Relying on its advantages in modern science and technology, the United States has continuously injected high and new technology into the three armed forces.
Moreover, the US military always wants to take the opportunity to put its high-tech weapons and equipment to use.
If the US military invaded Libya with many high-tech weapons, it can only be said to be an experiment.
After that war, they improved high-tech weapons and equipment according to the experience and lessons in combat use.
Since then, they have always wanted to find an opportunity for the large-scale use of high-tech weapons.
This opportunity really came.
On December 20, 1989, the U.S. military carried out a surprise attack on Panama in five routes, mainly using F-117A stealth fighter bombers with complete high-tech equipment.
The enmity between Panama and the United States is mainly reflected in the rights and interests of the Panama Canal.
In the early 20th century, the United States forced Panama to sign an unequal treaty, obtained the right to dig the Panama Canal and leased the canal area forever.
After the completion of the canal, the United States has always been the main user and beneficiary of the canal.
The total annual revenue of the canal is about US $300 million, most of which is obtained by the United States, and Panama can only get a pitiful fraction.
The United States divided the 16.
1-kilometer area on both sides of the canal into canal areas and established the US Southern Command to prohibit Panamanians from entering.
The Panamanians were extremely dissatisfied with this humiliating situation and waged a long and unremitting struggle for the sovereignty of the canal.
Under the pressure of world public opinion and the struggle of the Panamanian people, the Americans signed a new canal convention with Panama in 1977.
According to the New Testament, after noon on December 31, 1999, the canal will be fully handed over to Panama for management.
The situation changed shortly after the new treaty was signed.
In the mid-1980s, Noriega became the president of Panama.
At the beginning of taking office, the iron man announced that he would neither recognize the Old Testament nor fulfill the New Testament, and would immediately recover the sovereignty of the canal.
The Americans obviously cannot agree to this.
Noriega is no ordinary person.
When he was young, he was a CIA spy.
During his study in a military academy in Peru, he sold the left-wing elements of students to American intelligence personnel.
He not only obtained a large amount of US dollars, but also strengthened the courage to go into politics all his life.
After graduating from military academy, he went to Omar Torrijos, an officer who was becoming popular at that time.
Before long, Torrijos became president of Panama, and Noriega stepped on Torrijos’ shoulders.
Noriega served not only domestic political forces, but also the United States and other western countries during his espionage.
Therefore, the CIA sometimes turns a blind eye to him.
Noriega not only engaged in violence, but also carried out drug trafficking on many occasions.
Americans always turn a blind eye to Noriega’s actions and think that as long as he does not touch the interests of the United States, he will be allowed to act recklessly.
After he became president, he actively advocated the recovery of the canal, which seriously violated the interests of the United States and naturally angered the Americans.
President Bush, who has just taken office, believes that Noriega is deliberately against the Americans and must be eradicated.
Therefore, we are ready to take action from two aspects: first, militarily disarm him with violence.
The second is to find an opposition political leader cultivated by Americans and replace him by election.
Bush first chose the second, believing that criticism can be avoided and it is more secure.
Moreover, according to reliable sources, Panama is preparing to hold general elections in the second quarter of 1989.
Americans want to replace Noriega by election, and Noriega also wants to win the election and continue to govern.
Both sides put their “treasure” on winning the election.
Noriega is too confident about this: if the political pressure and economic blockade of the United States do not make him step down, he can rightly say that he has the support of the people.
If the United States makes another move, it means that the move of the United States is to overthrow the democratically elected legal government.
On May 7, the general election revealed that Duke, the NLU candidate launched by Noriega, received only 25% of the votes, while ndara, the opposition Democratic League, received 75% of the votes.
This is unacceptable to Noriega.
Therefore, he declared the election null and void on the grounds of many irregularities in the election.
This has aroused great dissatisfaction from the opposition in the United States and Panama, and many Latin American countries have also criticized it.
Of course, the opposition that won the election will not buy Noriega’s account.
Together with the elected ndara, they organized a parade of thousands of people.
Protesters chanted: “down with pineapple” – a nickname for Noriega, describing his acne covered face.
In response, the paramilitary organization “dignity camp” supporting Noriega responded quickly and attacked the opposition candidate.
A member of the “dignity camp” hit endara on the forehead with an iron bar, and the bodyguard of the opposition’s No.
2 presidential candidate Guillermo Billy Ford was killed.
Panama City was plunged into bloody chaos.
Bush, who is good at using public opinion, asked us television to broadcast the results of the Panama election and live reports of the chaos after the election.
At the same time, important members of the US government held a meeting at the White House to seriously study the situation in Panama and come up with countermeasures.
President Bush is eager to take action.
National security adviser Scowcroft, Secretary of state Baker, Secretary of defense Cheney, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff Crowe and his later successor Powell all support military intervention in Panama and the complete overthrow of Noriega’s rule in Panama.
To this end, the commander of the southern headquarters of the U.S. military in Panama, who opposed this tough position, was replaced by the belligerent general Thurman, and the number of troops stationed in Pakistan was gradually increased, actively making various military preparations.
On September 3, the United States learned that someone from the Panamanian defense force would launch a coup soon.
This is undoubtedly a god given opportunity for the United States.
However, due to the failure to accurately grasp the internal situation and the specific time of the coup, tens of thousands of US troops in Panama did not dare to act rashly, so that the coup was soon suppressed by Noriega.
This incident gives Americans a lesson: we must immediately plan a plan to solve the Panama problem.
Soon, US President Bush approved a special appropriation of US $3 million for the CIA to instigate the second military coup.
He secretly sent 4500 more troops to Panama and airlifted a large number of tanks, armored vehicles and armed helicopters.
One day in late September, President Bush accidentally received a report drafted by Brighton, a former Noriega political adviser.
The report accuses banaThe fact that President Noriega was involved in drug trafficking and political murder.
After reading the report, Bush said: “drug trafficking alone can end his political life!” Bush felt that the opportunity had come and the use of force was finally famous.
As a result, three solutions to the Panamanian problem by force immediately emerged in Bush’s mind: the first one is to use only 13000 troops stationed in Panama.
The advantage of this approach is that the US military stationed in Pakistan is familiar with the situation in the region and can ensure the successful launch of surprise attacks.
But this will not deal a heavy blow to the forces loyal to Noriega.
They may fight for a long time and still pose a threat to the Panama Canal.
The second option is to use the special operations forces supported by the conventional forces of the US military in Pakistan to launch a surprise attack and try to catch Noriega.
Although this practice can destroy the Panamanian defense force and send Noriega to the Ministry of justice, it may cause casualties among the people.
The third option, whether Noriega can be caught or not, will make the Panamanian defense force lose combat effectiveness in the shortest time.
This is a deadly practice.
Fierce fighting is bound to be launched, and the residents will also be greatly injured.
According to the principles and ideas provided by President Bush, the Pentagon began specific planning and implementation.
On October 5, U.S. Defense Secretary Cheney summoned U.S. commander Thurman in Pakistan and Powell, who had just become chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff, to his office.
They talked together for four hours and finally decided that Powell would revise an action plan codenamed “blue spoon”.
According to Powell’s proposal, Thurman first ordered his 13000 men and women to wear brown and green camouflage clothes to reduce the attention of the Panamanian defense force.
In addition, he added the third and fourth types of exercises, sending 150 to 500 troops every day to conduct combat exercises on ships, helicopters, tanks, amphibious vehicles and aircraft all over Panama.
He intended to make the above exercises appear disorderly, but in fact, they all have targets, which should be destroyed once the attack begins.
Thurman also asked commander Steiner of the 18th airborne army to try his best to elaborate the “blue spoon” emergency plan.
In fact, Powell already knows the situation of the leadership of the Panamanian defense force like the back of his hand.
In his early days, he spent a lot of time studying the intelligence files of Panamanian army officers to find a candidate to replace Noriega.
However, he took a lot of effort and failed to find a suitable person.
He believes that among the influential figures in Panama, they are either intriguers or those who are addicted to money.
Among the short generals, Hassan is the only one.
Colonel Hassan was once Panama’s ambassador to Israel.
He was decent and independent, but his image in the eyes of Panamanians was not good because he participated in several coup plans drawn up by the CIA in 1988.
Powell also believed that although this person can be used, it is obviously lack of energy.
It is necessary to expand Hassan’s power in Panama and increase the investment of US forces at the same time.
The main way to increase the strength of the U.S. military is to further expand the “blue spoon” plan, so that any offensive operations of the U.S. military against the Panamanian defense force must be completely and thoroughly.
After making up his mind, Powell issued an order to Thurman, asking the Southern Command to prepare for the Panama crisis.
At the same time, he specially reminded that the time of combat mobilization should be greatly shortened when revising the “blue spoon” plan.
On October 11, Powell ordered Secretary of operations Kelly and Secretary of intelligence Schaffer to form a secret planning team in the Pentagon to work closely with Thurman, Steiner and their subordinates to ensure the exchange of intelligence and work coordination.
In this way, the “blue spoon” plan is modified under the joint operation of several departments, but they are confidential to each other.
On Saturday, October 14, Carl Steiner went to a church in Knoxville, Tennessee to attend his daughter’s wedding.
During the banquet, he was called out to answer the phone call from the Pentagon.
The telephone ordered him to fly the next morning and report to the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff on the modification of the “blue spoon” plan.
Steiner told Powell that the “blue spoon” plan had been fully revised according to his comments.
Steiner envisaged that if he could be notified 48 hours before the war, he would send an additional 11000 troops to the commander-in-chief of the US military south in Pakistan with 13000 troops under his jurisdiction.
He believes that it is necessary to carry out a full-scale attack and attack all marked targets at the same time, so as to reduce casualties.
Steiner also said that Thurman had instructed his troops to conduct continuous exercises to make the Panamanians accustomed to ground and air exercises, so as to relax their vigilance.
At 10 a.m. on October 16, Powell called general luck to his office.
After a five hour secret conversation with the map of Panama, they came to the president’s office together with Secretary of defense Cheney to report two top secret special operations plans to President Bush.
The code name of the first special operations emergency plan is “Gabel Adel”.
Luck briefly reported on how to quickly send his 300 troops to Panama or anywhere in the world to rescue hostages in the United States or other countries.
He said the force could also be used to hijack drug traffickers or Noriega himself.
Half an hour later, luck reported on his second plan, the “acid game” action plan to rescue moss from modro prison.
He described in detail the details of the synchronous attack launched by the delta force, indicating that his force could set moose free and board a helicopter safely in nine minutes.
In this report, Cheney is not proposing to implement a plan, but only to show that the military has the ability, and said that the Pentagon has responded to the requirements of the president and the CIA.
While the White House and the Pentagon were plotting to increase their troops to Panama, some special operations troops sent to Panama in the spring returned to the United States as scheduled.
In this way, Thurman needs more special forces.
On October 20, at Thurman’s request, Powell approved the secret deployment of a special operations force under the command of general luck in Panama.
Before that, Powell had transferred the order to deploy the force to Cheney.
Because the deployment of troops in any new place in the world must be approved by Cheney.
Cheney was ordered to approve it soon.
The deployment operation code named “fashionable packaging” is composed of the following parts: 1 “delta” Squadron, 16 “silver bullet” helicopters and 3 “Robin”VOA has been broadcasting repeatedly since the end of the war: whoever provides clues to catch Noriega will be rewarded with $1 million.
The US military began a large-scale search for Noriega.
All passing vehicles shall be carefully searched and never let go easily.
Thurman also came up with the idea of sending each of the 2000 Panamanian prisoners of war a form with their name and address, and asking them to fill in Noriega’s hiding place in English.
It is said that if you catch Noriega according to the place filled in the form, you will also be rewarded with tens of thousands of yuan.
Noriega, who has been the director of intelligence of Panama’s army for more than 10 years, has no ability to command the Pakistani army to withstand the attack of the US Army, but he has his own way to avoid the pursuit of the US Army.
Minutes before the U.S. invasion of Panama, Noriega disguised as an ordinary officer, quietly left the headquarters and entered the Cuban embassy.
The Cubans promised to provide moral and material support to Panama once the war broke out, and agreed to find a suitable temporary residence for him at the Embassy in Pakistan, so as to extradite him to the third country for asylum after the war.
At the beginning of the battle, Noriega couldn’t go because he was going to sit in Panama.
An hour later, the United States blocked the Cuban Embassy in Pakistan, and Noriega was unable to leave the Cuban embassy for a while.
Noriega disappeared as soon as the battle was over.
Where’s Noriega? Americans can’t guess or find it.
In fact, at the end of the battle, Noriega left the Cuban embassy, then changed five hiding places and escaped the pursuit of 27000 US troops.
On the afternoon of the 24th, Noelle joined the Vatican Embassy in Panama to take refuge.
Noriega had just settled in the Vatican embassy, and American tanks and soldiers came one after another.
Thurman personally made an appointment with Vatican ambassador gonravoa and asked for the surrender of Noriega.
The ambassador politely refused.
American diplomats met with the leaders of the Holy See and asked the Holy See to ask the Embassy of Panama to hand over Noriega.
The leader of the Holy See also refused.
However, under the pressure of the United States, on January 3, 1990, the Vatican embassy issued an ultimatum to Noriega, ordering him to leave the Embassy at noon on the 4th, or find a refuge in a third country, or surrender to the U.S. military.
Noriega was completely desperate.
At 8:50 p.m. on January 3, Noriega in general clothes walked out of the embassy with his head down.
A group of American soldiers immediately surrounded Noriega and handcuffed him.
Before long, Noriega was taken on a special plane to the United States.
The Panama war, which burned for 15 days, ended in the victory of the US Army.
At 3 p.m. on April 9, 1993, Noriega, who had been detained for three years, stood in the court of the Federal District Court in Miami in military uniform and four-star general shoulder badge.
Judge hoffleur read out the verdict of the jury and found Noriega guilty of eight counts of drug trafficking, fraud and money laundering.
This is the first foreign supreme leader to be tried in the United States in history.
Finally, Noriega was sentenced to 40 years in prison.
In this way, when Noriega finished his sentence, he was 97 years old.
After the judgment, Noriega called it “political persecution” against him and said that he would appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court.
But Noriega knew there would be no result.
After the verdict, Noriega was sent to a small island in Miami to spend a long sentence.
The Americans just subdued Noriega and defeated the Panamanian national defense force by surprise attack.
However, the troubled middle east surged up again, that is, the Gulf War, which has attracted worldwide attention.