The second section is the Persian expedition to the Greek Confederation

Greek Persian war, which refers to the three wars of aggression launched by the Persian empire against the Greeks to expand its territory from 495 BC to 449 BC. The war lasted 16 years. Finally, the Greeks resisted tenaciously, defeated the Persian Empire and achieved the independence of the Greek states.


at the end of the 6th century BC, the Greek city states were challenged from the East in the early stage of their formation. At this time, Persia, through the cultural, political and military skills of Cyrus and Darius I (522-486 BC), has become a great empire covering West Asia and North Africa, and is moving westward with a strong momentum. In 513 BC, Darius I concentrated two or three hundred warships and 70000 infantry, crossed the Bosporus Strait in the West and attacked the sisxuans. After a year of war, he occupied Thrace and the Black Sea Strait and subdued Macedonia, which not only directly threatened the Greek states from the north, but also cut off the connection between Greece and its food supply base along the Black Sea.

Darius I

in 500 BC, the Greek colonial city states such as Miletus in Asia Minor revolted against Persia, and the war spread rapidly. Miletus asked for help from Greece, Sparta refused to help, while Athens sent 25 warships to support. After suppressing the uprising, Persia attacked Greece under the pretext of sending troops from Athens.


(1) the first and second Persian expeditions to Greece

in 492 BC, Darius I ordered his son-in-law maldonus to be the general and led the first expedition to Greece. This March, along the coast of Thrace, water and land. When the Navy arrived at the Cape of ATOS in northeast Greece, it was hit by a storm, suffered heavy losses and almost completely destroyed. Due to this unexpected disaster and the continuous Thracian attacks on the army, maldonius had to withdraw his troops to the East. The first expedition failed.

map of the Greek Polish war

after the failure of the first expedition to Greece, Darius actively prepared for the war, ordered the cities along the Mediterranean to build warships, and sent personnel to Greece to obtain water and soil for surrender. Most city states in northern Greece offered water and soil to show obedience, but Athens threw its envoys into the abyss and Sparta into the well. Darius was furious at the news. In 490 bc, he sent troops and general, led 600 three row oar warships, set out from Samos and crossed the Aegean Sea for the second expedition to Greece. According to statistics, the number of soldiers this time is about 25000 infantry and 1000 cavalry. Its battle plan is to conquer Athens, isolate Sparta, and then conquer all Greece. The Persian army is divided into two routes. One is landing in marathon. The terrain here is flat, which is conducive to the action of cavalry. At the same time, it can induce the Athenian army to go north; On the other hand, after destroying elytria in the north of EuPIA island and achieving the purpose of strategic deterrence, he directly attacked paleron in the southeast suburb of Athens. When he wanted to take the elite troops of Athens to the north and the emptiness of the city, he cooperated with the “fifth column” of Pro Persia in the city to conquer Athens.

Athens heard that the enemy troops were approaching the marathon plain. On the one hand, they asked Sparta for help. At the same time, the main battle faction led by mitaiyadh collected 10000 armored spear infantry and 1000 Pratia reinforcements. They rushed to marathon and arranged in the foothills of its western mountains from a high position to facilitate attack and detour. As the ten generals in Athens fought and were uncertain, and the Persian side had not been in place because of its sneak attack on paleron, there was no war for 8 days. On the 9th, Athens learned that the Polish army had captured Eritrea and was likely to go straight to Athens from the sea, so it decided to make a quick decision in order to return to defend the city. The next morning, the Athenian army launched an attack and surrounded the Polish army from three bread. The Polish army was crowded together, the order was in chaos, the defeat and flight, and the Athenian army pursued the victory to the seaside. The Polish Army boarded the ship and fled and captured seven warships. The Persian army was defeated in marathon. When it was about to attack Athens from the sea, it lost its fighters and had to retreat home. In the battle of marathon, according to Herodotus, 6400 Polish soldiers were killed, while only 192 died in Athens. This battle was the first time that the Greeks defeated Persia with their own strength, which greatly boosted the morale of the Greeks.


(2) the third Persian expedition to Greece

Darius was very angry at the defeat of the marathon and actively prepared to fight again. But soon, a rebellion broke out in Egypt. Darius, the Persian Emperor, died in the process of suppressing the Egyptian uprising, and his son Xerxes ascended the throne. At the beginning of his reign, Xerxes showed his outstanding ability in military, politics and diplomacy. After a short rest, Xerxes gathered his soldiers to cross the helespan Strait, via Thrace and Macedonia, and once again expedition the Greek peninsula through land March, which was the first shame in the snow marathon battle. The total force invested in the Persian expedition was about 150000.

during the 10 years of preparation for war in Persia, Greece also actively prepared for war. On the one hand, timistocles, a farsighted Athenian general, recognized the importance of the Navy and persuaded the Athenians to form a fleet of 200 three row paddle ships with silver revenue; On the other hand, 31 city states, including Sparta and Athens, which were unwilling to submit to Persia, also eliminated their old grievances and United on the basis of unity with the outside world, forming an alliance led by Sparta in 481 BC. However, the number of Greek coalition forces is still at a disadvantage, with 110000 army and 400 warships. As both sides were actively preparing for war, the third Persian expedition was extremely fierce and arduous.

hot spring pass battle. When the Persian army entered both land and water, the Greek coalition began to discuss the defense plan and where to defend. The choice of defense location should not only be suitable for a few soldiers and easy to defend, but also make the enemy unable to take advantage of its number and cavalry. Therefore, it must be a pass and narrow sea surface. Based on this, the Greek coalition forces decided to send an army to defend the hot spring pass in Greece and a navy to garrison the Cape atmissi at the northern end of the island of Eurasia. The army is led by Leonidas, king of Sparta. The whole army has about 7000 people, and the main force is 300 Spartan heavy infantry; The navy has 324 three row oar ships and 9 fifty oar ships. The two armies are not far apart, forming a sea and land defense line. What is the coalition’s operational planPrevent the Polish army from going south from the land, force its navy to attack, and try to lure it into the europoa strait between Attica and EuPIA Island, so as to annihilate it by taking advantage of the narrow sea surface. Persia’s plan was to attack Wenquan pass and the entrance to the northern end of the Strait of opaia by sea and land at the same time. After the confrontation between the two navies, the Persians sent 200 Phoenician fleets to bypass the island of EuPIA in order to enter the Strait from the entrance at the southern end of the island and go north. The north and South attacked the enemy ships. Unexpectedly, when they reached the southeast sea of the island, they were hit by a storm and sank to the bottom of the sea. After learning of the enemy’s action, Greece led the first attack. Seeing that the enemy had only taken a few warships to attack, the Polish side thought they were crazy and claimed that winning was like looking for things. They formed a circular array and surrounded the enemy from all directions. The Greeks gathered the stern and pointed the bow at the enemy ship in a radial array. The two sides stopped fighting until nightfall, and 30 Persian warships were captured. In the next two days, there were casualties, and the victory or defeat was not divided.

during the sea war, the land battle was also fierce. Xerxes soldiers arrived at Wenquan pass and showed their heroism for 4 days, hoping that the enemy would escape. On the 5th day, when they saw that the garrison was still waiting, they ordered the attack. The MIDI troops were the first to attack. As a result, they were killed or injured and lost the battle; Others continued to attack. Although there were many of them, few could fight, so they returned with a great defeat; Finally, Xerxes sent his elite soldiers to battle. Because the ground was narrow and the spear was short, he could not win. Sparta, for its part, used a square array to meet the enemy and used more sophisticated tactics. One of them was to turn around and feign defeat, lead the enemy into pursuit, and then turn back to cover up and kill countless enemies. The next day, the Polish army made no progress in its attack. At a time when Xerxes had nothing to do, a Greek traitor tipped off and pointed out a hidden channel for the Polish army, causing a part of the Polish army to detour behind the Greek army, forming a double attack. At this time, Leonidas saw that it was difficult to stick to it, so he ordered most of the coalition forces to withdraw. After leading 300 Spartans, 700 tespia and 400 Thebes, they launched a fierce counterattack. In the fierce battle, Leonidas was killed. In order to compete for his body, both sides attacked and killed him four times. In the end, all the defenders died. Although the Polish army seized the pass, there were 20000 casualties. The Greek Navy was shocked to hear that the hot spring pass was lost and there was no need to fight again, so it returned to defend salami Bay.

salami naval battle. After occupying the hot spring pass, the Persian army immediately dispatched Attica. At this time, the Greek coalition forces made a painful decision. The army gave up Attica and retreated to the Corinth isthmus for fortification. As for the Navy, Sparta advocated giving up salami Bay and driving the fleet to the sea near the Corinth isthmus to cooperate with land defense. However, timistocles, the commander of the Athenian navy, strongly advocated a decisive battle in salami, because a decisive battle in the sea of the isthmus of Corinth would be tantamount to fighting with an absolute number of enemy ships at sea, which is obviously unfavorable, while in the narrow salami Bay, the enemy will not be able to take advantage of its quantitative advantage. He finally persuaded the coalition commander. However, when the Persian army captured the city of Athens and attacked the isthmus of Corinth, the interior of the Navy quarreled over the fortification site. In order to force them to fight on the spot and lure the enemy to attack, timistocles resorted to deceptive surrender and wrote a letter to Xerxes, falsely claiming that the coalition forces were retreating towards the Peloponnesus peninsula. If they attacked quickly, they could prevent them from retreating, And take advantage of its internal differences and wipe it out. Xerxes was intrigued. Without listening to the good plan of encircling but not attacking, or directly attacking the Peloponnesian Peninsula suggested by someone, he ordered the fleet to March immediately, sent 200 ships to detour to the exit at the western end of salami bay to prevent the enemy ships from retreating, and the rest were lined up to cut off their way out of the East. The Greek Navy was suddenly besieged and had no choice but to fight. During the Persian Navy’s attack, due to the narrow land and many ships, the order was in great disorder. Until 378 warships of the Greek Navy sailed in, they still did not recover. At the beginning of the scuffle between the two sides, the Athenian ships were strong and fast. They rubbed the enemy ships, broke their oars first, making them unable to operate, and then turned around and hit the middle, injuring many enemy ships. Seeing that the situation was bad, the Persian warship retreated, and the ship behind rushed forward desperately to show courage. As a result, it collided with the ship that fled back and became a mess. After seven or eight hours of hard struggle, Poland retreated and was ambushed again and again along the way. Hearing of the tragic defeat, Xerxes feared that the Greek navy would take advantage of the victory to attack the East and cut off its way home, so he drove back to the DPRK, leaving only maldonius to lead 300000 troops to retreat to northern Greece in order to return. During the war, Poland lost more than 300 ships, while Greece lost only 40. This war was a decisive battle in the Greek Polish war. It made Persia lose its sea power and Greece turn defensive into offensive.

battle of Pratia. In the spring of 479 BC, maldonius failed to lure Athens, so he sent troops south. Once again, the Athenians all withdrew to the ships in salami Bay and asked Sparta for help. After occupying Athens again, the Polish Army persuaded them to surrender again. One of the 500 members of Parliament in Athens said he should surrender and was killed on the spot; The women also took the initiative to kill their wives and children. Although the heart of the decisive battle was great, Sparta delayed sending reinforcements. While actively preparing for the war, Athens sent people to condemn Sparta for only seeking self-protection and ignoring the safety of its allies. If no more troops are sent, Athens will unite with Persia. Sparta received this warning and began to send 10000 infantry, 35000 hilot light attendants and allied forces to the rescue. Maldonius heard that the Greek coalition was coming and saw mount Attica, which was unfavorable to the cavalry action, so he burned the city of Athens and retreated to Thebes. The Greek allied forces went north to the South Bank of the athopos River in platya to face the enemy across the river. At this time, the Greek coalition had 38700 heavy infantry, 69500 light infantry and 110000 state attendants, while the Persian army had 300000. In the next few days, the two sides launched a scuffle. Maldonius was killed and the Persian army scattered. The Athenian army defeated the enemy in one fell swoop and took advantage of the victory to counter attack. After this war, the 300000 Persian army was annihilated except 43000 people who fled or survived. In Greece, about 1360 people were killed.

the battle of Pratia was a decisive victory for the Greek coalition forces on land, marking the beginning of a comprehensive counter offensive. At the same time, the Greek Navy completely wiped out the remaining Persian fleet fleeing here at the Cape of mikar in Asia Minor, completely undermining its counter offensive capability.


in 478 BC, Athens formed an Athenian maritime alliance with the Aegean islands and the Greek states of Asia Minor, and then led AthensUnder the attack, the allied fleet counterattacked island by island. In 468 BC, in the first World War at the eurymedon estuary on the South Bank of Asia Minor, he defeated the Persian Navy and army, captured 2000 enemies and completely annihilated the Phoenician fleet with 200 ships. In 449 BC, the Persian navy was broken near the island of Cyprus.

the two sides signed a peace treaty. Persia recognized the independence of the Greek states in Asia Minor and gave up its domination over the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. The Greek Bosnian war ended here.

impact ` evaluation of

the Greek Polish war lasted 16 years. After both sides suffered huge losses, the Greeks won the final victory of the war. After the Greek Persian war, the Persian Empire collapsed, court conspiracies and local rebellions occurred one after another, and then the Persian Empire perished under the iron heel of.