overview in the 40 years since India’s independence, with the development of the national economy, the per capita national income has increased significantly, and the living standards of the working people have also improved to some extent.
According to the statistics of the Indian government, India’s national income increased from 167.
31 billion rupees in 1950-51 to 570.
14 billion rupees in 1984-85 (at the price of 1970-71), an increase of 2.
During the same period, the per capita national income increased from 466 rupees to 771.
5 rupees (at 1970-71 prices), an increase of 65.5%. If calculated at current prices, India’s national income increased from 88.
12 billion rupees to 1732.
07 billion rupees in the same period, and the per capita national income increased from 245.
5 rupees to 2343.
8 rupees, an increase of 18.
66 times and 8.
55 times respectively.
The average life expectancy of Indians increased from 41 years to 54 years from 1951 to 1985 (the average was 22 years before independence).
The infant mortality rate dropped from 200 ‰ to 125 ‰, and the literacy rate increased from 16.
7% to 36.
2% in the same period.
The number of students in school increased from 14.
7 million to 120 million (1983), an increase of more than seven times.
However, the improvement of the lives of workers and peasants is extremely limited.
The benefits of economic development are mainly obtained by the upper rich class, and the wealth is mainly concentrated in the hands of a few people.
Per capita national income is not “average”, and polarization and the gap between the rich and the poor are still very serious.
India still has two distinct worlds: one is a world of wealth and luxury, and the other is a world of misery and poverty.
People from all walks of life in India have almost the same view on this point.
“The distribution of household income is completely abnormal.
The 20% of households with the lowest income account for only 7% of total income.
On the other hand, the 10% of households with the highest income account for 34% of total income,” RA Harold, leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party and chief minister of Karnataka, said in a speech He said that the six five-year plans have led to the emergence of two India: one is a rich India with advanced technology and cutting-edge industry, and the other is a traditional India immersed in poverty, unemployment, hunger, disease and ignorance.
Vasant satti, Minister of energy of the government of India, made similar remarks.
He wrote: “I can’t help but see the fact that growth and development are limited to a small part of India’s population.
In fact, we have built a prosperous island in the vast ocean of poverty.
A small part of the population on this island has all the benefits of modern civilization.
The picture of our national economy is best described by the city of Mumbai, where we can see it Three dimensional skyscrapers and five-star hotels are surrounded by horizontally spreading slums.
” An economist S. J. Bartel pointed out in early 1986 that India’s income and wealth are increasingly concentrated in the hands of a small number of people.
The highest 10% of the residents’ income, and the share in the total national income increased from 40% in 1950 to 50% in 1985.
They accounted for 23% of all personal income growth.
In the early 1970s, the two consortia of Tata and BirA alone owned more property than 100 million Indians combined.
In contrast to the top of the pyramid of Indian society, the bottom is hundreds of millions of poor people in urban and rural areas.
The proportion of India’s population has been slightly lower than the 50-year poverty line in some countries, according to experts’ estimates.
The poverty line refers to the cost of maintaining a minimum standard of living.
According to the calculation of 1984-85, to maintain this minimum cost, each family needs to earn 6400 rupees per year in rural areas and 7300 rupees per family in urban areas.
According to the official announcement, the population below the poverty line accounted for 39% of the total population in 1960, 45% in 1970 and 52.
4% in 1980.
The absolute poverty line population was 172 million in 1960, 245 million in 1970 and 340 million in]980.
This shows that the population below the urban and rural poverty line in India has been growing since independence.
In addition, according to the comprehensive analysis of vasant sati, 91.
52% of the total rural population of 524 million in 1981, that is 47995 million, and the per capita monthly expenditure was less than 100 rupees.
Of the total urban population of 159 million, about 74.
43%, or 118.
75 million, the per capita monthly expenditure is less than 100 rupees.
According to the calculation of the Indian Planning Commission, the per capita monthly expenditure in rural areas is 104 rupees and that in urban areas is 113 rupees, which is the poverty line from 1981 to 82.
This shows that in 1981, about 600 million people were close to or below the poverty line, and they had no more purchasing power except for barely speaking.
According to the minister’s analysis, there are 85.
24 million people with an annual per capita expenditure of more than 1200 rupees, of which 44.
46 million are in rural areas and 40.
78 million in cities.
This shows that the proportion of real purchasing power among rural and urban residents is 8.
4% and 25.
In total, only 12.
5% of people have real purchasing power.
According to the statistics of Indian agriculture written by A.N. Argyle, 26% of India’s population in the 1970s were the poorest (210 million) and 13.
2% were the poorest (78 million).
The monthly consumption expenditure of the urban poor is less than 43 rupees per person, and that of the rural poor is less than 34 rupees per person, with an average of less than 38.
The monthly consumption expenditure of the poorest in urban areas is less than 34 rupees, and that of the poorest in rural areas is less than 28 rupees, with an average of less than 31 rupees.
Some of India’s poorest people are reduced to beggars.
According to the estimation of the Indian Planning Commission, there were 2 million beggars in the early 1960s, of which 71% were men and 29% were women.
By the mid-1970s, it reached 5 million, accounting for about 0.
85% of India’s total population.
Uttar Pradesh has the largest number of beggars, followed by Maharashtra, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Andhra, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh.
Indian beggars are mostly concentrated in big cities.
Among them, there are 54000 people in Mumbai, 30000 in Calcutta, 25000 in Madras and 12000 in Delhi.
When foreigners come to India, their initial impression is that there are beggars everywhere.
When the red light is on at the intersection, thin old people, men with broken legs and women with babies will reach into your car window to beg.
In airports, stations, markets, markets, places of interest and tourist attractions, many disheveled beggars surround foreign tourists everywhere asking for money.
Working people in India are among the worst eaters in the world.
Indians eat 1949 calories a day, which is not only lower than the world average (2590 calories) and the average in developing countries (2282 calories), but also lower than the average in Asia, where the world’s worst diet (2276 calories).
According to the United Nations survey of people’s nutrition in 94 developing countries and regions in Asia, Africa and Latin America,India ranks 72nd among these countries and regions.
It ranks 24th among the 30 countries and regions in Asia.
According to the research of Indian nutrition advisory committee, normal people need at least 62 grams of protein per person per day, 104.
3 grams in the United States, 108 grams in the Soviet Union and 94.
9 grams in Europe.
India received only 48.
1 grams, lower than Asia (57.
8 grams) and Africa (56.
The living conditions of Indian residents are also one of the worst countries.
According to the report of Indian press in 1982, 83.
3 million households in India do not have suitable housing.
Calculated by a family of five, more than half of the population is facing housing problems.
The houses of workers and peasants are both crowded and dilapidated.
According to statistics in 1981, 25 million people in cities across the country lived in slums, which increased to 33.
1 million by 1985, accounting for about 20% of the urban population.
Two million people in Calcutta and two million in Mumbai live in slums.
New Delhi, the capital, has a total of 6 million people, including 1.
6 million living in slums, 1 million living in illegal buildings and 1 million living in homeless resettlement camps built by the government (low bungalows with an area of 18 square meters per household), and 800000 tourists spend the night under the bridge and on the sidewalk next to the station, temporarily supported by broken quilts and plastic sheets to protect them from the rain and wind.
Mumbai had only 85 slums before World War II, but now it has increased to 1580, an increase of 19 times.
Since the 1980s, due to some poverty alleviation measures taken by the Indian government, the population below the poverty line has a downward trend.
According to the official statistics of India, the total population of India below the poverty line (the annual income of rural households is less than 6400 rupees and the income of urban households is less than 7300 Rupees) was 300 million from 1977 to 78, accounting for 48.
3% of the total population of India, and decreased to 270 million from 1984 to 85, accounting for 36.
9% of the national population.
In rural areas, the number of people below the poverty line was 253 million in 1977-78, accounting for 51.
2% of the rural population, and decreased to 222 million in 1984-85, accounting for 39.
9% of the rural population.
In cities, the number of people below the poverty line was 53.
7 million in 1977-78, accounting for 38.
2% of the urban population, and 50.
05 million in 1984-85, accounting for 27.
7% of the urban population.
However, the above statistics of the official (the report of the Planning Commission on the Seventh Five Year Plan) have been criticized by many experts and public opinion circles in India as untrue.
An editorial in the economic times pointed out: “it is well known that the number of entrances below the poverty line has been increasing since independence.
The proportion of this population in the total population increased from about 40% in 1947-48 to more than 50% in 1979-80.
how can such a reversal occur in just two years and reduce this kind of poverty by 57 million?”.
“Some studies have shown that less than 10% of farmers who receive support funds from the comprehensive rural development plan have really risen above the poverty line,” wrote an editorial entitled “poverty and waste” in the statesman “The government’s own statistics prove that these achievements are not true.
Take perhaps the most obvious indicator – per capita food consumption – for example, the situation has not changed.
” “Poverty alleviation programs such as the comprehensive rural development plan and the national rural employment plan have not helped the poor increase their purchasing power.”. Since the 1980s, whether there have been major changes in the lives of Indian workers and farmers needs further research. II. After the independence of workers’ living conditions, the living conditions of Indian workers have been greatly improved in terms of wage growth.
The monthly income of Indian workers increased from rs. 466.6 in 1960 to rs. 2271.2 in 1970 according to the labor organization’s labor Yearbook.
1979 was 7.
8 times that of 1950 and twice that of 1970.
Workers in other types of work also increased in this proportion.
After entering the 1980s, workers’ wages further increased.
According to the wage agreement from 1982 to 1986.
The wages of workers in centralized industries are the highest among all kinds of workers.
Their basic monthly wage is 550 rupees, plus the price allowance determined with the consumer price index, and their minimum monthly wage is about 750 rupees.
The minimum wage of steel workers is 781.
90 rupees (basic wage 550 rupees plus material allowance 231.
The minimum wage of electric workers is 758.
90 rupees (basic wage 550 rupees plus price allowance 208.
The minimum wage for dockers is rs.
762 (base salary rs.
550 plus price allowance rs. 212). The wage level of workers in decentralized industries (such as road construction, road construction, gravel workers and workers in 28 mining types) is much lower than that of workers in centralized industries.
According to the amendment of the minimum wage act 1982, even if calculated according to the standard of skilled workers in class A areas, the total monthly wage is 480 rupees, which has not yet reached the basic wage of workers in centralized industries.
Another three million central government employees (referring to employees of civil servants, railways, posts and telecommunications, quartermaster and other departments) have price allowances in addition to their basic wages, which are fixed and do not change with prices.
In 1982, the minimum monthly wage of central government employees was 551 rupees, which was lower than that of workers in centralized industries, but higher than that of workers in decentralized industries.
However, the minimum wage of any of the above categories of workers did not meet the standard set by the 15th Labour conference, that is, the monthly minimum wage of employees was rs.
1000 to rs.
1200 based on the January 1982 price index.
According to the income survey of workers in five regions (i.e. enterprises with more than 10 people) published by the BirA Institute of Science in India in 1980, the hourly income of employees in organized economic sectors (calculated as 8 hours per day and 26 days per month) is 2.
39 rupees in Calcutta, with a monthly income of about 497 rupees. 2.06 rupees in Mumbai, with a monthly income of about 428 rupees. 2.19 rupees in Delhi and 455 rupees per month.
Madras is 2.
08 rupees, about 432 rupees per month.
Bangalore is rs. 1.97 and its monthly income is rs. 409. The income of employees in organized departments in the above regions is shared by four members of a family.
The average number per person is: 124 rupees in Kolkata, 107 rupees in Mumbai, 173 rupees in Delhi, 108 rupees in Madras and 102 rupees in Bangalore.
According to the 1977-78 poverty line standard set by the Planning Commission, the wage income of the organized economic sector and its family members is above the poverty line if the urban per capita per month is less than 75 rupees and the rural per capita per month is 65 rupees.
The wage income of employees in Urban Non organized departments is just maintained at the poverty line.
Unemployed or semi unemployedUnemployed workers undoubtedly live below the poverty line.
Although the nominal wage of Indian workers has doubled, the growth of real income of Indian workers is extremely limited due to rising prices and other factors.
According to statistics, prices rose by 78% in the first five year plan, 35% in the second five year plan and 36% in the third five year plan.
If the index in 1950 is 100, it is 229.
61 in 1970 and 444.
4 in 1979.
The real value of each rupee has dropped from 100 pesas in 1949 to 22.
12 pesas in 1980.
According to statistics, from 1939 to 1947, the real wage of industrial workers decreased by 25%, which was just close to 1939 by 1951 and exceeded the level in 1947.
It increased by only 13.
8% in 1961, 23.
6% in 1970 and 31.
5% in 1979.
In the 30 years after independence, it increased by about 1% per year on average.
According to the draft of India’s sixth five year plan, the average annual income of employees in organized economic sectors increased from 1202 rupees in 1960-61 to 4370 rupees in 1976-77.
The nominal wage increased by three and a half times, but after deducting inflation and other factors in the past 16 years, the actual increase was 21%.
That is, an average annual increase of 1.3%. For a rupee in 1960, in January 1973 and September 1381, the score e was equal to 47.
62 Paisa and 21.
The devaluation of the rupee was large.
For this reason, the real wages of government employees even decreased by 7% to 46% from January 1973 to September.
This living condition of the Indian working class is a fundamental reason for the continuous development of labor disputes and the workers’ movement in India.
For example, in 1973, there were 3370 labor disputes, 2445602 strikes and 20.
26 million lost working days, all of which exceeded the historical average.
The strike lost 43 million working days in 1981 and 80 million in 1982, the highest figure in history and four times that in 1973. III. farmers’ living conditions India’s land reform and green revolution have accelerated the development of agricultural capitalism and made some small and medium-sized landlords and wealthy farmers rich.
However, the vast number of poor farmers with little or no land did not get land, and they still lived a poor life similar to that in the past.
In line with land occupation, rural wealth is mainly concentrated in the hands of landlords.
According to the statistics of rural economy of India, among the total number of farmers, those holding assets of less than 10000 rupees account for 69.
6% of the rural population in China, while their total assets account for only 19.
9% of the total rural property, while 80.
1% of the rural property is occupied by 30.
4% of the rural households.
3% of the property of wealthy farmers is controlled by 47.5%. The book also said that more than 70% of the assets of farmers with property of more than 20000 rupees are land, while the assets of farmers with less property are mainly livestock.
As mentioned earlier, 80 per cent of India’s poorest and poorest people below the poverty line are in rural areas.
48 per cent of rural farmers belong to the poorest and the poorest, and the situation of extreme poverty seems to be increasing year by year.
With the rise of prices, the consumption expenditure of necessities is rising, which aggravates the degree of poverty.
According to the statistics of the monthly review of India’s economic situation in 1986, the average monthly expenditure per person for maintaining the lowest living standard in rural India increased to 15 rupees in 1960-1961, 28 rupees in 1970-71, 50 rupees in 1977-78 and 85 rupees in 1983.
According to the national sample survey organization of India, those whose consumption is lower than the minimum living standard are the poor living below the poverty line.
In rural areas, not only the absolute population of poverty is increasing, but also the relative population is growing.
From 1960-61 to 1983, the rural poor in India and their proportion are as follows: that is, almost half of the rural population lived below the poverty line.
The old vested interests and the new rich are getting richer and richer, while the farmers are getting poorer and poorer.
Agricultural workers make a living by selling labor.
With the increase of agricultural investment and the development of commodity production, the monetary wage of agricultural workers has also increased, but the level is still very low.
The average annual monetary income of agricultural workers per household is 447 rupees in 1950-5] year, 437.
47 rupees in 1956-57 year, 660 rupees in 1964-65 year and 1196 rupees in 1970-71 year.
The increase in monetary wages has not improved the lives of agricultural workers.
Because of inflation, their living expenses have increased greatly.
In 1960-61, the minimum consumption expenditure (i.e. poverty line) for rural living was 15 rupees per person per month and 28 rupees per person in 1970-71.
Wages have increased widely, and family negative investigation has also increased.
The average amount of debt per household increased from 138 rupees in 1956-57 to 244 rupees in 1964-65.
According to the 25th national sampling survey, the economic status of agricultural workers’ families is as follows: 1 Average annual income of agricultural workers per household: 1196 rupees.2. Average annual consumption expenditure of agricultural workers per household: 1332 rupees.3. Average value of property owned by agricultural workers per household: 973 rupees.4. Proportion of agricultural workers in debt: 60%.5. The proportion of unemployed and semi unemployed agricultural workers: 59.3%. An article entitled “poor agricultural workers” published in the magazine “plan” from January 7 to February 6, 1980 said: “Despite the guiding principles laid down in the Indian constitution and the twenty-nine year economic development plan, the situation of agricultural workers is still tragic.
They are so poor that they can’t even get the necessities for survival, and modern industrial products are like gods to them.
They don’t grow old before they grow old due to heavy childhood labor and malnutrition.
In the eyes of wealthy people, he said The status of a slave is no different from that of a slave.
The current rural policy mainly emphasizes increasing production and income.
Today’s economic theory has warned people that this kind of economic growth can not create corresponding employment, but expands the social income difference and the inequality of wealth possession. 10.34% of rural households take most of the land, commercialized surplus products, agricultural tools, livestock and irrigation equipment as their own, and the benefits brought by economic development are mainly obtained by this class.
Agricultural workers can only work for increasing the income and wealth of the rich on very low wages.
” The vast number of poor farmers have to borrow money to survive because of the pressure of life.
The rural labor survey shows that in the mid-1970s, the number of indebted households accounted for 66% of the total rural households (44.
5% in 1950), and the average debt of each indebted household increased from 105 rupees in 1950-51 to 1974-75554 rupees, or more than quadruple.
Rudal dat commented profoundly in his book the Indian economy: “the important things are: 1.
Nearly 70% of all farmers are in debt. 2. Most of the indebted households are small farmers. 3. Most of the debt is short-term loans”.
“Indian farmers borrow money year after year, but they are unable to pay off these loans, because either they borrow too much money or they produce too little agricultural output, so the amount of farmers’ debt is increasing – this is well-known rural debt.
There is a popular saying all over the country: ‘Indian farmers are born in debt, grow longer in debt and die in debt’.
” In “defending abnormal farmers: agriculture after the green revolution”, Kusum Nair not only describes the changes brought by the green revolution to some rural areas of India, but also objectively describes the situation that farmers’ lives in many rural areas have not changed or rarely changed.
He cited the living conditions of the poor in Purnia County of Bihar state for 70 years.
He wrote: “they can only barely survive.
Their staple food is almost all dehydrated sweet potatoes.
Their huts without windows have neither furniture nor food and food.
People are haggard, men are bearded and naked, women are handsome, black eyes are clear, but there is no smile, fine r tension and doubts.
” “The children’s bodies are very thin, dark and naked, or they are covered with a rag on their shoulders, naked buttocks, barefoot and dumb.”. Indian farmers spread such a ballad: Why are the cries of working farmers so sad? Rice and wheat are planted by you, and food depends on you.
It’s hard to get up early and get dark.
In the end, it’s hard to eat coarse grain of wild vegetables.
Over the years, I bend down and stay naked for the morning and night.
When can I forget such hard times! The sun and rain are tormented, there are no tiles on the top and no nest under the bottom.
How can we live like a slave again! This situation of Indian farmers is the root of the continuous unrest and uprising of farmers after independence.
From 1953 to 55, there was an anti tenancy struggle all over India.
Farmers took direct action, stuck to the land, fought against the landlords who seized the tenancy, and even drove the landlords away.
From 1959 to 62, many states fought for land and resisted the government’s re rent.
From 1967 to 69, the Nasar Bari movement against landlord exploitation and demanding land occurred in more than a dozen states.
Since 1970, the continuous land grabbing movement all over the country shows the seriousness of the land problem in India.
Since the 1970s, the Indian government has continuously strengthened poverty alleviation and implemented a series of rural poverty alleviation plans.
During the sixth Five Year Plan period (1980-85), 16.
56 million rural households were supported through the comprehensive rural development plan.
The poverty alleviation expenditure paid by the central and state governments amounted to rs. 16.012 billion, and the total loans provided by banks and financial institutions amounted to rs.
These measures have eased the class contradictions in rural areas to a certain extent, but it is not easy to fundamentally change the miserable situation of most poor farmers in rural areas. IV. unemployment and employment problems India has a large and growing unemployment force, which is rare in the world.
According to the number of job seekers registered in employment agencies: 335000 in 1951, 1833000 in 1961, 5090000 in 1971, 17838000 in 1981 and 3013000 in 1986.
Over the past 35 years, the number of unemployed people has increased 90 times.
See the table on page 397 for details.
In addition, the Indian Planning Commission is preparing statistics on employment, unemployment and labor force.
These two tables reflect the unemployment and employment situation in India to a certain extent.
But these figures are not entirely accurate.
First, the number of people registered is mainly in large and medium-sized cities.
Few job seekers in small cities and counties and towns register, even in large and medium-sized cities.
Second, the registration figures are not comparable.
There are few job agencies in the early stage and more in the later stage.
Some long-term unemployed are not interested in registration and do not register at all, while others register many times to find jobs quickly.
Third, a large number of seasonal unemployed and some underemployed are rarely registered.
The number of unemployed or semi unemployed in rural areas is not included.
In order to reflect the overall picture of unemployment in India, when preparing the sixth five year plan, the Planning Commission of India converted all kinds of unemployment and employment into man days, and then divided by the “standard man year” (i.e. each person works 273 days and 8 hours a day every year) to obtain the “standard man year” of employment or unemployment in the whole year.
According to this calculation method, More comprehensive employment and unemployment figures can be calculated.
Take 1980 as an example.
At that time, the number of employed people was 1.
511 million standard person years, accounting for 56.
4% of the total labor force.
The number of unemployed people exceeded 100 million standard person years, accounting for 43.
6% of the total labor force.
Even if calculated according to the working population aged 15-59, the number of unemployed people reached 85 million standard person years.
It is worth noting that about half of the unemployed in India are educated.
According to the statistics of the employment agency, the number of intellectuals registered in k industry increased from 59000 in 1s6] to 2296000 in 1971 and 6937000 in June 197s.
It has increased tenfold in eighteen years.
Among them, 1.
797 million are high school graduates, 3.
784 million are university students, and 1.
356 million are university graduates and postgraduates.
The situation was more serious after the 1980s.
According to the survey of the Employment Bureau of Gujarat University, the number of intellectuals registered in employment accounts for 46% of the actual unemployed.
According to the survey of guozongshan, the number of unemployed intellectuals reached 12.
8 million in rural areas and 4.
1 million in urban areas in the late 1970s.
It is difficult for the unemployed intellectuals to find a suitable job.
In 1974, an airport in Calcutta recruited 17 staff, resulting in 100000 applications.
Even some high-level intellectuals are in danger of unemployment.
They have to hold low positions in order to protect themselves.
According to a survey by the Institute of applied manpower, about 10% of doctoral degree holders hold positions that can be held by university graduates, 59% of agricultural and veterinary students, 53% of master of natural science and 3.
1% of Bachelor of engineering and technology hold positions of junior technicians and general non-technical personnel.
There are two main reasons why the problem of labor and employment in India is serious: first, the population is growing too fast, resulting in a relative surplus of labor supply.
From 1051 to 1984, the labor force doubled, with an average annual increase of 2.
2%, which is basically consistent with the population growth rate.
The absolute increase in 33 years (150 million people) is equal to 1.
5% of the total labor force of the Soviet Union1 times, 1.
5 times that of the United States and 2.
4 times that of Japan.
Second, due to the slow speed of economic development, the ability to absorb labor force is too weak.
According to the constant price in 1970-71, nearly eight workers per 10000 rupees of GDP can be absorbed in 1950-51, and only five in 1980-81.
In addition, according to the estimate of the sixth five year plan, the number of employed persons in 1980 was only 151.
11 million standard person years, accounting for only 56.
4% of the labor force in that year.
In short, from the perspective of labor supply, the existing number of people is 74.
4% higher than the actual number of employed people.
From the perspective of labor demand, the existing production scale is 43.
6% smaller than the scale requiring labor employment.
In order to solve the problem of labor and employment, Indian scholars have put forward many suggestions, and the Indian government has also taken many measures, including developing the economy and expanding employment opportunities, such as self-supporting public assistance in rural areas, organizing and training rural surplus labor in the form of work relief, and building infrastructure (agricultural output, water conservancy, roads, houses, etc.). From 1980 to 85, the Indian government provided 17.
74 million employment opportunities in Japan, and the total wage paid for this was 18.
338 billion rupees.
From 1983 to 85, 320 engineering projects were held, with a total expenditure of 9.
066 billion rupees, thus providing 260.
18 million person days of employment opportunities for landless farmers and workers.
In industry, the development of small-scale industries has also solved some employment opportunities.
However, these measures are preliminary.
To completely solve the problem of unemployment and employment in India is a major problem in Indian society.