In the post-war decades, Japan’s economy has developed very rapidly and has become the second largest economy in the world.
Since the 1980s, Japan has accelerated its pace of seeking a political power, and its influence and role have been increasing day by day.
After the end of the cold war, Japan’s development and policy trend has attracted more attention of the international community.
In order to correctly understand the world situation after the cold war, we must understand and understand the development and changes of Japan’s politics, economy and diplomacy. I. Japan’s economy after World War II, Japan abandoned military aggression and arms race and focused on economic development.
The Japanese economy has recovered and developed rapidly from the ruins of the war.
Today, Japan is the second largest economic country in the world.
Its economic and scientific and technological strength is second only to the United States and occupies an important position in the world economy.
(I) the rapid development of Japan’s economy after the Second World War brought disastrous consequences to Japan.
More than 2 million people were killed and injured, 14 national wealth was lost, major cities such as Tokyo, Osaka, Yokohama and Nagoya were almost reduced to ashes, and 13 industrial equipment was damaged.
In 1946, industrial production was only 14.
3% of that in 1941, and the output of important industrial products such as coal and pig iron was only 12.
5% and 5% of that in 1941 respectively.
Overseas trade was almost completely cut off.
Prices soared and unemployment soared.
It is under such circumstances that, after a short period of more than 20 years, Japan has reversed the overall collapse of the national economy, realized industrial modernization, and become the second largest economic country in the capitalist world.
After the war, Japan’s economic development experienced the following stages: the first stage, from 1945 to 1955, was the recovery period of Japan’s economy.
The democratic reform carried out when the United States occupied Japan and the policy of supporting Japan implemented by the United States since 1948 created conditions for the recovery and development of Japan’s economy.
In 1950, the Korean War broke out, and the United States took Japan as the military base of the Korean War.
Billions of dollars of military orders greatly stimulated the development of Japan’s economy.
By 1950, Japan’s industrial and mining production had reached the pre war level.
By 1955, Japan’s economic indicators other than foreign trade had exceeded the highest level before the war.
During this period, the traditional basic industries related to the national economy and the people’s livelihood in Japan not only greatly exceeded the pre war level in output, but also carried out technological transformation in machinery, equipment and production technology.
In addition, Japan has applied advanced technology to the automotive industry that has been redeveloped after the war, and established emerging industrial sectors such as synthetic fiber and household appliances, so that Japan initially has the conditions for rapid economic development.
The second stage, from 1956 to 1973, was a period of rapid economic development in Japan.
The Japanese government has formulated an economic development strategy centered on heavy chemical industry.
On the basis of large-scale investment in fixed assets, vigorously develop basic industries and emerging industries such as iron and steel, electric power, automobile, petrochemical and machinery manufacturing, gradually establish an industrial system centered on heavy chemical industry, vigorously introduce, utilize and innovate international advanced technological achievements, and equip the whole industry with the most advanced technology, The industrial labor productivity has reached or exceeded the world advanced level, thus realizing industrial modernization.
During this period, Japan also carried out the reform of agricultural structure, so that 60% of farmers turned to the industrial sector, and agriculture realized modernization.
According to statistics, from 1955 to 1968, the average annual growth rate of Japan’s GDP reached 10.1%. Although the growth momentum from 1969 to 1973 was slow, it was still as high as 9.4%. In 1967, Japan’s GDP surpassed that of Britain and France, and in 1968, it surpassed that of the Federal Republic of Germany, becoming the second largest economic country in the capitalist world after the United States.
The third stage, from 1974 to 1990, was a period of low-speed and stable development of Japan’s economy.
The oil crisis in 1973 and the first economic crisis after the war from 1973 to 1975 reduced Japan’s industrial production by 20%, increased the number of unemployed by 109.
3%, decreased fixed capital investment by 28% and increased consumer prices by 24.2%. Since then, the Japanese economy has ended the high-speed development stage after the war and entered a period of low-speed and stable growth.
However, the Japanese government has maintained a higher economic growth rate than other capitalist countries in the crisis by strengthening economic intervention and reducing costs.
From 1974 to 1984, the average annual growth rate of Japan’s economy was 4.1%. From 1985 to 1991, despite the impact of the depreciation of the yen twice, the Japanese government took effective administrative and financial measures in time, so that the economy rebounded quickly, with an average annual growth rate of 4.
6%, ranking first in western countries.
By the mid-1980s, Japan had surpassed the Soviet Union as the second largest economic power in the world.
(II) reasons for the rapid development of Japan’s economy there are profound international and domestic reasons for the rapid development of Japan’s economy after the war.
From the perspective of international factors, there are the following aspects: (1) the stable international peace environment in the post-war decades enabled Japan to concentrate on economic development.
World War did not break out in more than 40 years after the war, and world peace was maintained.
Although local wars and conflicts continued, and even some local wars took place around Japan, Japan was not involved in any war.
Japan not only avoided the damage of the war, but also saved a lot of military expenditure, which played a significant role in economic development.
Due to its low military expenditure, Japan has more financial resources to invest in economic construction than other countries.
It can be said that Japan has benefited the most from the post-war world peace.
(2) the world’s low energy prices in the 1950s and 1960s were very beneficial to the rapid development of Japan’s economy.
Japan is a country with poor resources and highly dependent on foreign resources.
Before 1973, the price of international primary products was very low, while the price of industrial products exported by developed countries increased significantly.
This makes Japan earn a lot of “scissors gap” profits in import and export trade.
(3) the strong support of the United States to Japan is an important factor for the rapid development of Japan’s economy.
The democratic reform carried out by the United States in Japan and the policy of supporting Japan are the prerequisites for the rapid development of Japan’s economy.
On the one hand, the United States provided Japan with the necessary funds for economic development.
On the other hand, it transferred technology to Japan and opened its market to Japan.
In addition, the United States not only did not ask for war reparations from Japan, but also used various means to make major countries that had suffered Japanese aggression not or less ask for Japan’s war reparations, reducing Japan’s economic burdenJapan’s capital market and real estate industry, almost all Japanese financial institutions provide loans to businesses and individuals to buy stocks and real estate, resulting in a sharp rise in stock prices and a rising property market, forming a “bubble economy” that has lasted for 5 years and is false and prosperous.
According to statistics, from 1985 to 1989, Japan’s total land assets increased from 1000 trillion yuan to 2130 trillion yuan, and the total stock market value increased from 214 trillion yuan in the same period to 890 trillion yuan.
The land price and stock value increased in four years were equivalent to 449% and 208% of the gross national product in 1989.
Since November 1986, Japan’s economy has entered the era of “Heisei boom” with rapid growth, which lasted until April 1991.
However, the economic prosperity based on huge virtual capital is unstable.
In early 1991, with the collapse of the stock market of Tokyo stock exchange, Japan’s bubble economy collapsed.
Japan’s economy began to fall into a long-term downturn.
In 1991, Japan’s economic growth rate decreased from 5.
5% of the previous year to 3.
3%, and then decreased to 1.
1% in 1992.
The growth rates in 1994 and 1995 were only 0.
5% and 0.7%. In 1997 and 1998, there was a negative growth that had never been seen since the oil crisis in 1973.
In 1996, Japan’s fiscal deficit accounted for 7.
4% of GDP, the highest among the seven western countries.
Japan, a long-term top student in the world economy, is in a difficult situation.
We should make an objective and comprehensive analysis and understanding of Japan’s economic development after the cold war.
First of all, we cannot draw the conclusion that Japan has declined according to the state of Japan’s economic depression in recent years.
At present, Japan is still the second largest economic power in the world, accounting for 17% – 18% of the world’s gross national product, equivalent to 60% – 70% of the United States, more than Germany, Britain, France and Italy combined.
The per capita GNP reached US $27326 in 1991, higher than US $22550 in the United States, ranking first among the seven western countries.
Japan is the world’s largest trade surplus country and the largest foreign exchange reserve country (US $220 billion).
Among the western developed countries, Japan’s domestic savings rate still ranks first.
Japan’s industrial production capacity and competitiveness are comparable to those of the United States.
Therefore, Japan will remain an important pole in the multipolar world economy.
Secondly, it should be noted that the Japanese economy has come to a crossroads.
The Japanese economic model formed after the war can no longer adapt to the development of the Japanese economy and even the international economy.
Some links in the Japanese economic system have weakened their role in promoting economic growth.
Reform must be carried out to seek to establish an economic system and economic operation model suitable for modern economic development, In order to further promote Japan’s economic growth.
After the cold war, the Japanese government has been taking various measures to reform the original economic system.
In 1992, the Japanese government adopted the new economic development plan of the “Five-Year Plan for a big living country”, and decided to take the realization of national prosperity as the leading idea of economic policy.
In December 1993, the final report of the economic reform research association was published, which put forward the specific objectives of economic reform.
In addition, financial and other aspects have been gradually reformed.
Although the reform has encountered various difficulties, on the whole, it has also achieved certain results.
With the deepening and development of reform, Japan’s economic situation will gradually improve and will still play an important role in the future world economy. II. Japanese Politics (I) political reform and development in post-war Japan the contemporary Japanese political system was established on the basis of the democratic reform of Japan by the United States in the early post-war period.
After World War II, the United States occupied the whole of Japan in the name of “allied forces”.
The commander in chief of the Pacific army of the United States was appointed as the “supreme commander of the Allied forces” and became the de facto supreme ruler of Japan.
In order to make Japan no longer a threat to the United States, the authorities of the US occupation forces carried out a series of demilitarization and democratization reforms on Japan.
The main contents of the reform are as follows: (1) disarm Japan, punish war criminals, eliminate secret police, remove militarists from public office, and ban right-wing fascist groups.
(2) amend the Constitution and formulate a new constitution.
The new constitution retains the Mikado system, but its power is limited by the Constitution and subordinate to the supreme will of the people.
It declares that it will never give up force, abolish all feudal systems, and implement the parliamentary system of separation of three powers.
(3) carry out economic reform.
It is mainly to carry out the movement of dissolving the chaebol in cities, implement land reform in rural areas and eliminate the remnants of feudalism in social life.
In addition, we have also carried out the reform of the education system and the labor system.
All these democratic reforms, on the one hand, enabled the United States to further strengthen its control over Japan politically, economically, militarily and diplomatically.
On the other hand, these reforms have also dealt an objective blow to Japanese militarist and feudal forces, achieved great changes in Japan’s national political system, promoted Japan’s transformation from military feudal imperialism to bourgeois parliamentary democracy, adapted to the needs of Japan’s social development, and played a great role in promoting the rapid recovery and development of Japan’s social economy, It is a major turning point in Japanese history.
However, it must be noted that these reforms are carried out under specific historical conditions and in accordance with the needs and models of the United States.
Therefore, the reform has great limitations and the reform is not complete.
According to the post-war new constitution, Japan implements the parliamentary system symbolized by the emperor.
The emperor is the symbol of the country and the whole Japanese people.
The authority of the emperor is only formal.
If the emperor appoints the cabinet, the prime minister must be nominated by the parliament.
The appointment of judges of the Supreme Court must be nominated by the cabinet prime minister.
The authority of the emperor is basically routine, and the activities are only ceremonial and formal.
The national assembly is the highest authority and the only legislative body in Japan.
It is composed of the house of Representatives and the Senate.
Members of both houses are elected by universal suffrage.
The house of Representatives has 512 members, with a term of office of four years, and implements the central constituency system.
Since 1996, the new electoral system of “coexistence of small constituency system and proportional representation system” has been implemented.
300 members have been elected in small constituencies, 200 members have been elected in proportional representation districts, and there are 500 seats in the house of Representatives.
The Senate has 252 members, with a term of office of six years, and half of them are re elected every three years.
The Constitution stipulates that the functions and powers of Congress include legislative power, supervision over the government and supervision over diplomacy, finance and justice.
In terms of power, the house of Representatives is greater than the Senate.
The cabinet is the highest administrative organ in Japan.
Cabinet byThe majority party or political party with more than half of the seats in the house of Representatives jointly formed a cabinet.
The party leader of the parliamentary majority party is the ex officio cabinet prime minister.
If there is no party with more than half, the head of the majority party in the united front will be the cabinet prime minister.
For a new cabinet, the prime minister is first elected by the parliament from among the members of Parliament, and the emperor is appointed according to the nomination of the parliament.
Then the elected Prime Minister selects the members of the cabinet (more than half of them must be members of parliament) and appoints the heads of provinces, departments and important committees.
The court is the judicial organ of Japan, which exercises judicial power.
It is in parallel with the Parliament and cabinet in form.
The so-called “judges exercise their functions and powers independently and are only bound by the Japanese Constitution and laws.
” In terms of personnel appointment, the judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the cabinet, but the judges of the lower courts are appointed by the cabinet according to the list proposed by the Supreme Court.
Japan is a multi-party country.
At present, the main political parties participating in parliamentary activities are: Liberal Democratic Party, liberal party, Communist Party, Social Democratic Party, sun party, pioneer new party, etc.
From 1955 to 1993, the Liberal Democratic Party has been in power.
Japanese politicians call this situation the “1955 system”.
With the collapse of the LDP government in 1993, Japan entered a new period of political turmoil and fierce party struggle.
The characteristics of this period are: frequent changes of government, fierce party struggle, differentiation and combination of various forces, and intensive activities of Party differentiation, reorganization, reconstruction and new construction.
Japanese politics has entered a transitional period from the old system to the new system.
(2) Japanese politics after the cold war in August 1993, Hosokawa, the candidate recommended by the seven opposition parties, defeated Yohei Kono, the candidate recommended by the Liberal Democratic Party, and was elected the 79th Prime Minister of Japan.
It marks the end of the era when the Liberal Democratic Party was in power for a long time.
Japan has entered a new period of political turmoil and fierce party struggle.
In June 1993, the Liberal Democratic Party divided into two political parties representing Neoconservatism: the new party and the pioneer new party, which marked the end of the “1955 system” pattern characterized by the struggle between the two major parties of the Liberal Democratic Party and the socialist party.
In 1994, the factions separated from the Liberal Democratic Party led by the nascent party, the new party, the Komeito party, the democratic social party and Junshu Haibu formed a “cocktail” new progressive party.
However, due to interest disputes, it was soon divided into six small parties.
In January 1999, the Democratic Party and other six parties formed the “people’s friendship alliance” under the political goal of overthrowing Hashimoto cabinet, becoming the second largest force in parliament after the Liberal Democratic Party.
Since then, the main component of the “people’s Alliance for friendship” has formed the Democratic Party.
In this way, Japan’s political arena has basically formed a situation in which the two major political forces alternate in power.
However, since most members of the Democratic Party are divided from the Liberal Democratic Party, Japan’s political arena is actually dominated by conservative forces.
With the fierce disputes over the division and combination of political parties, the Prime Minister of Japan changed frequently after the cold war.
Since 1989, 10 prime ministers have been replaced in 12 years.
In 2001, after Yoshiro Mori resigned, Junichiro Koizumi, known as a “freak”, became Japan’s new prime minister.
Koizumi became the Prime Minister of Japan when the Japanese economy has been in a downturn for a long time.
He held high the banner of “reform” at home and appeared with a tough attitude at abroad, which won a high support rate at home.
However, it remains to be seen whether he can lead Japan out of the trough and regain its momentum.
Despite the resolute opposition of China and South Korea, he insisted on paying homage to the Yasukuni Shrine, resulting in a low point in relations with South Korea and China.
How to reverse this situation has become an important diplomatic and political issue facing Koizumi. III. Japan’s foreign relations after the war.
Japan’s foreign relations and foreign policy after the war experienced a change process from “falling to one side” to the United States, to proposing multilateral independent diplomacy, and then to seeking the foreign strategy of a political power.
It has roughly experienced the following stages: (1) from the end of World War II to the middle of 50 years, the diplomatic stage of “falling to one side” to the United States.
In the early post-war period, Japan was occupied by the United States alone, and all Japan’s foreign activities and foreign negotiations were handled through the authorities of the United States occupying forces.
During this period, Japan was in a situation of no strength at home and no power at home and abroad.
The goal of Japanese diplomacy was to return to the international community as soon as possible.
In order to achieve this goal, Japan has completely accepted a series of reforms carried out by the United States in Japan.
Cooperate with the “cold war” and “containment” policies of the United States.
In September 1951, the San Francisco Peace Treaty made Japan gain formal independence.
At the same time, the Japan US security treaty legalized the US military stationed in Japan.
In 1956, Japan Soviet relations were restored.
In addition, with the help of the United States, Japan has joined the International Monetary Fund, the general agreement on Tariffs and the organization for economic cooperation and development.
In 1956, Japan joined the United Nations.
During this period, the relationship between Japan and Southeast Asian countries was also restored and developed, which created good international conditions for Japan’s economic development.
(II) from the late 1950s to the early 1970s, in the stage of economic diplomacy, in order to create a favorable international environment for domestic economic development and ensure stable resources for Japan’s economic development, the Japanese government began to fully implement “trade based nation” and “economic diplomacy”.
In 1957, Kishi government published the first blue book on diplomacy after the war, putting forward the slogan of “economic diplomacy”.
“Economic diplomacy” means that it still depends on the United States in politics, military and diplomacy and continues to “fall to one side” to the United States.
However, it competes with the United States and Western European countries economically, develops in Asia, Africa and Latin America, and seeks a stable supply place of raw materials and energy and a reliable commodity sales market.
The focus of economic diplomacy is Southeast Asia.
Japan’s exports and investment in Southeast Asia continue to expand.
In 1958, its exports reached 649 million US dollars, accounting for 22.
6% of its total exports.
By the end of 1959, Japanese yen loans to Southeast Asia amounted to US $64 million.
After 20 years of development, by 1978, the trade volume between Japan and the five ASEAN countries reached US $18.
643 billion, exceeding the trade volume of the United States in this region.
Japan has also continued to strengthen economic exchanges with the United States.
Before 1964, Japan had a deficit in the trade between Japan and the United States, which has changed since 1965.
From 1965 to 1971, the trade surplus reached US $8.
In 1971, Japan’s industrial products accounted for 94% of its total exports to the United States.
Japan has also strengthened exchanges with Europe.
In November 1962, Japanese Prime Minister Yoshito Ikeda visited seven Western European countries and put forward the slogan that Japan, Western Europe and the United States are the “three pillars of the free world”.
Since then, the relations between Japan and Europe have improved greatlydevelopment.
During this period, Japan also developed economic relations with socialist countries.
In April 1955, China signed the Sino Japanese trade agreement with China, and in June of the same year, signed the Japan Soviet barter agreement with the Soviet Union.
The trade volume between China and Japan soared from US $24 million in 1960 to US $823 million in 1970, an increase of 34 times in 10 years.
(III) from the early 1970s to the early 1980s, the stage of multilateral independent diplomacy took place due to major changes in the international situation in the early 1970s, such as the changes in China US relations, the impact of the “oil crisis” and “dollar crisis”, the adjustment of the US Asian policy, etc.
In the face of these changes, Japan once again adjusted its foreign policy and began to implement “multilateral independent diplomacy”.
Its main contents are as follows: first, seek to establish a “fruitful partnership” with the United States based on the security system of Japan and the United States.
Second, use China to counter the Soviet Union.
In September 1972, Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka visited China.
China and Japan signed a joint statement and restored formal diplomatic relations between the two countries.
After Takeo Fukuda came to power in 1976, he corrected the line of “equal distance diplomacy” once implemented by Takeo Miki to China and the Soviet Union, and signed the Treaty of peace and friendship between Japan and China.
As for the relations with the Soviet Union, the progress is extremely slow because the northern territorial issue has been pending for a long time.
Third, strengthen economic ties with the third world.
The “oil crisis” exposed the vulnerability of Japan’s economy and made the Japanese government realize the importance of developing economic ties with third world countries such as the Middle East.
Therefore, it changed its practice of blindly following the Middle East policy of the United States and formulated the “New Middle East Policy” to ensure the stable development of Japan’s economic and trade relations with the Middle East.
In Southeast Asia, the Japanese government has taken measures to strengthen dialogue and strive to attend and further participate in the ASEAN summit.
In 1976, Prime Minister Fukuda also put forward three principles of “Fukuda doctrine”, namely, ensuring “not to be a military power”, establishing a “heart to heart” trust relationship with ASEAN countries, and “contributing to the peace and prosperity of Southeast Asia”.
In addition, Japan has also strengthened its economic and trade relations with African countries.
(IV) since the early 1980s, in the diplomatic stage of striving for a political power, with the strengthening of Japan’s economic strength, the governments of all walks of life in Japan regarded striving for a political power as their main goal in the 1980s.
In 1980, Masayoshi Ohira put forward a report on Japan’s comprehensive security and future foreign economic policy, which expressed Japan’s intention to transition to a political power for the first time after the war.
When Prime Minister Suzuki visited the United States in 1981, he once again announced that Japan had entered the “third voyage” to strive to establish “an international status commensurate with economic strength” on the world political stage.
Then, Prime Minister Nakasone clearly put forward the goal of becoming a political power.
Since then, successive governments have regarded striving to be a political power as the basic goal of foreign policy.
After entering the 1990s, Japan took advantage of the situation after the cold war to accelerate its pace towards becoming a world political power.
The cabinet of the Ministry of maritime affairs put forward the idea of “forming a new world order led by the three poles of Japan, the United States and Europe”.
Prime Minister Miyazawa believes that Japan has the responsibility and qualification to establish this new order.
Japan’s basic goal of becoming a political power is to strive to become the second largest country in the West with the Japan US alliance as the axis and the system of Japan, the United States and Europe as the starting point.
Take Asia Pacific Cooperation as a lever to strive for Japan’s leading position in Asia.
Take economy and trade as the medium, actively expand its influence in the third world, actively participate in various international affairs, strive for Japan to have more voice and play a greater role in the international arena, and strive to become a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.
In order to achieve the goal of a political power, Japan has adopted the following policies in Diplomacy: first, strengthen the Japan US alliance.
The Japan US alliance is the foundation of Japan’s diplomacy and the fundamental premise to achieve its goal of political power.
At present, Japan is inseparable not only from the United States in politics and security, but also from the United States in economy.
Therefore, successive Japanese governments have stressed that Japan US relations are the first in Japanese diplomacy.
Japan’s policy towards the United States is mainly to keep in line with the United States politically and diplomatically, share the responsibilities of the United States economically and militarily, deal with mutual frictions and contradictions economically and make some concessions when necessary.
In the mid-1990s, Japan increasingly realized that in order to become a world political power, it must rely on the United States.
Therefore, the “Japan US defense cooperation guidelines” was issued in 1997, which changed the nature of Japan US security relations from “something in Japan” to “something around Japan”, and Japan assisted the United States to defend the “surrounding”.
This has given Japan a green light to engage in military activities overseas.
In addition, in order to show Japan’s independence, it also shows some differences from the United States on some issues.
Second, strengthen the coordination of relations with Western European countries.
After the cold war, Japan has always wanted to establish a new international order led by Japan, the United States and Europe.
Therefore, the relationship with Western Europe is an important part of Japan’s diplomacy.
In the 1990s, Japan put forward the “new European policy”, the main content of which is to strengthen mutual economic and trade relations and pay attention to political ties with western countries.
Japan has coordinated its position with Western Europe on the Gulf and Middle East issues, arms negotiations and the development of the south.
Japan also participated in the CSCE as an observer.
Third, attach importance to the development of China Japan relations, but the tendency to prevent China is also strengthening.
Japan must rely on China’s political influence and huge economic potential in order to realize its leading role in Asia.
China Japan friendship, on the one hand, gives Japan access to China’s resources and markets, on the other hand, gives Japan room for maneuver when dealing with the United States and Europe.
Therefore, successive Japanese governments have attached great importance to China Japan relations and stressed that Japan China relations are as important as Japan US relations, which is another pillar of Japanese diplomacy.
However, with the development of China and its rising status and influence in Asia and the world, Japan’s tendency to guard against China has become more and more obvious.
Coupled with the activities of right-wing forces in Japan, there have been some fluctuations and troubles in Japan China relations since 1990.
However, the importance of Japan China relations forces Japan to repair and develop bilateral relations rationally.
Since then, the leaders of the two sides have exchanged visits, and China Japan relations have been greatly improved.
At present, the overall development momentum of China Japan relations is good, but there are also problems, mainly the understanding of history and problems.
Fourth, strengthen diplomacy with Russia and achieve a breakthrough in Japan Russia relations.
RussiaJapan is still a big country with important international influence in today’s world.
Japan recognizes that if it wants to become a political power, it must deal with Japan Russia relations well.
The main problems between Japan and Russia are territorial problems.
For a long time, Japan has always adhered to the principle of inseparable politics and economy to deal with its relations with Russia.
However, no substantive gains have been achieved.
Therefore, after the cold war, Japan began to adopt a pragmatic approach and decided to develop relations with Russia to achieve a breakthrough in bilateral relations, then sign a peace treaty, develop economic and trade cooperation at the same time, and then create necessary conditions for solving the territorial issue.
In 1997, Japan Russia relations warmed up rapidly.
In November, Hashimoto and Yeltsin held an informal summit, marking the significant development of bilateral relations.
In April 1998, the heads of state of Japan and Russia met again in Japan.
After the cold war, Japan Russia relations have developed greatly, but there are still many restrictive factors between the two sides, especially on the most essential territorial issue.
Fifth, strengthen cooperation in the Asia Pacific region.
Japan has successively put forward the “concept of Pacific Rim cooperation” and “East Asian economic circle”, trying to operate Southeast Asia into its backyard and strive to be the leader of the Asia Pacific Alliance, so as to transition to the world stage.
At the same time, Japan has vigorously carried out hot spot diplomacy by means of economic assistance in order to expand Japan’s international influence.
Sixth, actively carry out UN diplomacy, participate in UN peacekeeping operations, provide economic and military assistance, and seek to become a permanent member of the UN Security Council.
Seventh, further strengthen military forces.
Military strength is a necessary condition for becoming a political power.
Throughout the 1980s, Japan’s military spending has been rising, with an average annual growth rate of 7%.
In 1986, Japan’s military expenditure exceeded 1% of GNP.
At present, Japan’s military expenditure has ranked second in the world, and the quality of armaments is second only to the United States.
In June 1992, Japan forcibly passed the United Nations peacekeeping operations Act (referred to as the PKO act), which gave the green light for Japan to send troops overseas.
On August 18, 2001, the Japanese government also decided to lift the freeze on the participation of the Japanese self defense force in the main business of the United Nations peacekeeping forces, relax the restrictions on the use of weapons when the self defense force participates in peacekeeping forces, and modify the principle of the self defense force participating in peacekeeping operations, so as to make the Japanese self defense force an equal military force with the armies of Western powers in international activities.
Japan’s bid to become a world political power has attracted the attention of the people of the world, especially the people of Asia.
Japan has launched wars of aggression against some Asian countries, and so far Japan cannot treat history with a correct attitude and win the real understanding and trust of Asian countries.
For various reasons, Japanese militarism and the right-wing trend of thought have not been completely eliminated, and after the cold war, they tend to rise and spread.
Therefore, the people of Asian countries have reason to be vigilant about the trend of Japan’s political and military power.
For Japan, if it wants to truly become a world political power, it should first become a political power in Asia.
If it is difficult to exert enough political influence in Asia and become a political power in Asia, how can it go to the world! Therefore, it is an important diplomatic task for Japan to correctly understand and treat history and handle its relations with neighboring Asian countries in order to become a political power.