the establishment of civil rights, the extension of national rights and the clarity of politics in Modern Japan all have the shadow of right-wing forces. In this sense, it can be said that the Japanese right wing is a special team of Japanese nationals.

in the history of Japanese nationalist movement before the war [Japan] written by Horie xingxiong and translated by Xiong Dayun,

in recent decades, whenever there are problems in China Japan relations, Most Chinese scholars will mention the destructive effect of “a few Japanese right wingers” or “a small group of Japanese right wingers”. They commented with certainty that the Japanese right wing has ulterior motives and has deliberately and systematically undermined “China Japan Friendship”, so we cannot let the Japanese right wing lead by the nose; To be friendly with the “Japanese people”, we must make unremitting struggle with the Japanese right wing. In such a picture, the Japanese right wing is regarded as an absolute “devil”. They deceive the “unknown” masses internally and undermine the friendly relations between China and Japan externally. This analysis may give people a sense of security because it seems as if the evidence clearly points out the evil. However, after a careful taste, I always feel that this discussion is a little familiar – the kind people and a very small number of hostile elements. Isn’t this the cognitive model we are used to about ourselves? Is it self deception to extend this model to modern Japanese society?

ironically, the representatives of Japanese nationals – rather than the “Japanese people”, who are unable to speak and exist only as “represented” – first protested against the above-mentioned high sounding remarks. Let’s give a random example. In 2006, Shinzo Abe, then Chief Cabinet Secretary and then prime minister, had such a dialogue with sadakaki Tanigaki, then finance minister. Tanigaki asked, “during the normalization of Sino Japanese diplomatic relations, when explaining to the (Chinese) people, China distinguished the war responsibility from the ordinary Japanese people… How do you think about it?” Abe replied: “it may be China’s understanding to divide the Japanese people into two kinds, which is not so understood by Japan. Is this discussion a bit like the historical view of class struggle?” (ruogong Qiwen: reconciliation and nationalism, Shanghai Translation Publishing House, P. 21) Abe totally rejected the specific understanding imposed by China from the front, and did not forget to make a mockery.

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Chinese scholars may further argue that Abe is a member of Japan’s right-wing forces, and he naturally wants to safeguard his wrong historical understanding. If the representative of the Japanese people, that is, the Japanese government, is controlled by the right-wing forces, doesn’t the struggle with the right-wing mean the struggle with all the Japanese people? What is the problem with the above Japanese discourse based on “a small number of Japanese right-wing forces”? The more fundamental question is how to understand the Japanese right wing?

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in fact, if we face the historical facts with a fair rather than ideological attitude, we will naturally get an accurate answer. In this sense, hori xingxiong’s “history of Japanese nationalist movement before the war” provides us with an extremely clean historical picture – a historical narrative about Japan’s right-wing forces. This general history tells readers that since the Meiji Reform (1868), Japan’s right-wing forces have always been the main participants in the construction of Japan’s country and even Empire, playing a unique political role. The author has not discussed the ideological gains and losses of this movement, so we also ignore it here. Readers may first wonder what the right-wing forces in Japan are? How can they have so much energy? Although this book does not specifically discuss these issues, from its factual narration, we can abstract two main reasons, that is, the Japanese right wing has a high degree of action and ideology.

first, the primary feature of Japan’s right wing is its ability to act. The fundamental cause of this character is that its main source is the subordinate feudal warriors before and after the Meiji Restoration. As historians have pointed out, the Meiji Restoration is mainly a top-down reconstruction of domestic order dominated by the Japanese samurai class. However, in the political reform after the establishment of the reform government, in addition to some of the samurai class entering the government, others became free floating ronins with no branches to rely on. The significance of this class change immediately emerged – these young people who tried to make contributions to the emperor’s new government had to open up another political stage in society and among the people. Therefore, it is not difficult for us to understand that Xixiang Longsheng (1827-1877), the founder of Meiji, who was forced to leave the field in 1873 because he advocated the military expedition against North Korea, and then raised troops to rebel and failed to commit suicide, is regarded as the source of the right wing.

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, the right-wing forces that carry out political activities among the people, have become a special force in Japan’s political life since then because of the unique action ability of the samurai class. This was unexpected by the reform government – the right-wing groups first existed as political opponents of the government. It can be seen from the history of the movement that the main purpose of xuanyang society, the first right-wing group in Japan formed with touyama (1855-1944) as the core, was to participate in the surging “free civil rights movement” at that time, committed to “opening a parliament” and tried to claim “people’s rights” from the imperial government. In other words, it was in the first wave of democratization in Japan that the right-wing forces gathered and became a political group to exert pressure on the new government. Later, xuanyang society gradually changed from advocating “civil rights” to “national rights”, requiring the Meiji government to adopt a positive policy of external expansion and aggression. This demand for “national power” has become the fundamental reason for the tension and even opposition between the right wing and successive Japanese governments since then.

in the process of confrontation with the government, the right wing has shown extremely active action ability. In addition to general rallies, processions, demonstrations and protests, the most troublesome thing for the government is violent assassinations. In 1888, the new government was negotiating with the Western powers to try to correct the non-compliance signed during the shogunate period