was the era when the Democratic Party dominated the political arena from 1950 to 1960. From 1960 to 1980, it was the era when the Republican people’s party and the Justice Party shared equally. In contrast, in the 1980s after the third military coup, the motherland Party took the lead in Turkish politics and won two general elections in 1983 and 1987. It became the third political party to occupy more seats in the Grand National Assembly and form a separate cabinet after the Democratic Party in the 1950s and the Justice Party in the 1960s.

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in the 1990s, party politics has undergone obvious changes. The political space of many small parties in parliamentary elections is expanding, and the number of political parties that won parliamentary seats has increased significantly. In the three general elections in 1991, 1995 and 1999, the correct road party, the prosperity party and the Democratic Left Party have successively become the largest party in the lower house of Parliament, However, the cumulative votes were only 27.1%, 21.4% and 22.2% respectively. The joint cabinet formation of non majority parties in parliament has once again become a prominent phenomenon in Turkish politics. At the same time, the Islamic revival movement is rising day by day, and Islamic political parties have sprung up, thus challenging the dominant position of secular parties in Turkish politics.

the rise of Islamic politics in Turkey is rooted in the historical environment of neoliberal economic reform during Ozar’s administration. The new economic policy implemented by the motherland party and government has led to the widening gap between the rich and the poor and the rising unemployment rate. From 1980 to 1988, the unemployment rate rose from 16.4% to 22.9%, and the total number of unemployed rose from 2.8 million to 4.8 million. From 1987 to 1994, the income of the middle and lower classes, accounting for 80% of the total population, showed a downward trend, and the income of the rich class, accounting for 20% of the total population, showed an upward trend. The result was the widening gap between the rich and the poor. According to statistics, the proportion of the affluent class accounting for 20% of the total population in the gross national income increased from 49.9% in 1987 to 54.9% in 1994. In contrast, the proportion of the poor, who account for 20% of the total population, in the gross national income decreased from 5.2% in 1987 to 4.9% in 1994. At the same time, the gap in the level of economic development between the inland areas in the Middle East and the coastal areas in the West has also further widened. In the late 1980s, due to the implementation of export-oriented economic policy and the expansion of export trade, inland small and medium-sized private enterprises, known as the tiger of Anatolia, began to challenge the monopoly position of large companies. In May 1990, small and medium-sized private enterprises in the interior established an industry organization with strong Islamic color, called the Federation of independent entrepreneurs and businessmen, which aims to compete with the Federation of Turkish entrepreneurs and businessmen representing the interests of large companies. By the mid-1990s, the Federation of independent entrepreneurs and businessmen had about 2000 enterprises, accounting for 10% of GDP. In April 1994, the Istanbul City Council held its first meeting. At the beginning of the meeting, all members held prayers. The first batch of laws and regulations passed subsequently included the decree prohibiting the sale of alcoholic drinks in the service area of the parliament building, reflecting the religious color of Islam. The change of economic and social environment leads to the corresponding change of political life, which intensifies the competition between Islamic political parties and secular political parties. The Islamic model began to become a new way for the lower class to seek to improve their lives and social status. The

welfare party was founded on the eve of the 1984 general election. It has obvious political origins with the national order party and the National Salvation Party, both of which are neichmeting middot; Elbakan was founded by himself and held a relatively moderate political position and Islamist political tendency. Necemetine middot; As the core figures of three Islamic political parties, namely the national order party, the Salvation Party and the prosperity party, elbakan is known as the “father of the Turkish Islamic Revival Movement”. It can be described as the soul of the Turkish Islamic revival movement. He has been active in the political stage of Turkey for a long time. In the 1970s, he joined the three coalition governments as the chairman of the Salvation Party and served as the Deputy Prime Minister of the cabinet, Committed to political cooperation with secular political parties within the current state system. Compared with the National Salvation Party, the supporters of

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mainly come from small businessmen and handicraftsmen in relatively backward areas. The prosperity party has a broad social foundation. Its supporters include farmers, blue collar workers, small businessmen, handicraftsmen and other low – and middle-income people. It has branches all over Turkey and its tentacles extend to all corners of Turkish society. “The organization of the prosperity party is based on polling stations, and special personnel will be sent to supervise every street and even every building within the scope of each polling station, in order to ensure that all voters actively participate in the voting during the election.”. The peripheral organizations of the prosperity party include many foundations, cultural associations and youth organizations throughout the country, the most important of which is the National Youth Foundation. Founded by the National Salvation Party in 1975, the organization is the largest youth organization in Turkey. In the early 1990s, it had more than 1500 branches and provided scholarships to thousands of poor students. The

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prosperity party emphasizes the national independence, national consciousness and national interests of Turks, and emphasizes the political principles of freedom and democracy. “Liberation, democratic consciousness and national leap forward” is the basic program advocated by the prosperity party. The prosperity party has a strong Islamic color. It emphasizes the ideology of Islam, opposes the separation of religion and customs, criticizes the polarization between the rich and the poor, and advocates the restoration of the Islamic Sharia law, the improvement of the national economy, the establishment of a welfare economic system, a fair social order and a free political environment, the protection of the welfare and rights of workers, the narrowing of the gap between the rich and the poor, and the implementation of an independent foreign policy, Achieve balanced development among different regions, safeguard Turkey’s national interests and seek the best interests of the people. The prosperity party opposes the political principle of state control over religion and advocates amending section 24 of the 1982 constitution, that is, no one shall take religious norms as the social, economic, political and legal basis of the country, and no one shall use religion to achieve political purposes.

in the 1995 election platform, the prosperity party criticized the defects of the current system in Turkey, which is “deceptive, pseudo democratic and dark rule”, and declared that the prosperity party is committed to building “pluralistic and real democracy”. The prosperity party stressed that elections are the only way to political power. Nekemetin middot, leader of the prosperity party; Elbakan once said that there are many constraints in both capitalism and socialismEmphasizing disadvantages is the system and order representing exploitation and oppression. The goal of the prosperity party is to establish a third-party order that is neither capitalist nor socialist, that is, a “just order”, while the Islamic society in the era of Prophet Muhammad is a model of “just order”. In addition, the prosperity party opposes the new economic policy imposed on the Turkish government by the world bank and the International Monetary Fund, criticizes that the Western model of democracy is a Trojan horse of Western cultural imperialism, lags behind the Islamic democracy in the prophet era, holds a position against Israel in diplomacy, and opposes accession to the European Union.

in the local elections held in 1984, the prosperity party made its debut in Turkish politics, won 780000 votes, with a support rate of 4.4%, and won two mayoral positions in Van city and Urfa city. In the parliamentary election held in 1987, the prosperity party won 170000 votes, with a support rate of 7.5%, lower than the “10% threshold” stipulated in the election law and failed to win parliamentary seats. In 1989, Turkey held local elections, and the prosperity party won 9.8% of the vote. In the 1991 parliamentary election, the prosperity party won 13% of the vote and 61 seats in the lower house of Parliament.

in the local elections held in March 1994, the correct road party won 21.4% of the votes and the motherland party won 21% of the votes. In contrast, the prosperity party ranked third, winning 19.1% of the votes, higher than the support rate of 16.9% in the 1991 general election. The prosperity party has an advantage in 28 provincial councils, including important cities such as Istanbul, Ankara, diyarbakr, Konya and kesseli. Necemetine middot; Elbakan then announced to his supporters at the ayyub mosque in Istanbul: This is a gift from Allah. The prosperity party will achieve greater victory. A just order is the only way to solve the current crises. The prosperity Party’s victory will not stop there. The next goal of the prosperity party is to establish the world Islamic Union, Istanbul will become the political capital of the Islamic world.

in December 1995, the prosperity party won the general election, winning 21.4% of the votes and 158 seats in the lower house of the grand national assembly. The Islamic Party became the largest party in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey for the first time. The motherland party and the correct road party with the center right position won 19.7% of the votes and 132 seats in the lower house of the Grand National Assembly, 19.2% of the votes and 135 seats in the lower house of the grand national assembly respectively. The Democratic Left Party and the Republican people’s party with the center left position won 14.6% of the votes, 76 seats in the lower house of the Grand National Assembly, 10.7% of the votes and 49 seats in the lower house of the grand national assembly respectively, Become a major minority party in the national assembly. Although the

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prosperity party won the general election, it lacked the parliamentary seats necessary for forming a separate cabinet. The secular camp in Turkish politics, including the military and judiciary, tried to prevent the prosperity party from entering the cabinet. In March 1996, it promoted the right path party, which occupies 135 seats in the Grand National Assembly, the motherland party, which occupies 132 seats in the Grand National Assembly, and the Democratic Left Party, which occupies 76 seats in the Grand National Assembly, to form a coalition government. The prosperity Party became the main opposition party in the parliament. The motherland party and the correct road party formed a coalition government through negotiation and consultation. The two sides agreed that Masood middot, chairman of the motherland party; Mesut y? Lmaz (also translated as Mesut middot; yermaz, 1947 -) first served as Prime Minister of the cabinet, and was replaced by Tansu middot, chairman of the right road party, in January 1997; Tansu ccedil; iller took over as prime minister. In June 1996, due to the continuous differences between the motherland party and the correct road party, the chairman of the motherland party, Massoud middot; Yermaz and Tansu middot, chairman of the right road party; Zillair attacked each other, and the coalition government disintegrated, so the prosperity party and the right road party formed a coalition government, and the chairman of the prosperity party, nechemetin middot; Elbakan became prime minister.

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prosperity party, as the ruling party, continues the basic framework of the Ozar era in terms of economy, adheres to the market economic system, continues to promote the reform process of privatization, and is committed to improving the material life of the people. In terms of diplomacy, the prosperity Party pursues a foreign policy of alienating the West and the pro Islamic world, and has good relations with Saudi Arabia, Libya and Iran. Necemetine middot; Erbacan broke the practice of previous Turkish prime ministers taking the United States as the first foreign visit object. After becoming prime minister, he first visited Iran, Pakistan, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia, and then Egypt, Libya and Nigeria. August 1996, nechemetin middot; Six weeks after becoming prime minister, elbakan chose Iran for his first foreign visit, signed a 22-year agreement on importing US $23 billion of natural gas from Iran, and proposed to hold a summit of the heads of state of Turkey, Iran, Syria and Iraq to discuss regional cooperation. Necemetine middot; Elbakan also appointed the Minister of justice and the Minister of education to visit Iraq to rebuild Turkey Iraq relations, promote trade between the two countries and reopen the oil pipeline between the two countries.

inscribed meting middot; After becoming prime minister, elbakan invited representatives of the Palestinian Islamic Resistance organization Hamas (Hamas), the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood and the Algerian Islamic Salvation Front to attend the prosperity party meeting. During his visit to Turkey, Egyptian President Mubarak expressed concern about elbakan’s interference in Egypt’s internal affairs on elbakan’s invitation to members of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.

December 1996, neiche meting middot; The cabinet led by elbakan tried to sign a military cooperation agreement with Iran, which was resisted by the Turkish military. In terms of internal affairs, elbakan cabinet tried to cancel the decree prohibiting women from wearing headscarves on university campuses and government institutions, proposed the construction of a mosque in Taksim square, a symbol of Kemalism in Istanbul, and called for the reconstruction of the judicial system and the implementation of a pluralistic legal system, including Islamic Sharia law, which aroused strong dissatisfaction from secular forces and the military.

in January 1997, elbakan invited several leaders of the Sufi order to have Ramadan dinner at the prime minister’s office. subsequently