battle background

in the Second World War, after Germany occupied Czechoslovakia, in order to recover Danzig lost in the first World War, solve the problem of “Poland corridor” through the Baltic Sea, eliminate Poland, the main ally of Britain and France in Central Europe, relieve the worries of attacking Western Europe and improve its strategic position, Supplement military and economic resources and establish advance bases for invading the Soviet Union. On March 21, 1939, Germany issued an ultimatum to Poland, asking it to cede danze (Gdansk) to Germany and grant Germany the right to build roads and railways in the “Polish corridor”. Poland rejected these requests. On March 23, Britain and France formally formed a military alliance, and then guaranteed Poland’s security on March 31, which made Poland more determined to restrain Germany. Therefore, on April 3, 1939, a secret instruction codenamed “white scheme” was issued, requiring the German armed forces to complete the preparations for the war against Poland before September 1. Hitler emphasized in his instruction that “all efforts and preparations must focus on launching a huge surprise attack”.

the German command launched an army group covertly in advance to attack Poland. According to Hitler’s requirements, the German command planned to use the rapid corps and powerful air force to carry out a sudden attack, destroy the Polish defense line like lightning, occupy the industrial areas in Western and southern Poland, and then drive straight into the hinterland of Poland to encircle and annihilate all isolated Polish legions, strive to end the war within half a month, and then return to reinforce the western line that may be attacked by Britain and France. To this end, the German army gathered 62 divisions, 886000 people, 2800 tanks, 1939 aircraft, 6000 guns and mortars to form two group army groups on the South Road and the North Road. The army group of the South Road Group is commanded by the first-class general lundstedt of the army. Its task is to destroy the Polish army group in Silesia first, and then detour to Warsaw from the southwest; The North Road group army group is under the command of general bauk at the army level. Its task is to first cut off the “Polish corridor”, completely encircle and annihilate the Polish army group gathered here, then go down from East Prussia to the south, attack the Polish Army on the visva River from the back, and detour to Warsaw from the northeast.

after the Polish government allied with Britain and France under the threat of German attack, the Polish army command also formulated a combat plan against Germany code named “western plan”. The plan stipulates that if Germany attacks Poland, while the main force of the German army has not been transferred to the East, the Polish army will first attack north and seize Germany’s East Prussia, so as to eliminate the threat from the north, Take a defensive position on the western and southwest borders to stop the German attack, wait for Britain and France to launch an attack on the western line, attack from east to west and defeat Germany. To this end, the Polish army has formed seven group armies of pomori, modlin, Poznan, Roz, krakov, Carpathians and narev, deployed two group armies along the northern border, four group armies along the western and southwest borders, and another group army is deployed in the east of the visva River as a reserve team. But in terms of numbers and equipment, the Polish army was much inferior to the German army. Until the beginning of the campaign, the mobilization and deployment of the Polish armed forces continued.

in order to avoid two-line combat, Germany signed the Soviet German non aggression treaty with the Soviet Union on August 23 and reached a secret protocol to jointly carve up Poland. Hitler immediately ordered an attack at 4:30 a.m. on the 26th after receiving a guarantee from the Soviet Union. However, on the night of the 25th, the attack order was suddenly cancelled, and some troops started in advance were called back. It turned out that Britain and Poland officially signed a mutual assistance agreement on the 25th, and Italy refused to take part in the war on the side of Germany. In view of this situation, German Foreign Minister Ribbentrop suggested that Hitler withdraw the attack order in order to buy time and reconsider the situation. Despite Hitler’s decision to launch a war with France in the early morning of August 31, the German army did not hesitate to take the risk of sinking the first war with France. He asked the German soldiers to have an iron will and determination to make a quick decision without giving Poland any breathing space. “If the troops stagnate, it is the responsibility of the commander. We should win by any means in the war, and after the victory, people will not hold the winner accountable,” he said

battle after

at 4:45 on September 1, 1939, German airmen attacked Polish airports, transportation hubs, railways, economic and administrative centers. The German battleship Schleswig Holstein, which had sailed to the coast of Poland in advance, shelled the festel Plata peninsula. The Polish army was caught off guard. 500 first-line planes were blown up at the airport before they could take off. Countless artillery and cars were destroyed before they could retreat. The transportation hub and command center were damaged, and the troops fell into chaos. Taking advantage of the situation, the German army quickly broke through the Polish defense line from several main areas, led by armored forces and motorized forces. At 10 a.m. that day, Hitler excitedly announced to the Congress that the imperial army had invaded Poland and Germany had entered a state of war.

at 9 a.m. on September 3, Britain issued an ultimatum to Germany, asking Germany to provide a guarantee of armistice before 11 a.m., otherwise Britain will declare war on Germany. At noon, France also issued a similar ultimatum to Germany, with a deadline of 5 p.m. Germany ignored. Therefore, Britain and France declared war on Germany one after another, and the Second World War broke out in an all-round way.

after the German army broke through the Polish defense, it quickly pushed forward to the hinterland of Poland. The Polish “Prussian” group army rushed to fight the incoming enemy before completing the assembly, and was wiped out. On September 8, the advance regiment of the German “south” group army approached Warsaw.

at this time, the Polish government repeatedly asked the allies for immediate support. According to the military agreement, Britain and France should have raided Germany with air troops and attacked Germany’s western border with the main force of French forces. On September 3, Britain and France formally declared war on Germany, but in fact they did not give Poland any assistance. Although the Allied Command had advantages in troops and weapons, it did not take resolute action.

the British and French troops have always been the enemy