhower that the best commander of the US Army should be sent to replace general freden Doyle.

At this time, Eisenhower thought of the brave and good at war.

On March 4, Patton, who went out for exercises, suddenly received an urgent telegram asking him to report to Algiers immediately and take over the command of the second army from freden Doyle.

At that time, Patton was preparing for the 7th group army in Morocco to plan the landing of Sicily code named “Eskimo”.

In fact, Patton’s palms had itched for a long time and thought of fighting the German army in Tunisia.

He once said to Eisenhower’s aide Bucher: “As soon as we arrived in North Africa, I saw Rommel stepping up the offensive in Tunisia.

I was looking forward to fighting with that powerful bastard.

I spent many years honing myself and preparing to deal with this guy.

I didn’t know how many times I read his book.

I studied every battle of him and thought I knew him like the back of my hand.

My lifelong wish is to catch and fight with him.

” Of the four divisions under the jurisdiction of the US second army, the division commanders of three divisions are graduates of West Point.

The division commander of the 1st Armored Division was Orlando ward, a 1914 graduate.

A native of Missouri, he worked with Pershing as a cavalry officer in Mexico and France and later became a tank expert.

He is knowledgeable, intelligent, witty and withdrawn.

Bradley worked as an assistant to Marshall when he was in the Secretariat of Marshall’s staff.

They knew each other and were honest with each other.

The commander of the 34th Infantry Division was Charles Ryder, a classmate of Bradley.

When Bradley was in the Department of tactics at West Point, Ryder was the head of the Cadet Corps.

He is a commanding officer who takes the lead and rushes into battle.

The 1st Infantry Division, also known as the “big red division”, was commanded by Terry Allen, a 1911 graduate, and his deputy was the president’s youngest son, Theodore Roosevelt.

They are brave commanders who are good at fighting and respected by soldiers, but they both ignore discipline.

In addition, the 3rd Infantry Division is also under the jurisdiction of the 2nd army.

Patton’s first task in taking over the second army is to rectify the army, make it a tough, disciplined, brave and good at fighting team as soon as possible, and get out of the depressed state as soon as possible.

Starting with rectifying the army, he took an “undemocratic and non American way” to severely rectify this group of “mobs”.

He started with a strict schedule and set an example.

At 7 a.m. on the second day of his tenure, Patton arrived at the canteen on time according to his work and rest time.

Only his chief of staff Garfield came on time.

So he immediately ordered the cook to have dinner on time and close down in an hour, and issued an order: from tomorrow, all staff will eat on time and finish it in half an hour.

Then he issued a mandatory dress code, stipulating that all soldiers in the theater must wear helmets, ties and leggings, and logistics personnel are no exception.

The order also applies to medical personnel and weapons repairmen in the theater.

Violators are fined $50 for officers and $25 for soldiers.

Although, some people still disagree.

After Patton learned about these situations, he personally led people to supervise and admonish those who did not carry out orders.

The language was very rude: “listen, I will never tolerate any bastard who did not carry out orders.

Now I give you a choice, either fine $25, or send it to the military court and put it on file.

You can do it yourself!” Patton’s rectification measures began to work.

It swept away the lax and procrastinating style of the second army, changed its mental outlook greatly, and had a profound impact on improving the combat effectiveness of the army.

When Patton served in the second army, the axis forces were helpless and almost ran out of ammunition and food.

Rommel asked to follow the British Dunkirk operation and withdraw his troops, but there was no reply.

He returned home in despair for sick leave.

His deputy, Italian General von Arnim, took over the command and was ready to fight to the death as ordered.

Patton was disappointed to learn.

The battle order was finally given.

At that time, Alexander, the British general, commanded the allied ground forces in the Tunis campaign, and the British 1st and 8th armies were the main attackers.

The mission of the US second army is to launch a feint in the mountains at the front of the general offensive, attract Axis forces and threaten their right wing.

On March 17, the second army launched an attack in two ways.

According to the plan, Terry Allen’s 1st Infantry Division “big red division” attacked gaffsa and, if it went well, took ergeta.

Orlando ward led the 1st Armored Division through the kasserin pass to attack stahin desenede northeast of ergeta, such asIf conditions permit, move on to meckness.

Allen’s troops went well.

On the first day, they walked 45 miles in torrential rain, occupied gaffsa without effort, thwarted the attack of the 10th German armored division and destroyed 32 tanks.

This is the first time that the US military defeated the Germans in World War II.

West Point graduates have finally shed the shame of the Kasserine pass.

However, Ward’s armored forces were in trouble.

After making the initial progress, due to the downpour for several days, the tank was stuck in the mud and unable to move, which aborted Patton’s plan to rush to the sea with fast armored forces.

He cursed ward on the phone.

Since then, Ward’s forces forcibly attacked and made limited progress, seizing stahin desenede.

At this time, General Alexander decided to leave the divisions of the second army behind the desert.

In this way, no matter how the war is fought, the final victory will not be shared by the second army.

Patton and Bradley were furious, but they couldn’t conflict with the British.

Because Eisenhower had a clear order to prohibit the U.S. military from criticizing the British, so as not to affect the unity of the allies.

They had to come to Eisenhower’s headquarters to explain their proposition that the second army must participate in the decisive battle in Tunisia and fight independently in biseida as an independent force.

Eisenhower listened and calmly issued instructions to Alexander to change the original battle plan and let the second army enter the war.

The problem was solved, and Patton and Bradley came to the front again.

At this time, the US military’s war was not ideal.

After the red division was defeated, the armor of the red division was reduced.

Ward’s tank division is still stuck in the mire and cannot seize the commanding heights nearby.

Patton was furious and ordered his alumni to lead the attack in person.

Ward obeyed.

He was skinned by jumping bullets in the battle, but he still failed to seize the commanding height.

Charles Ryder’s troops also stopped the attack because of strong resistance.

Patton and Bradley firmly believe that the US second army will be able to plunge into the sea and split the forces of the axis powers, so as to be in a position superior to the British army.

They deployed their troops and made the 9th division cooperate with Allen’s 1st division to attack and open up channels for the armored forces.

Ordered Ward’s armored division to make a major assault, and clearly told him that if he failed again, he would be dismissed for investigation.

On April 1, Patton and Bradley inspected the front line and found that the progress of infantry was slow, and the air strikes of Axis powers caused great losses to the troops.

At this time, a heavy bomb fell near Barton and Bradley’s observation command post, killing three people immediately, including Barton’s adjutant Richard tinson.

Patton therefore resented the British for not giving air support to the second army.

He clashed with Arthur Cunningham, the British general in charge of the air command of the campaign, blaming and mocking each other.

Later, with the intervention of British Air Force General Arthur Ted, Cunningham personally came to the door to apologize, and Patton’s anger subsided.

Ward’s armored forces met with tenacious resistance and were at a loss.

Eisenhower decided to remove ward from his post and transfer Ernest Harmon, who was brave and good at fighting and had landed in Morocco with him, from Morocco to replace ward.

At the same time, the elite were transferred from the 1st Armored Division to form a task force under Benson’s command to launch another fierce attack.

The fighting is becoming more and more intense, the casualties of the troops are increasing, and the morale is also decreasing.

At this time, Patton had forgotten Eisenhower’s instructions to pay attention to his personal safety and personally went to the front line to command the battle.

He encouraged the morale of the troops in various ways and urged the commanders to come to the front and fight with the soldiers until they “hit the sea”.

On April 7, Patton visited the front line and found that Benson commando was blocked by the German minefield, so he did not listen to his subordinates’ dissuasion and resolutely drove a jeep to open the way in front and cross the minefield, so the commando was able to move on.

Soon, the tank vanguard troops joined the British 8th Army.

The German and Italian troops in North Africa have reached the end of the mountain and water, and the Tunis battle is a sure bet for the allies.

According to the needs of the war, Bradley succeeded Patton as the commander of the second army on April 16.

Patton was ordered to return to the 7th group army of Morocco and continue to plan the “Eskimo” campaign.

When Bradley had just taken over from Patton, General Alexander gave the order of general attack.

Bradley immediately sent someone to the 28th division to ask his chief of staff, William Keane, to command the second army with him.

On 23 April, the second army launched an attack.

Two infantry divisions are in the front and the armored division is in the back.

They are ready to rush up at any time to expand the gap opened by the infantry.

On this day, many people came to the headquarters of the second army, including General Eisenhower, the commander-in-chief.

The infantry of the second army have to go through fierce fighting and pay a great price every step forward, especially Allen’s 1st division.

After a cruel battle, they broke through the enemy’s defensive position.

On April 26, the second army was blocked in the 609 highland.

The enemy built Fortifications on the bare mountains.

Ryder was ordered to lead the 34th division to occupy the highland.

It took him a lot of effort to win the lower mountain, and then launched a strong attack under the cover of artillery, but he failed to make three charges in a row.

So Bradley proposed a new plan to use Ryder’s tank as a mobile cannon.

On April 30, Ryder’s infantry attacked again under the cover of 17 tanks, occupied the highland in the afternoon, and then repulsed the enemy’s repeated counterattacks.

On May 1, when night fell, the enemy finally stopped attacking and retreated back.

On May 6, the British and American troops launched an attack across the board.

According to Bradley’s plan, Harmon’s tanks were inserted bravely in the middle, circuitous behind the enemy and disintegrate the enemy’s defense.

In advance, Harmon told Bradley that the plan would lose at least 50 tanks, but although it was a little risky, it was worth a try.

As a result, Harmon lost 47 tanks when he completed his mission, which was almost the same as he expected.

On the left wing, the 9th infantry division made slow progress at first.

Later, Bradley urged him to drive at full power to beseida and occupy the city on May 7.

On 9 may, von Arnim raised a white flag and some 250000 Axis forces laid down their weapons.

About 40000 people surrendered to the second army.

On the same day, Bradley sent Eisenhower a four word telegram: “mission accomplished”.

After the victory of the Tunis campaign, the Allies began to implement the Sicilian landing campaign plan.

On July 5, 1943, the vast Mediterranean sea suddenly gushed outThe panzer division formed a temporary army under the command of general Keith to make a decisive attack on Palermo.

With a quick blitz, the provisional army rushed 100 miles and entered Palermo on July 22 without encountering tenacious resistance.

The Germans ran away, and the remaining Italians raised their hands and surrendered.

A total of 56000 enemies were wiped out in the battle.

Although the capture of Palermo was of little strategic significance, the victory was exciting, made American soldiers and American people proud, and Patton’s vanity was greatly satisfied.

When the news of the capture of Palermo reached the campaign headquarters, Eisenhower was elated, because it was, after all, the glory of the US military and of great political significance.

Of course, he also clearly saw that Patton’s capture of Palermo was to show off for a while.

And another person who is crossing mountains and mountains and straight into the north coast has captured a target of great strategic value.

This man is Bradley.

At first, Bradley led two divisions of the second army in a desperate battle with the tenacious German army in central Sicily and advanced to the north coast.

Soon, the 45th division was ordered to march into Palermo, leaving only Allen’s first division under Bradley.

In the enna region, the 1st division encountered tenacious German troops, steep terrain and scorching weather.

The battle was cruel, with heavy casualties and slow progress.

After the capture of Palermo, other units of the 7th army began to move closer to Bradley and fight together.

On August 1, the battle of troyna, the most intense battle in the battle of Sicily, began.

Allen, who wanted to capture troyna, underestimated the enemy’s strength and intelligence, resulting in heavy casualties from the beginning of the battle.

In the fierce battle in the following days, Allen still acted without discipline, did not carry out Bradley’s orders, and sometimes even defied them openly.

Bradley had to dismiss him and his assistant, Roosevelt Jr.

The two were dismissed and returned to the United States.

Troyna was finally captured.

Patton and Bradley are determined to seize the military important city of Messina before the British army.

However, the Germans withdrew while fighting in a planned way, crossed rivers and bridges along the way, and buried tens of thousands of mines.

The US military made slow progress.

This made Patton anxious.

At this time, the battle of Sicily was drawing to a close, and the Allies had driven the axis forces to the sea, a narrow triangle with a side length of only 30 miles and a peak of Messina.

Since August 10, 40000 German and 70000 Italian troops have completed the Dunkirk retreat to the interior of Italy in six days and seven nights.

The Allied march into Messina became a race between the British and American armies.

On the evening of August 16, the leading troops of the third division of the US army arrived under the city of Messina.

At 6:30 a.m. on August 17, the us advance force entered Messina.

At 10:30, Patton took a command car and led a motorcycle team into the city.

Half an hour later, a group of Englishmen also blustered into the city.

A British officer came up to Patton, shook his hand and said, “it’s an interesting competition.

I congratulate you on your success.

” The battle of Sicily was a great victory.

In this battle, 33000 German and Italian troops were killed and wounded, 132000 were captured, and more than 100000 fled to Italy.

Although the battle failed to eliminate a large number of effective forces of the German army, it achieved the purpose of forcing Italy to withdraw from the war.

Mussolini resigned on July 25.

On the one hand, his successor sent secret envoys to test the possibility of surrender to the allies.

On the one hand, it gave Hitler the illusion that he would continue to fight.

However, Hitler and his generals sent troops to Italy on a large scale and fortified everywhere, turning Italy into a battlefield against the allies.

After seizing Sicily, the Allies decided to continue to attack Italy.

The ground attack force consists of the 8th British army and the 5th British army.

The 5th group army consists of two armies, one is the 10th army of Britain and the Sixth Army of the United States.

General Mark Clark, a 1917 West Point graduate, served as commander of the 5th group army.

Clark participated in World War I, commanded a battalion and was wounded in battle.

After the war, he served in Fort Benning Infantry School and army staff.

After Eisenhower became the commander of the Allied European theater, Clark, as his assistant, participated in various military plans and campaigns from London to North Africa.

Clark was 47 when he became commander of the 5th group army and was one of the youngest commanders of his level.

He is grandstanding and has a tendency to show off.

Many generals expressed concern about his lack of experience in commanding large-scale campaigns.

On September 9, 1943, the 5th group army landed in saleno.

Unlike the Sicilian landing, the landing troops were fiercely resisted by the German army at the beginning, and they had to pay the price of bleeding every time they went further.

On September 18, the German army finally left the beachhead.

Clark attacked Naples.

After hard work, on October 1, the vanguard troops of the 5th group army occupied the city.

At this time, Eisenhower became more confident and decided to expand the scope of the Italian campaign by seizing Rome.

In mid October, the 5th group army crossed the nortuno River, the most difficult River in Italy, and entered the mountainous area on the side of Hebei Province.

The Germans built three lines of defense here to block the Allied attack.

After two months of hard struggle, all allied groups of troops entered the German “Gusta line”.

This line of defense crosses the mountains 100 miles south of Rome and is built along the lapido River and the mountains overlooking Cassino.

The terrain and weather are conducive to the German garrison.

In Mountain Warfare, allied air superiority and dense artillery fire could not replace infantry in the task of expelling the German army.

By the end of 1943, the Italian war was in a stalemate.

In order to break the deadlock and speed up the battle process, Eisenhower, the commander-in-chief of the Allied forces, decided to take a coordinated water and land attack, let some allied forces land in Anzio, 35 miles south of Rome, bypass the enemy’s defense line and force them to abandon their defense positions in the south of Rome.

On January 22, 1944, the landing battle of Anzio began.

Before landing, Clark ordered the main force of the 5th group army to launch a powerful offensive in the mountains of Southern Rome to clamp down the enemy and cooperate with the landing of Anzio.

After a bloody battle, the 5th group army entered the Liri Valley and then forcibly crossed the lapido river.

The lapido river does not look very wide, but the water is deep and swift.

The main task is the 36th infantry division, which has been storming the front and making outstanding achievements since the Italian campaign.

The division commander is general walker, who came from non west point.

Although he believes that the operation is likely to succeedI don’t approve of crossing the river, but I can only carry out orders.

The battle lasted day and night and ended in a disastrous defeat.

There were 1681 casualties in the 36th division.

When the main force of the 5th group army was trapped on the Bank of the lapido River, allied forces including the 6th army of the US army landed in Anzio.

The commander of the landing operation was John Lucas, commander of the 6th army.

At the beginning, the landing operation was relatively smooth, and the Allies soon established a beachhead position.

Lucas intended to advance 25 miles inland, occupy the Alps, and cut off German supply lines and escape routes.

But general Lucas was a little too cautious.

After his surprise victory, he didn’t take advantage of it.

In the next nine days, Lucas focused on bringing more troops and supplies ashore.

At this time, Germany has built a strong defense line and is ready to fight back.

Lucas did not attack the Alps until January 30.

After three days of fighting, Lucas was forced to stop the attack after paying 5500 casualties.

He ordered the 6th army to dig trenches for self-defense, put barbed wire around the beachhead position and bury mines.

The sudden landing of the Allied forces in Anzio diverted the attention of the German army.

Clark immediately ordered the main force of the 5th group army to advance quickly and break through the German defense line.

However, many efforts failed.

The Anzio beachhead was in trouble at this time.

Not only could it not move forward, but there were more and more German troops in front of it.

By February 16, the number of German troops gathered in Anzio had exceeded that of the allies, about 125000 to 100000.

Anzio became a trap for the US military.

For more than four months, he was trapped on the beach, with increasing casualties and helpless.

A journalist described the situation of the U.S. military at that time: “the U.S. military lives here like primitive people.

They look like that.

Waving sticks may be more appropriate than using machine guns.

” In order to change the unfavorable situation of the U.S. military, Lucas hardened his head and ordered a large-scale counterattack.

With little effect, he had to stop the counterattack on February 20.

Since the start of the landing operation, the German army has lost 19000 people, and the casualties of the allies are equally serious.

Two days later, Lucas was dismissed.

German commander-in-chief Catherine in Italy believes that the real mistake of Anzio Deng’s land war is not Lucas, but “the strength of the landing forces is not strong and the cooperation of mechanized forces is lacking.

This is an insufficient attack.

” As the attempt to bypass the German defense line failed to be realized, the allies in the mountains and by the sea were in trouble.

The Allied Command had no choice but to carry out a strong attack and march on Rome.

Under the cover of aircraft and artillery, the Allies attacked all the way.

After a cruel battle, the German defense line was finally broken through.

At 9 p.m. on June 4, 1944, Clark’s U.S. troops first entered Rome.

In the Venice Square of this immortal city, people welcomed the winners with flowers, cheers, kisses and red rice wine.

On April 9, 1945, the allies launched the last decisive offensive in Italy.

On April 10, Clark commanded the US Army to break through the last defense line of Goth and advance to the plain.

Willis critenberg’s mechanized troops sped across the Great Plains and joined the British 8th Army on April 20.

The whole German army collapsed and tens of thousands of people surrendered.

After the decisive victory of the Allied forces in Italy, what is the next target of attack in Europe? What are the major operations in the Asia Pacific theater.