The Soviet Union, fully known as the union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was officially established on December 30, 1922 and disintegrated on December 26, 1991.

The Soviet Union is the first socialist country in human history.

It used to be the second superpower in the world and played an important role on the international stage.

After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, it was divided into 15 countries.

Russia is the “legal successor State” of the former Soviet Union.

It is still an important power in the world today and plays an important role in international affairs.

In the future multipolar world, Russia will be an important pole.

Understanding and studying the evolution of the Soviet Union and the political, economic and diplomatic development and changes of Russia after independence is of great significance for us to understand the development and changes of the international community, the current world situation and the future trend. I. the economic and political development of the Soviet Union and the evolution of foreign policy after the war.

In 1917, Russia broke out the October Revolution led by the Bolshevik party.

In December 1922, the union of Soviet Socialist Republics was established, referred to as the Soviet Union for short.

After the founding of the Soviet Union, socialist industrialization and agricultural collectivization were rapidly carried out, from an agricultural country to an industrial country.

At the same time, in the process of socialist construction in the Soviet Union, under the specific historical conditions of the 1920s-1930s, a set of fixed systems and systems were formed, that is, the Soviet model, that is, the traditional socialist model.

This model played a positive and important role in the historical conditions at that time.

Less than 15 years after the Soviet Union announced the completion of socialism, the patriotic war broke out.

After making great sacrifices, the Soviet people defeated the German invaders, made great contributions to the anti fascist war and won a high international status.

After the war, the social development of the Soviet Union roughly went through the following stages: (1) from the end of World War II to 1953, that is, the later stage of governance.

This stage is the stage of the Soviet Union’s economic recovery and healing the wounds of the war.

The centralized system of the Soviet Union also played an important role.

It took only four years and three months to complete the fourth five-year plan for restoring the national economy.

By 1964, the industrial production of the Soviet Union had reached the pre war level.

However, the disadvantages of this socialist model have been exposed during this period.

Excessive centralization of power has destroyed political democracy and trampled on the socialist legal system.

The party and government are not divided, and the party replaces the government.

The vicious development of individual superstition, the existence of collective leadership in name only, and a large number of unjust, false and wrong cases.

In fact, leading posts are lifelong, bureaucratism and corruption are serious, dogmatism is rampant, and ideas are imprisoned.

The closure of the first mock exam made the Soviet Union miss the opportunity to catch up with the development of the post-war world science and technology revolution and postponed the transformation from extensive to intensive development.

In order to heal the wounds of war and the need for a peaceful international environment, the Soviet Union implemented a peaceful diplomatic strategy during this period.

The main contents are: to maintain world peace, coexist peacefully with countries with different social systems and develop mutually beneficial cooperative relations.

Oppose the imperialist war policy and the rearming of Germany and Japan.

Consolidate the victorious achievements of the war and strengthen unity and cooperation with socialism.

Actively support the world national liberation movement and expand the socialist forces.

Create a favorable international environment for restoring the national economy, enhancing national strength and ensuring national security.

However, during this period, the Soviet Union’s foreign relations have shown signs of great power doctrine and national egoism, such as the contradiction and conflict between Southern Jiangsu and China that broke out in 1948.

(II) Khrushchev’s period from 1953 to 1964 after Stalin’s death in 1953, Khrushchev and other new generation leaders came to power after fierce intra party struggle of the Soviet Communist Party.

The Soviet Union began the Khrushchev era.

The economic development speed of the Soviet Union in this period was second only to Japan and higher than that of other western countries.

From 1961 to 1965, the average annual growth rate of national income of the Soviet Union was 6.

5%, the average annual growth rate of industrial output value was 8.

6%, and the average annual growth rate of agricultural output value was 2.4%. By 1964, the industrial output value of the Soviet Union had reached 65% of that of the United States, and some major industrial output had approached or exceeded that of the United States.

In the process of sustained economic development, Khrushchev carried out some reforms on the system of the Soviet Union.

In terms of economy, it mainly includes the adjustment of agricultural policies and the reform of economic management system, such as streamlining the central organization, reorganizing the planning system, reducing the mandatory indicators issued by the central government, expanding the authority of local governments and enterprises in planning, finance and material distribution, reducing state intervention in farmers and expanding the autonomy of collective farms.

In politics, it mainly criticizes individual superstition and strengthens collective leadership.

In 1956, Khrushchev made a secret report on personal superstition and its consequences at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which caused a strong shock at home and abroad.

In 1961, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union wrote the principle of opposing individual worship and strengthening collective leadership into the party constitution.

Khrushchev’s criticism of personal superstition has played a positive role in eliminating superstition and emancipating the mind.

However, he did not analyze the social and historical roots of personal superstition, but only attributed the error to Stalin himself.

Moreover, after he came to power, Khrushchev created a new personal superstition, integrating the power of the party, government and army, which eventually led to the failure of reform and his resignation.

On the whole, although the reform in this period achieved certain results, it was still carried out under the old system and did not touch the crux of the Soviet system.

In terms of foreign strategy, Khrushchev pursued the strategy of “US Soviet cooperation and dominating the world”.

In order to achieve this goal, he put forward the “three harmony” line of “peaceful coexistence”, “peaceful competition” and “peaceful transition”.

The main contents are: peaceful coexistence with the Western camp led by the United States and taking peaceful coexistence as the general line of the Soviet Union’s foreign policy.

On the basis of vigorously strengthening the economy and military, especially nuclear weapons, we should achieve equal status with the United States, and then surpass and surpass the United States in the peace race.

Consolidate the socialist camp and hope that the United States will recognize the Soviet Union’s control over socialism.

For the vast areas of Asia, Africa and Latin America, in the name of supporting the national liberation movement, strengthen infiltration and expand influence, and advocate that the Asian, African and Latin American national countries embark on the non capitalist road through peaceful transition, and peacefully transition to socialism through the parliamentary road in those capitalist countries with deep traditions.

Its goal is us Soviet cooperation to jointly dominate the world.

But in fact, this is just Khrushchev’s loveGorbachev decided to carry out a comprehensive reform of the Soviet Union because of the difficulties encountered in the development of the Soviet Union.

Gorbachev’s reform can be divided into the following stages: 1.

From March 1985 to November 1987, the plenary session of the CPC Central Committee.

This stage is mainly a period of preparation for reform, which needs to unify the thinking of the whole party, and the reform policy is mainly to improve socialism.

It is mainly to improve and perfect the original economic and political system of the Soviet Union, and explore ways of economic reform and accelerating economic development.

Gorbachev did not deny the original system, but also tried to reform it.

Externally, it has implemented a new mitigation strategy and achieved certain results.

In 1987, it reached a China missile defense agreement with the United States.

There has been little progress in economic reform.

By January 1987, the plenary session of the CPC Central Committee had finally unified the thinking of the whole party. 2. The 19th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from January 1987 to June 1988.

The reform in this period changed from economic system reform to political system reform, and the foreign policy took new thinking as the guiding ideology.

The old system was broken, the new system failed to be established, and the economic system reform was in trouble.

In this context, Gorbachev believed that the fundamental obstacle to reform lay in the political system, so he shifted the focus of reform to the political field.

At this time, he began to comprehensively criticize and deny the traditional model of the Soviet Union.

The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, held from June 28 to July 1, 1988, completely denied the traditional political system of the Soviet Union and put forward the fundamental reform of the political system in the first place.

The meeting decided to weaken and abandon the party’s leadership over the state power and implement the Western parliamentary democracy.

The meeting formally proposed “humane and democratic socialism” and took it as the goal of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

The economic reform in this period was ineffective, the economic situation continued to deteriorate, and the political system reform has deviated from the direction, divorced from the leadership of the Communist Party and the socialist road, and began the reform of democratic socialism.

In terms of foreign policy, new thinking on international politics has been put forward and foreign policy has been adjusted.

The core of the new thinking is to recognize that the value of all mankind is above all else, emphasize the elimination of confrontation between the two social systems, and humanize international relations.

In essence, it replaces Marxist Leninist theory of class struggle and historical materialism with super class humanitarianism and abstract interests of all mankind, denies class and class struggle in the international field, denies the struggle between two different social systems and two ideologies, and ignores the opposition and unity of different social systems, And the dialectical relationship between the struggle between the two ideologies and the de ideologization of international relations.

During this period, the Soviet Union adjusted its foreign policy.

Changed the policy of comprehensive confrontation with the United States, began to implement strategic contraction from the third world and made comprehensive concessions to western countries. 3. From June 1988 to July 1990, the 28th National Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

During this period, Gorbachev began to take “humane and democratic socialism” as the theoretical guidance and began to change the leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the political structure of the Soviet Union.

The power center of the Soviet Union was gradually transferred from the Political Bureau of the party to the Supreme Soviet.

From May to June 1989, a new supreme organ of state power, the Soviet people’s Congress, was established.

Many anti Communist and anti socialist figures took the opportunity to enter the supreme organ of state power.

Legislative power and executive power were separated, and the position of the Soviet Communist Party changed from “leadership core” to “political vanguard”.

The February plenary session of the CPC Central Committee in 1990 and the subsequent March plenary session made several decisions related to the fate of the Soviet Party and state: Amending Article 6 of the Constitution and abolishing the legal leadership of the CPC.

Complete the reform of all state organs and transfer power to the Soviet Union.

Implement the Western multi-party system politically.

Implement the presidential system.

Since then, the Soviet Communist Party has lost its legal political power.

During this period, the economic, political, social and alliance crises of the Soviet Union intensified day by day, demonstrations, strikes and ethnic conflicts occurred one after another, and the whole domestic situation began to fluctuate.

The comprehensive crisis of the Soviet Union has begun. 4. July 1990 to August 1991.

The stage of democratic socialism from theory to practice and from thought to practical policy.

Various political forces fought fiercely around the reform plan.

In July 1990, the 28th National Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union adopted the programmatic statement, Party Constitution and a series of resolutions on moving towards humane and democratic socialism.

On the basis of affirming the decisions of the plenary session of the Central Committee in February and March, it further proposed that the dominant socialist public ownership should be abolished economically, the means of production should be “denationalized and privatized”, and the state should not directly participate in economic activities, Implement “complete market economy”.

Diversify the ideological field and abandon the guiding position of Marxism Leninism.

In terms of foreign relations, in line with the principle of diplomacy serving domestic affairs, the strategy of seeking hegemony has shifted to easing international tensions and realizing global strategic retreat.

The Congress changed the guiding ideology, goal of struggle, class attribute, status, role and organizational principle of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, thus changing the nature of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and disintegrating the party organization.

According to statistics, the number of people who quit the party in that month was as high as 19000.

After the Communist Party of the Soviet Union lost its national power, it also lost its power in a series of republics and regions.

Gorbachev’s reform brought a comprehensive crisis to the Soviet society.

The manifestation of the political crisis is that after the Communist Party of the Soviet Union lost its leadership, it was divided into “radical”, “traditional” and “mainstream”, which competed fiercely for political power, leaving the state power in a semi paralyzed state.

All kinds of anti Communist and anti socialist thoughts and forces have increased rapidly.

They have comprehensively denied the historical achievements of more than 70 years and put forward all kinds of capitalist programs.

The political foundation of socialism has been lost.

Ethnic conflicts have become increasingly acute, and the alliance is facing disintegration.

The performance of the economic crisis is: the Soviet Union’s economy showed negative growth for the first time in 1990 and decreased by 15% in 1991, while the deficit was five times that of 1990.

In 1991, the Soviet Union’s foreign debt reached 77 billion US dollars and its domestic debt was 550 billion rubles.

The supply of commodities in the market is extremely scarce, prices rise, the inflation rate reaches 400%, and the people’s living standard drops.

In the face of the country’s serious crisis, various political factions have fought fiercely around different reform plans.

On August 19, 1991, the “national emergency committee” headed by Vice President Yanayev announced the implementation of a state of emergency in individual regions of the Soviet Union.

Strive to safeguard the unified alliance state, the status of the Communist Party and the choice of socialism.

The political forces led by Yeltsin areWith the support of the United States and other western countries, they fought hard.

On August 21, Gorbachev issued a statement announcing that he had taken control of the situation and that the participants in the August 19 incident had been arrested.

After the August 19 incident, the Soviet Communist Party was dissolved and the state institutions of the Soviet Union were broken.

National contradictions intensified, and the disintegration of the Soviet Union was imminent.

On August 24, Ukraine, the second largest Republic of the Soviet Union, declared its independence, which dealt a fatal blow to the Soviet Union.

By December 1991, all 15 former Soviet republics, except Russia, had declared independence.

On December 8, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus signed an agreement in Minsk to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States.

On December 21, the leaders of 11 participating republics except the Baltic Sea and Georgia signed the protocol on the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Almaty declaration in Almaty, the capital of Kazakhstan, and declared that the Soviet Union ceased to exist.

On December 25, Gorbachev announced his resignation as president of the Soviet Union.

The Soviet Union officially disintegrated after 69 years. III. analysis of the causes of the disintegration of the Soviet Union.

The six-year reform not only did not make the Soviet Union embark on a new development path, but made the first socialist country founded by Lenin disintegrate.

Its occurrence is by no means accidental, but has profound ideological, political, economic and other roots.1. Gorbachev’s pursuit of “humane and democratic socialism” and “new thinking in international politics” was the direct cause of the disintegration of the Soviet Union.

Gorbachev’s reform advocated ideological pluralism and denied the guiding position of Marxism, resulting in the proliferation of all kinds of bourgeois and anti Communist thoughts.

Advocate democratic socialism and deny the basic socialist system of proletarian dictatorship, public ownership and distribution according to work.

Advocate humanitarianism and deny the dictatorship of the proletariat.

Advocating the multi-party system, denying the leadership of the Communist Party and handing over the leadership to the anti Communist forces.

Advocate that the interests of all mankind are above all else and deny the opposition and struggle between the socialist and capitalist systems.

Finally, it led to the qualitative change of the state nature of the Soviet Union and the disintegration of the alliance.2. The internal reason for the disintegration of the Soviet Union was the long-term implementation of a highly centralized economic system and a highly centralized political system.

The highly centralized economic system of the Soviet Union was formed in the 1930s.

This system has played a great role in history, making the Soviet Union the second superpower.

However, with the development of economy, the disadvantages of this highly centralized economic system are becoming more and more obvious.

After the 1960s, with the changes of the world economic situation, this economic system has become increasingly unsuitable for social development.

The emergence of the new scientific and technological revolution has prompted the transformation of the economy from extensive to intensive, and from extended reproduction to connotative reproduction.

Therefore, thoroughly reforming the old economic system is the objective requirement of economic development.

The reform of the Soviet system cannot meet the requirements of history.

However, whether Khrushchev or Brezhnev, their reforms did not touch the old economic system itself, but carried out within the original system.

This finally led to the stagnation of economic development and the decline of people’s living standards in the Soviet Union, and caused people’s dissatisfaction with society.

The main feature of the Soviet political system is a high degree of centralization, with excessive concentration of power on higher-level organs and main leaders.

In terms of cadre policy, a top-down appointment system and a de facto tenure system of leadership positions are implemented.

The over centralized political system implemented by the Soviet Union for a long time has contributed to the emergence of personality worship, bureaucracy, corruption and privilege, making the leading cadres of the party and the state increasingly divorced from the masses, seriously distorting or destroying democratic centralism, and seriously undermining socialist democracy, legal system and the party’s prestige.3. The foreign policy of competing for world hegemony is another important reason for the disintegration of the Soviet Union.

In the early post-war period, the Soviet Union exposed the mistakes of great power doctrine and big party doctrine in dealing with its relations with socialist countries.

With the development of economy, especially the enhancement of military and nuclear strength, the Soviet Union increasingly embarked on the road of competing for world hegemony with the United States and pursued hegemonic foreign policy.

In order to compete for hegemony, the Soviet Union continued to expand its military and prepare for war, especially for nuclear superiority, which increased huge military expenditure and put a heavy military burden on the Soviet Union.

In order to compete for world hegemony, the Soviet Union developed heavy industry linked to national defense industry for a long time, ignoring the development of agriculture and light industry, which directly affected the improvement and improvement of people’s life.

In the struggle for hegemony with the United States, it not only strengthened its control over socialist countries, but also expanded in Asia, Africa, Latin America and other vast regions.

It not only paid money and shot proxy wars, but even directly used force to solve problems and occupy a non aligned sovereign state.

This not only undermines the cohesion of socialist countries, but also damages the reputation of socialist countries and the support of the third world for socialism, leaving them in an increasingly isolated situation.

In this way, socialism in the Soviet Union is naturally unsustainable.4. National separatism was also an important reason for the disintegration of the Soviet Union.

The Soviet Union is a federal state composed of 15 republics, with more than 100 nationalities, of which the Russian nationality accounts for 53% of the total population.

Due to Gorbachev’s diversification, many unsolved national problems and the mistakes of the Soviet Union in national work were exposed.

Nationalism was rampant, the national crisis became a part of the overall national crisis, and the prevalence of national separatism finally became an important factor in the disintegration of the Soviet Union.5. The peaceful evolution strategy pursued by the west is an important external factor in the evolution of the Soviet Union.

Since the birth of the Soviet Union, western countries have been deliberately trying to strangle the socialist system.

After the war, from the “peaceful evolution” strategy put forward by US Secretary of State Dulles in the 1950s to the “victory without war” proposed by Nixon and Bush’s “beyond deterrence” strategy, the United States has been trying to soften and evolve the Soviet Union from the inside through political, ideological and cultural infiltration on the premise of maintaining military pressure.

After Gorbachev came to power, the United States took advantage of his opportunity to promote democratic socialist reform and new thinking in international politics to incite and support national separatists, cooperate with the opposition forces in the Soviet Union, and finally disintegrate the socialist system of the Soviet Union and disintegrate the Soviet Union. IV. Russia’s politics, economy and diplomacy Russia is the largest joining Republic of the former Soviet Union and became a member state after independenceAs the “legal successor” of the Soviet Union, it inherited 70% of the Soviet Union’s military strength, 60% of its economic strength and the legitimate status of the Soviet Union in many international organizations, including the Soviet Union’s permanent membership in the Security Council.

The Republic of the Russian Federation is currently the country with the largest territorial area in the world, spanning two continents of Europe and Asia, with a total area of 17.

1 million square kilometers.

It is also one of the countries with the largest population, with a population of about 145 million.

Russia is still one of the major countries in the world today and plays an important role in international affairs.

(I) Russian politics at the beginning of Russia’s independence, various political forces stepped onto the political stage one after another, forming many political parties and political organizations, and waging fierce struggles around the ownership of political power.

In October 1993, the sharp conflict between the president and the parliament led to the dissolution of the people’s Congress.

At the end of 1993, the constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted in the form of a referendum, which legally established the political system of separation of powers with the president as the core, gave the president broad and powerful power, and formed a power framework of strong president and weak parliament in Russia.

So far, the chaotic state of Russian politics has come to an end.

The focus of political struggle has shifted from the choice of social system to the choice of specific social, political and economic policies.

Around the new focus of the struggle, the contradiction between the political forces of all factions has become more and more acute.

As the radical reform not only failed to revive Russia, but deepened the overall economic and political crisis and caused a sharp decline in Russia’s international status, the power of Russian politics changed, and the center left forces opposed to overall Westernization began to rise.

In the second parliamentary election at the end of 1995, the left-wing forces led by the Russian Communist Party became the largest party in Parliament and formed the opposition forces leading the Duma.

Because the Parliament and the president have different opinions on many aspects, such as economic policy adjustment and power distribution, the contradiction is acute, and they are basically in a state of opposition.

In March 1998, Yeltsin replaced Prime Minister Chernomyrdin and nominated young Kiriyenko to succeed him, which was rejected by the Duma.

Finally, Yeltsin threatened to dissolve the parliament.

At this time, the Southeast Asian financial crisis began to affect the already fragile Russian economy.

The new government was forced to announce the devaluation of the ruble, which triggered a large-scale financial storm.

The Russian political arena became more volatile, and Kiriyenko was soon forced to resign.

In the following year, the Russian Prime Minister changed frequently and the political situation was still unstable, but the political struggle between the parties had been brought into the track of the legal system, and the political psychology of the Russian people had gradually matured.

Therefore, the ups and downs of the political situation would not lead to sharp social unrest.

On the eve of new year’s day in 2000, Yeltsin suddenly announced his early resignation and Putin took over as acting president.

Since then, Russian politics has entered a relatively stable period.

(II) Russian economy in January 1992, the gedar government implemented a radical reform plan – “shock therapy”, and began the process of Russian economic transition.

“Shock therapy” attempts to complete the transition and achieve Russia’s economic stability in two or three years through the radical transition policy of “one step in place”.

Its contents include price and financial liberalization and privatization of ownership.

Specific measures include the one-time liberalization of prices, the implementation of deficit free budget and tight credit policies, the vigorous implementation of privatization policies, the acceleration of ownership reform, the liberalization of foreign trade management rights, and the adoption of a unified floating exchange rate for foreign exchange in rubles.

Due to the mistakes in the guiding ideology of reform and economic policies, the frequent turbulence in the social and political field of Russia, and the accumulated economic problems caused by decades of planned economy, “shock therapy” did not improve the Russian economy, but caused huge losses to the Russian economy.

Russia’s industrial output value decreased by 70%, agricultural output value decreased by 50% and GDP decreased by half, which exceeded the economic decline during the Soviet Patriotic War from 1941 to 1945 (44%) and the great economic crisis in the United States at the end of the 1920s (30%).

Russia accounts for less than 2% of the world’s gross national product, and its economic level ranks about 20th in the world.

In 1992, Russia’s national income was 20% lower than that in 1991, the budget deficit was as high as 1 trillion rubles, and inflation exceeded 2000%.

At the same time, domestic political contradictions have intensified.

At the end of 1992, Gaidar was forced to step down.

The harsh reality forced the Russian government to adjust its economic policy to a more pragmatic and steady direction.

The government strengthened the state’s macro-control role in the economy and adopted a series of targeted measures, such as adjusting prices, protecting state-owned assets, supporting production, stimulating demand, imposing import restrictions on foreign trade and encouraging exports.

In 1995, the Russian economy began to show signs of improvement, mainly due to the obvious decrease in the decline of economic indicators.

In 1997, GDP rebounded slightly for the first time since the economic transition.

However, urgent measures cannot fundamentally solve the deep-seated problems of economic development.

Because the Russian government adheres to the reform direction of the western free market economic system model, and in order to obtain loans from the International Monetary Fund, it still implements the monetarist policy of reducing demand, tightening money, reducing deficit and focusing on finance put forward by the International Monetary Fund, As a result, Russian investment continued to decline, fiscal revenue decreased and the government was heavily indebted.

In 1998, the Asian financial crisis had a huge impact on the Russian economy.

At this time, there was a government crisis that lasted for one month.

The political turmoil exacerbated the financial turmoil, and finally the “August 17” financial crisis broke out.

During the crisis, the free capital of Russian banks decreased by more than 70%, the ruble depreciated by 75%, and the number of unemployed increased from 1.

8 million to 8 million.

In 1998, Russia’s GDP fell by 4.6%. The financial crisis has made Russia realize that it is not feasible to completely copy the Western model.

After primakov came to power in the second half of 1998, he implemented a “center left” line that is different from both the radicals and the economic model of the Soviet Union.

He emphasized the role of the state in macro-control of the economy, emphasized that reform should be beneficial to the people, and advocated vigorously developing economic production, adjusting industrial structure and cracking down on economic crimes.

After Putin came to power, he basically continued this line and stopped the decline of the Russian economy.

In 2001, Russia’s economy improved significantly, and its GDP increased by 5.5%. After years of economic reform, after paying a heavy price, Russia has basicallyThe transition from socialist public ownership to capitalist mixed ownership has been completed, and significant changes have taken place in the ownership structure.

By 1998, the proportion of non-state-owned economy in GDP had exceeded 70%.

In terms of the price system, more than 90% of the prices of goods and services have been liberalized.

In terms of the financial system, a three-level banking system independent of the government, led by the central bank, dominated by commercial banks, the coexistence of various financial institutions and division of labor and cooperation has been initially formed.

In terms of foreign trade system, it broke the foreign trade system monopolized by the state and made a transition to the open free trade system.

(III) Russian diplomacy Russia’s foreign policy has undergone a process of adjustment.

At the beginning of independence, Russia pursued the diplomatic strategy of “Pro western and one-sided”.

The so-called “one-sided” diplomatic strategy means that Russia aims to fully join the western international political and security system led by the United States, strive for western economic assistance and political support to get rid of the domestic crisis, blindly follow the West in international affairs, and the focus of foreign policy is to develop relations with western countries.

However, “Pro Western diplomacy” did not make Russia win the trust of western countries.

Western countries have many doubts about Russia.

They not only did not provide promised economic assistance to Russia in transition, but took the opportunity of Russia’s contraction to squeeze Russia’s strategic living space and implement the “NATO eastward expansion” plan.

After 1993, Russia began to adjust its foreign policy and implement “balanced diplomacy between the East and the west”, that is, it attached importance to developing relations with Eastern countries, especially China, strengthened cooperation with CIS countries, and developed relations with the West.

It gradually formed a general diplomatic strategic concept of restoring the status of a great power, ensuring the sphere of influence, seeking balance of interests and promoting the development of world multipolarity.

At present, the characteristics of Russia’s foreign policy are: (1) all-round diplomacy, facing both the West and the East, and implementing a balanced “double headed eagle” foreign policy with the help of various forces.

(2) Realistic diplomacy takes Russia’s national interests as the starting point of all foreign policies and the revitalization of Russia’s great power as the basic goal.

(3) Advocate multipolar development and oppose the establishment of a unipolar world by the United States.

(4) Pragmatic diplomacy uses various means to create a good external environment for Russia’s economic development.

The basic strategy of Russian diplomacy is to avoid falling into confrontation.

Taking advantage of Russia’s weak status and falling into domestic crisis, the United States and the West continued to infiltrate the former Soviet Union while NATO expanded eastward, damaging Russia’s interests.

In this regard, Russia insisted on resistance and struggle, “tenaciously safeguarding national interests on the international stage”.

On the one hand, boycott and resistance are limited to a certain extent, and compromise is made when necessary to prevent them from developing into confrontation.

The specific contents of Russian diplomacy are as follows: (1) give priority to the development of relations with the countries of the former Soviet Union.

In 1997, Russia and Belarus proposed the establishment of a Russia Belarus alliance.

The two countries will establish alliance state organs and corresponding transnational management organs, formulate unified budgets, and formulate mechanisms for implementing unified policies on international affairs, national defense and security issues.

In 2000, the Russia Belarus alliance treaty officially entered into force.

In 1997, Russia and Ukraine ended years of quarrels over the Black Sea fleet and finally reached an agreement.

In May 2001, the “Eurasian Economic Community” composed of the five countries of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan was officially established.

In the same month, the six countries of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan decided to establish a joint rapid reaction force in Central Asia, which strengthened Russia’s position in the process of economic and military integration of the CIS.

Actively develop relations with the five Central Asian countries and strengthen the integration of CIS.

(2) Actively restore and develop relations with Eastern European countries.

(3) Continue to develop partnership and cooperation with western countries.

(4) Actively strengthen friendly and cooperative relations with countries in the Asia Pacific region and third world countries.

Russia attaches great importance to its relations with China.

In 1996, the two sides established a strategic cooperative partnership of equality, trust and facing the 21st century.

During Putin’s visit to China on July 18, 2000, China and Russia issued the “China Russia Beijing Declaration” and the “joint statement on anti missile issues”.

In July 2001, China and Russia officially signed the Sino Russian Treaty of good neighborliness, friendship and cooperation, which fully launched the cooperative relations between the two countries in politics, economy, military, technology and culture. V. Russia’s domestic and foreign policies after Putin took office on December 31, 1999, President Yeltsin resigned and Prime Minister Putin became acting president.

In March 2000, Putin was elected president in the presidential election and officially took office on May 7.

Marked by Putin’s election as president, Russia has begun a new period of exploring a development path in line with its national conditions and revitalizing the Russian economy.

After taking office, Putin identified the development of economy, strengthening the construction of federal power and building a strong country as the current top priority of the Russian Federation.

Economically, on the basis of summing up the experience and lessons since Russia’s economic transition, he put forward the road of Russian economic development that organically combines the principles of market economy and democracy with Russia’s reality.

The specific economic policies implemented have the following characteristics: (1) emphasize the strengthening of national macroeconomic regulation and control, establish a complete national regulation and control system in the economic and social fields, and enable the state to play an effective coordinating role in the national economy and social forces.

(2) He stressed that reform must be carried out steadily to ensure social stability.

In view of the polarization of Russian society and the widespread poverty of people’s life, it is proposed that the government should take measures to increase the real income of residents, ensure social stability and prevent the deterioration of the life of the Russian people.

(3) He stressed that we should take our own road of reform.

Criticizing the practice of copying and copying by radical democrats, and emphasizing the need to organically combine the universal principles of market and democracy with the reality of Russia.

We can neither return to the past planned economic system nor carry out the radical economic reform that copied the Western model in previous years, but should find our own model.

(4) He advocated the integration of the Russian economy with the world economy, but stressed that this process must be gradual and orderly, not at the cost of undermining Russia’s own economic development.

Politically, it advocates the establishment of a strong state power system, the implementation of centralization and the strengthening of state authority.

On the one hand, Putin followed the constitutional order established in the Yeltsin Era and continued to maintain the existing political framework.

On the other hand, we should promote reforms within this framework.

Shortly after Putin was elected president, he took measures to strengthen centralization of power, dividing the 89 administrative entities of the Russian Federation into seven federal districts according to the geographical principle, and the president directly appointed plenipotentiary representatives to strengthen.