December 7, 1941, Oahu, Hawaii.
At 7:30 a.m., the rising sun pierced the fog and shone on the two rows of towering battleships at the anchorage of Pearl Harbor, as well as three or two cruisers, rows of destroyers and various auxiliary ships.
There are not many people on the warship or on the shore.
There are only a few traffic boats or small tugboats spitting white smoke.
They occasionally paddle through the mirror like green water, which is a quiet and peaceful scene on Sunday.
But suddenly, a large number of aircraft groups coated with orange plaster flew from the sea and dropped torpedoes and bombs on the warships in the port.
The quiet port instantly became a purgatory full of water column and smoke, flames and death.
There were staggering, twisted and broken ship bodies and sailors struggling in the thick oil slick on the sea.
At the same time, the naval and army airports around Pearl Harbor were also bombed by Japanese aircraft, and batches of fighter planes and bombers of different models were turned into a sea of fire by Japanese aircraft.
The Americans were completely stunned in the face of this sudden attack.
Only radio and radio desperately sent the same painful news over and over again: Pearl Harbor was attacked – not a drill! Pearl Harbor is located at the lowest point between the corao mountains and the whitenai mountains in the south of Oahu Island.
It is named for the oysters rich in pearls.
It is an important naval base of the United States in the Pacific Ocean.
Pearl Harbor is a natural harbor.
The whole bay is like chicken feet extending inland.
It is only connected with the Pacific Ocean through a 330 meter wide narrow waterway.
The water area in the port area is about 25 square kilometers, with an average water depth of 12 meters.
The huaipio Peninsula, Pearl City Island and Ford Island in the harbor divide the Pearl Harbor into four small harbors, which can berth more than 500 ships at the same time.
The United States began construction in Pearl Harbor base in 1900, and has successively built large shipyards, docks, docks, oil depots and other facilities with complete equipment.
Submarine bases and aviation bases were established in 1919 and 1922.
Since 1933, in order to curb Japan’s expansion, the United States has further increased base construction, making the port an important naval base and logistics support base in the Pacific Ocean.
After 1940, the US Pacific Fleet was stationed in Pearl Harbor and became an important deterrent in the Pacific, which greatly restrained and threatened Japan’s attempt to dominate the Pacific.
Pearl Harbor became an obstacle to the Japanese army’s southward advance, and the Japanese army also regarded Pearl Harbor as a thorn in the eye and flesh.
In order to pull out this nail, in 1941, Yamamoto, commander-in-chief of the joint fleet of the Japanese Navy, drew up a plan to sneak attack on Pearl Harbor.
After approval, he carried out a surprise attack on December 7.
The attack dealt a devastating blow to American ships in Hong Kong.
With only a small cost of losing 29 aircraft, one submarine and five special submarines, the Japanese army destroyed and injured all 8 battleships and more than 10 other ships anchored in the port by the US Pacific Fleet, and destroyed 188 US aircraft.
The US military suffered heavy casualties, with a total of 2402 dead and 1282 injured.
The strength of the US Pacific Fleet was greatly damaged, and the combat effectiveness of the fleet decreased by 80% to 90%, more than the total losses suffered by the US Navy in World War I.
After Japan’s successful sneak attack on Pearl Harbor, it occupied the sea power in the Pacific Ocean, creating favorable conditions for attacking Western colonial countries such as the Philippines and Malaya and occupying the resources there.
So, in the face of the powerful United States, how did Japan start the idea of “breaking ground on the head of Taisui”? It turned out that the biggest threat for Japan to steal the inherent colonies of western countries such as Southeast Asia is the United States.
As the speed of Japan’s external expansion continues to accelerate, the contradiction with the United States is also intensifying.
When the United States announced the suspension of trade with Japan and imposed an oil embargo on Japan, in order to obtain the oil fields in Dutch East India with an annual output of 8 million tons of oil, Nanyang accounted for 78% of the world’s annual output of rubber and 67% of the world’s output of tin, as well as metal mineral resources such as iron and aluminum, as well as food resources such as rice, Japan had to.
Yamamoto, commander-in-chief of the joint fleet of the Japanese Navy, was originally opposed to the war between Japan and the United States.
He knew in his heart that even if the war with the powerful United States could obtain temporary advantages in a short time through sneak attacks, if the war lasted for more than a year to a year and a half, the United States would reverse the situation of the war with its strong resource advantages.
However, after the Japanese base camp established the strategic policy of war against Britain and the United States in accordance with the alliance treaty signed by Germany, Italy and Japan, Yamamoto 561 changed his original intention of opposing the war and made every effort to plan the war plan against the United States.
Yamamoto’s plan seeks to annihilate the US Pacific Fleet in the early stage of the war by means of sneak attack, establish Japan’s military advantage, and then continuously organize effective attacks, constantly attack and weaken the military strength of the United States, and do not give the US military the opportunity to accumulate strength, so as to win the war.
In January 1941, Yamamoto officially submitted the “war preparedness opinion” on the raid on Pearl Harbor to the Japanese Minister of the Navy.
The war readiness opinion said: if we want to solve the bottleneck problem of resources as soon as possible and realize the southward movement plan, we will inevitably conflict with the United States.
Once the war begins, the US fleet in the Pacific will immediately set out from Pearl Harbor and contain the Japanese army from the flank.
In this way, the Japanese Nanyang fleet must turn around and face the war.
Therefore, Japan should quickly remove its worries and first pull out the “teeth of Pearl Harbor, an American shark”.
Once the main force of the US Pacific fleet is destroyed, Japan can calmly occupy all important strongholds in the Pacific and Indian oceans and obtain rich resources there before the United States recovers.
After gaining an advantage, the United States was forced to enter into an alliance under the city.
The “war readiness opinion” made such an assessment of the possibility of the raid, that is, as long as the US fleet does anchor in the port and the Japanese warships are not found on the way, they can succeed.
Yamamoto was full of confidence in his plan, so after the plan was submitted to the base camp, he began to prepare for the raid.
To Yamamoto’s surprise, the Japanese base camp rejected his plan.
The upper echelons of Japan generally believe that such a plan is too risky.
If it is discovered by the US military before the attack, there will be unimaginable disasters.
Moreover, once the main force of the joint fleet is used to raid Pearl Harbor, it is bound to contain the southern front.
Many officers in the joint fleet also opposed the plan.
Lieutenant general Nan Yun, the commander of the first aviation fleet and major general Da Xi, the chief of staff of the eleventh aviation fleet, both disagreed.
Yamamoto tried his best to do the work of senior people in order to realize this plan.
He not only persuaded the chief of staff of the two generals Nanyun and Daxi who came to express their objections, but also handed the plan to the younger brother of the emperor of Japan, hoping that he could do the work of the emperor.
Sure enough, the emperor of Japan approved Yamamoto’s sneak attack plan in a very short time.
The base camp saw that the emperor had “granted” and knew that it was weak to return to heaven, so it had to approve the plan on October 10, 1941.
It is worth mentioning that when people mention the Pearl Harbor incident, they will accuse Japan of undeclared war.
In fact, when the Japanese cabinet approved the plan of sneak attack, it made careful arrangements in time, which can be said to have played a small trick.
Their original intention is to try not to exceed the legal limit to realize the benefits brought by the sneak attack.
The trick they played was this: they were ready to give the reply to the request made by the United States on November 26, which was scheduled to be delivered to the Japanese ambassador to the United States on the night of December 6, and designated him to officially hand it over to the U.S. government at 13:00 the next day, when Hawaii time was 7:30 a.
m, Japan only gave the US government half an hour to inform its military commanders in Hawaii and other areas that Japan had declared war on the United States.
In this way, Japan has reason to say that the sneak attack did not violate international conventions.
However, due to the long content of Japan’s reply to the U.S. government, the Japanese Embassy delayed the translation.
As a result, the Japanese ambassador did not send the reply to the U.S. government until 14:20.
At this time, Pearl Harbor was a terrible scene.
45 minutes before the Japanese aircraft bombed Pearl Harbor, the American soldiers on a US tugboat found the periscope of the Japanese Mini submarine following them and reported the news to the US destroyer ward cruising at sea, which then sank the Japanese submarine.
The task of Japanese submarines is to enter Pearl Harbor and cooperate with the subsequent fighter planes to attack the U.S. ships.
Unfortunately, although the U.S. soldiers found and reported the incident, such an important message could not be transmitted to the top of the U.S. military.
This mistake of the US military made them pay a huge price.