Plato (427-347 BC) was born into a large noble family in Athens.

His father’s name was Ariston, and it was said that he belonged to the descendants of the kings of Athens.

Her mother, peridione, is a descendant of Solon, the founder of athenian slave owner democracy.

Plato received good cultural education in his youth and showed many talents in his early years.

He is good at sports, painting and music.

It is said that he has also written an epic and a tragedy.

In 407 BC, when Plato was 20 years old, his father sent him to the door to be taught by teachers.

From then on, the two became close friends.

Plato always regarded Socrates as the embodiment of the highest personality and wisdom, and called him his mentor and friend.

He studied with Socrates for eight years.

It was not until Socrates was executed in 399 that he and his disciples fled Athens and exiled.

Socrates’ execution was a turning point in Plato’s life.

The injustice left an indelible impression on him.

In addition to grief, he lost interest in other aspects.

He was intent on remembering Socrates and keeping his reputation alive.

Plato fled from Athens to mecala for refuge.

Since then, he has been found in many places, including Sicily, southern Italy and even Egypt.

During this period, he has a further understanding of Pythagoreanism and learned mathematics.

In 388 BC, Plato went there to give lectures at the invitation of Dionysius I of Syracuse Dynasty in Sicily, and got to know Dion, the brother-in-law of the tyrant.

Later, they quarreled because they disagreed with the tyrant.

The tyrant decided to sell Plato as a slave.

Fortunately, a friend of his in Silene heard that he was in danger and paid enough ransom for him to escape the humiliating fate of the Athenian noble.

By this time, the Socratic incident had been forgotten.

Plato settled down and set up an academy in agademi outside Athens to receive apprentices free of charge.

Plato opened the school very successfully.

The students came from all directions.

The most important student was Aristotle.

He entered the school at the age of 18 and lived for 20 years until Plato died.

Plato’s works mainly include Republic, law, Phaedo and so on.

In addition to his letters, most of his works use dialogue, and the protagonist is his teacher Socrates.

Plato believed that in order to get a correct proposition or proposition, it is most appropriate to debate in the way of dialogue.

If you cross examine and answer step by step, you will get the final truth without denying it.

Because this final truth is obtained by reasoning layer by layer like proving geometric problems.

The central idea of Plato’s philosophy is that there is a rational world beyond experience above the real world.

The idea is primary and the reality is secondary.

Reality is the derivation of idea, its weak simulation and extremely incomplete shadow.

The real world changes constantly.

Only the ideal world is an eternal and real objective existence.

This is the objective idealism of spirit first and material second.

Although Plato was an idealist, he developed dialectics in conversation and debate.

He recognized the significance of the contrast of opposing opinions in the process of understanding truth.

He also solved the problems of concept, judgment and reasoning, and developed logic.

Plato expounded his political views through the Republic.

The Republic was written before and after Plato returned to Athens.

This book expresses his view of state in the form of dialogue and at the mouth of Socrates.

Plato believed that the state is an enlarged individual, and the individual is a reduced country.

There are three kinds of personal qualities: wisdom, courage and temperance.

The country also has three people with different moral qualities: the first is the sage of governing the country.

They are born with the moral character of “wisdom” and should dominate everything.

The second class is the warriors who defend the country.

They are born with the character of “courage” and can be the auxiliary personnel of the ruler.

The third class is folk artists such as farmers, craftsmen and businessmen.

They are born with the moral character of “moderation”.

They specialize in labor production and serve to feed the first two.

If these three kinds of people have their own virtues, they will achieve “justice”.

Plato also believed that this division was based on people’s different temperament and personality.

Plato clearly described his thought with “the myth of metal”.

Some people seem to be made of gold.

They have the ability to command.

Others seem to be made of silver.

They will become excellent warriors.

Finally, most people – farmers and craftsmen – are equivalent to steel and iron.

Generally speaking, a person belongs to which class, his children also belong to which class.

If people of three levels replace each other, it is “injustice”.

Once the third person takes power, the country will collapse.

To this end, he advocated the abolition of private property in the first two to prevent intrigues and quarrels with each other.

He also advocated that the state should organize education and strive to cultivate these two children in accordance with a strict education system.

Plato’s “Republic” is not a surreal fiction, but based on the dictatorship of Spartan slave owners and oligarchy and civil land sharing.

The scheme he designed to maintain the exploitation and rule of aristocratic slave owners is difficult to achieve in Athens with a democratic political tradition.

But in his later years, in 367 and 361 BC, he returned to the Syracuse Dynasty twice to publicize his political ideas, but he still failed.

Plato’s Republic plan has never been realized.

Plato died 347 years ago at the age of 80.

Legend has it that one day he attended a friend’s wedding party.

The guests drank, cheered and laughed.

The old philosopher felt a little overwhelmed, so he retreated to a corner of the room and died peacefully before long.

Plato’s philosophy has a great influence on the development of Philosophy in Western Europe.

Neo Platonism in Roman period came directly from Platonic philosophy, and through them, Platonic philosophy influenced the whole Middle Ages.

Modern and Contemporary Western idealism and rationalist philosophy are also inextricably linked with Plato’s philosophy.

At the same time, the beneficial elements were inherited by Nicholas and others of kusA in the Renaissance, and influenced German classical idealism, especially German philosophy, to some extent.